牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                          • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 法律论文 > 反垄断法中滥用市场支配地位的立法问题探析

                            反垄断法中滥用市场支配地位的立法问题探析

                            时间:2020-04-22 13:46作者:丁茂中
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于反垄断法中滥用市场支配地位的立法问题探析的文章,习近平同志在党的十九大报告中强调,全面依法治国是国家治理的一场深刻革命,必须坚持厉行法治,推进科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法。虽然大型企业未必就具有市场支配地位,但是具有市场支配地位的经营者往

                              摘    要:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} 现行《反垄断法》就滥用市场支配地位的行为规范所作的规定存在以下四个立法问题:第一,立法宗旨的体现方式不协调;第二,支配地位的内化标准过于糅杂;第三,相对优势的制度确认比较模糊;第四,抗辩事由的立法表述明显多元。对此,从最为理想的角度来看,立法应当采取以下四项措施进行完善:首先,将规制对象严格限制在影响市场公平竞争的经营行为上;其次,直接确立市场结构标准在市场支配地位认定上的基础性地位;再次,明确否定相对优势地位理论在我国反垄断法中的制度应用;最后,对合理原则在反垄断法上的立法表述统一改用“没有正当理由”。

                              关键词: 市场支配地位; 竞争规制; 行为规范;

                              Abstract:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} With respect to the provisions on abuse of dominant position conducts,the current Anti-Monopoly Law has the following four problems: firstly, the embodiment of legislation purpose is not well coordinated; secondly, the internal standards for determining dominant position is over jumbled; thirdly, it is somehow blur of the system for determining the relative dominance; lastly, phraseology of justifications are obviously multivariate. On these grounds, from a most ideal perspective, the legislation shall be improved through the corresponding four measures: firstly, to restrict the regulation objects strictly to the operational conducts that impede fair market competition; secondly, to establish the market structure standard directly as the fundamental standard in determining market dominant position; thirdly, to expressly reject the relative dominance theory from applying in the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law; lastly, adopt the identical wording of without justification to express the Rule of Reason in Anti-Monopoly Law legislation.

                              Keyword: Market Dominant Position; Competition Regulation; Code of Conduct;

                              滥用市场支配地位是各个国家和地区反垄断法的重要规制对象,2008年8月1日开始施行的《中华人民共和国反垄断法》(下称现行《反垄断法》)第三章对该行为的认定规范作了基本规定。我国十余年的反垄断法实施实践充分表明,这些内容在客观上还存在诸多的立法问题,需要我们吸纳成熟法域的理论与经验,尽快采取科学措施及时加以完善。
                             

                            反垄断法中滥用市场支配地位的立法问题探析
                             

                              一、立法宗旨的体现方式不协调

                              (一)立法宗旨的体现方式不协调的表现形式

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                              图1 立法宗旨的相互关系
                            图1 立法宗旨的相互关系

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                              (二)立法宗旨的体现方式不协调的解决路径

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                              二、支配地位的内化标准过于糅杂

                              (一)支配地位的内化标准过于糅杂的表现形式

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   JIUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEPANDUANBIAOZHUNERYAN,LILUNJIEJIEZHIMUQIANYIGONGTICHULESANZHONGBIAOZHUN,JISHICHANGJIXIAOBIAOZHUN、SHICHANGXINGWEIBIAOZHUNHESHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUN。RUBIAO1SUOSHI,TAMENGEYOUZHANGCHU,YEGEYOUBUZU。14

                              表1 市场支配地位的判断标准
                            表1 市场支配地位的判断标准

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZIXIDUIZHAOLIFATIAOKUAN,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》SIHUXIANGJIANGZHEISANZHONGPANDUANBIAOZHUNQUANBUXINA。ZUIWEIMINGXIANDESHI,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI19TIAOXIWANQUANANZHAOSHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUNLAIJINXINGSHEJIDE。GENJUZHEITIAOGUIDING,DANGYIGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEDADAO1/2,HUOZHELIANGGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEHEJIDADAO2/3,HUOZHESANGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEHEJIDADAO3/4SHI,ZEFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUJIUKEYITUIDINGTAMENJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI,CHUFEIDANGEJINGYINGZHEDESHICHANGFENEBUZU1/10HUOZHELINGYOUZHENGJUNENGGOUCHONGFENZHENGMINGBEITUIDINGJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHEKEGUANBUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。DUIYUSHICHANGXINGWEIBIAOZHUN,ZHEIYEBIAOXIANDESHIFENMINGXIAN。SHOUXIAN,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI17TIAODI2KUANYOUGUANSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEDINGYIJIUSHIJIBENANZHAOCILAIJINXINGPUKAIDE,JIDUIXINGWEIZHUTIJUYOUNENGGOUKONGZHISHANGPINJIAGE、SHULIANGHUOZHEQITAJIAOYITIAOJIANHUOZHENENGGOUZUAI、YINGXIANGQITAJINGYINGZHEJINRUXIANGGUANSHICHANGNENGLIDECHONGFENQIANGDIAO。QICI,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZAIDI18TIAOZHONGMINGQUEGUIDING,ZAIRENDINGYIGEJINGYINGZHESHIFOUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIGUOCHENGZHONGYINGDANGHELIKAOLVTADUIXIAOSHOUSHICHANGHUOZHEYUANCAILIAOCAIGOUSHICHANGDEKONGZHINENGLI。ZAISHICHANGJIXIAOBIAOZHUNSHANG,SUIRANZHEIMEIYOUZAIQIANMIANLIANGZHESHANGNEIYANGBIAOXIANDEFEICHANGZHIGUAN,DANSHIZHEIZAIXINGSHIYUNEIRONGSHANGYEDOUSHIYOUJIKEXUNDE。GENJUXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI18TIAODEGUIDING,JINGYINGZHEDECAILISHIRENDINGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEZHONGYAOQUANHENGYINSUZHIYI。ERZHENGRUFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUZHIQIANZAIFABUDEGUIFANXINGWENJIANZHONGSUOZHICHUDENEIYANG15,DUICICHULEXUYAOKAOCHAZICHANGUIMO、RONGZINENGLIDENGSHIXIANGYIWAI,HAIXUYAOZHONGDIANKAOCHAMUBIAODUIXIANGDEYINGLINENGLI。

                              SUIRANCIJUZAILILUNSHANGQUESHIYOUZHUYUQUZHANGBUDUAN,DANSHISHIJIXIAOGUOSIHUBINGBULIXIANG。16SHOUXIAN,ZHEISHIDEXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZAISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIPANDUANBIAOZHUNSHANGDELIFAMINGXIANQUEFANEIZAIDETONGYIXING。JIBIANPIEKAIFALVBIAOXIANBUTAIMINGXIANDESHICHANGJIXIAOBIAOZHUNDEXIANGGUANNEIRONGBUTAN,JINJIUSHICHANGXINGWEIBIAOZHUNHESHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUNDEXIANGGUANNEIRONGERYAN,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEDI17TIAODI2KUANHEDI19TIAOWULUNSHIZAIXINGSHISHANGHAISHIZAISHIZHISHANGDOUSHIMINGXIANGEXINGQISHI,DUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDESHUXINGFANYINGBINGWEICHENGXIANRONGHETAISHI。QICI,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZAISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIPANDUANBIAOZHUNSHANGDELIFAYIWEINENGWANQUANJIUCIZUOCHUYOUXIAODECENGCIANPAI。JINCONGMUQIANDESHIJIANLAIKAN,RENMENJIUYIJINGDUIXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEDI18TIAOHEDI19TIAOZAISHIYONGSHANGDEGUANXICHANSHENGLEBUTONGCHENGDUDEZHENGYI。SHISHISHANG,CHULEHAICUNZAISHIFOUKEYIGENJUDI18TIAODEDOUDITIAOKUANYUANYONGSIFASHENPANJIGUANCHUANGZAODESHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFANTUIGUIZEZHEIGEWENTIYIWAI17,WUFAPAICHUJIANGLAIZAIJUTIANJIANZHONGBUHUICHUXIANZHIJIEGENJUDI17TIAODI2KUANDUISHEXIANLONGDUANDEJINGYINGZHESHIFOUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIJINXINGRENDING;ERJIUJINGYINGDANGRUHESHIYONGZHEIXIEGUIDING,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》BINGWEIDUICIZUOCHUYOUXIAOZHIYIN。ZAISHANGSHULIANGDAWENTIDEDIEJIAZUOYONGXIA,SHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDERENDINGBIANDEJUYOUGAODUDEBUQUEDINGXING,XIANERYIJIAN,YIJUBUTONGBIAOZHUNJIUBIRANHUIDECHUBUTONGDEJIELUN。FANYINGDAOSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJUTIGUIZESHIYONGSHANG,JIBIANSHIYIGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEDADAO1/2,YIJUDI18TIAOSUOGUIDINGDEQUANHENGYINSUYEJIYOUKENENGDECHUTABUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI;JISHIJINXIANYUYUANYONGDI18TIAOGUIDING,DUIYUZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEBUCHAOGUO1/10DEDANGEJINGYINGZHE,YEHENYOUKENENGBANSUIZHEZEYONGQUANHENGYINSUDECEZHONGDIANCHAYIERDECHUBUTONGDEJIELUN,ZHEIJIUGENGBUYONGSHUORUGUOHAIKEYIZHIJIESHIYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEDINGYITIAOKUAN。ZHENGSHIYINWEIRUCI,WULUNSHIFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUSUODIAOCHADELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIANJIANHAISHIFAYUANSUOSHENLIDELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIJIUFENANJIAN,QIJIUDANGSHIRENSHIFOUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIZUOCHUDEFALVRENDINGRONGYIZAODAOLIHAIGUANXIRENDEFANDUIHUOZHEYIYI,ERQIEWANGWANGHUIZHAOZHIBUTONGDEPIPINGHUOZHEZHIYI。KEGUANERYAN,ZHEIZHONGJUMIANBINGBUYOULIYUCUJINWOGUOFANLONGDUANFADEKEXUESHISHI。18

                              (二)支配地位的内化标准过于糅杂的解决路径

                              SUIRANJINJIUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEXIANYOUPANDUANBIAOZHUNERYAN,QIGEZIJUNCUNYOULIBIJIUZAIKEGUANSHANGJUEDINGLELIFAYINGDANGJIANSHOUBINGXU,YIZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGQUEBAOFALVSHELIDERENDINGBIAOZHUNZHIKEXUEXING;DANSHIRUOJIULANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEZHENGTIGUIZHISHEJIERYAN,ZHEIWEIBIJIUSHIWEIYIKEXUANLUJING。JINGUANRUXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DISANZHANGPIANFUZHANGDUANSUOSHI,SHIFOUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDUIYUYIGEJINGYINGZHELAISHUOSHIFEICHANGZHONGYAODE,ZHEIZHIJIEGUANXIDAOTESHUFALVYIWUDEQIANZAICHENGDAN;RANERYEZHENGRUHAFOXUEPAIJIEGOUZHUYIZHIHOUSUOYOUGUOJIADEFANLONGDUANFASUOXINGCHENGDEZHIDUGONGSHINEIYANG,JINGYINGZHEJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIWEIBIJIUWEIFA,GUANJIANYAOKANTASUOSHISHIDEXINGWEISHIFOUYINGXIANGSHICHANGGONGPINGJINGZHENG。JIRANRUCI,YUQIZAISHENFENSHUXINGSHANGZHUIQIUKEXUE,HAIBURUZAIXINGWEIPINGGUSHANGJINXINGYOUHUA。YINWEIYIFANGMIAN,SUIRANLIFAZAIZHUGUANSHANGSHITUDUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFALVRENDINGZUOCHUZHOUQUANBIAOSHU,YIJINLIANGJIANSHAOJINGYINGZHEDEQIANZAIFUDAN;DANSHILIFAZAIKEGUANSHANGQUEDAILAILEHENDADEBUQUEDINGXING,DAOZHIJINGYINGZHEZAIJINGZHENGHEGUIGUOCHENGZHONGWANGWANGNANYIDUICIZUOCHUYOUXIAOPANDUAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,WULUNSHICONGXINGSHISHANGHAISHICONGSHIZHISHANG,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI17TIAODI2KUANHEDI18TIAODENEIRONGDOUYIWEIZHEDUITEDINGXINGWEIDEWAIBUYINGXIANGJIQIHELIXINGDEFENXISHANGJINXINGBUTONGCHENGDUDEZONGHEKAOLIANG,BINGQIEZHEIGEHUANJIEDEANPAIYUEWEIWANSHANJIUYUENENGGOUJINGQUEFANYINGCHUJINGYINGZHESUOSHISHIDEXINGWEIDUISHICHANGJINGZHENGCHANSHENGDEYINGXIANGXINGZHI。19SUOYI,WOMENZAICIHAIKEYIXUANZEYIXIALUJING:YIYOUXIAOWANSHANFANLONGDUANFALANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEHELIXINGKANGBIANWEIQIANTIJICHU,LIFAFANGQIZHIQIANDUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDERENDINGBIAOZHUNSUOCHANGSHICAIQUDEWANMEIZHUYI,GAIWEIZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGTIGAOSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFALVRENDINGZHIQUEDINGXING。20

                              RUOCAIQUCILUJING,SHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUNYOUQISHICAIYONGTUIDINGFANGSHIYINGDANGSHIZUIWEILIXIANGDEXUANZE。ZHIYAOJIEDINGCHUANJIANSUOSHEDEXIANGGUANSHICHANG,JIBIANJINGYINGZHESHISHIDESHIMIANFEIMOSHI,YEKEYIDECHUQIZAITEDINGJIEDUANDESHICHANGFENE,ZHISHISUOCAIYONGDEJISUANDANWEIKEXUECHENGDUBUTONG。JIUGUIZESHEJIERYAN,LIFAYINGDANGZHONGDIANZUOHAOYIXIASANGEFANGMIANDEJICHUGONGZUO:DIYI,SHIDUJIANGDIDANGEJINGYINGZHEJUYOUJUEDUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEMENJIANBIAOZHUN。DUIYUDANYIBIAOZHUNLAIJIANG,YAOQIUYIGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEDADAO1/2DEBIAOZHUNHAISHIHENGAODE。21LIRUBOLANDE《FANLONGDUANFA》GUIDING,RUGUOYIGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEDADAO40%,NEIMEJIUKEYITUIDINGQIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。DIER,SHIDUJIANGDIDUOGEJINGYINGZHEJUYOUGONGTONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEMENJIANBIAOZHUN。TONGLI,YAOQIULIANGGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEHEJIDADAO2/3HUOZHESANGEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEHEJIDADAO3/4,BINGQIEDANGEDESHICHANGFENEBUSHAOYU1/2DEBIAOZHUNYESHIHENGAODE。LIRUDEGUODE《FANDUIXIANZHIJINGZHENGFA》GUIDING,RUGUOSANGEHUOZHESANGEYIXIADEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEHEJIDADAO1/2HUOZHEWUGEHUOZHEWUGEYIXIADEJINGYINGZHEZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGDESHICHANGFENEHEJIDADAO2/3,NEIMEJIUKEYITUIDINGTAMENJUYOUGONGTONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。DISAN,SHIDUZENGLIEKEYIZHIJIETUIDINGJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEQITAQINGXING,LIRUYIFAJUYOUDUZHANDIWEIDEGONGYONGQIYE、JINGYINGZHEDUIWAIFABUDEXINXINENGGOUZHENGMINGQIZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGNEIJUYOUZHIPEIDIWEIDEDENG。KAOLVSHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUNKEGUANCUNZAIDEYIXIEBUZU,LIFAKEYIXIANXINGCAIQUBIYAOCUOSHIJINXINGYOUXIANXIUZHENG,DANSHINEIRONGZAIXINGSHISHANGBIXUJUTIMINGQUE。22ZAIZHENDUIGONGTONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDETUIDINGQINGXINGSHANG,KEYICAIQUXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEZUOFA,XIANDINGDANGEJINGYINGZHEDEZUIDISHICHANGFENE。ZAIZHENDUISUOYOUTUIDINGQINGXINGSHANG,KEYIHELIJIEJIANYUWAIJIAOWEIKEXUEDEZUOFA。LIRU,ZHENDUIXINXINGSHICHANGHUOZHEXIYANGCHANYEDENGSHAOSHULINGYUDETESHUQINGXING,HANGUO《GUIZHILONGDUANYUGONGPINGJIAOYIFA》GUIDING,RUGUOYIGEJINGYINGZHEDENIANXIAOSHOUEHUOZHENIANGOUMAIEBUZU10YIHANYUANDE,NEIMEJIUZHIJIEPAICHUQIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。

                              CHUCIYIWAI,WOMENHAIXUYAODIAOZHENGXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEXIANGGUANTIAOKUAN。SHOUXIANYINGDANGZHIJIESHANCHUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEDINGYITIAOKUAN。SHISHISHANG,JIBIANBUSHIWEILEZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGZHUIQIUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFALVRENDINGZHIQUEDINGXINGERDANYISHIYONGSHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUN,GAIDINGYITIAOKUANYEMEIYOUCUNZAIDETEBIEJIAZHI。YINWEI,SHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIBINGBUXIANGJINGYINGZHENEIYANGSHIYIGEJICHUDESHENFENSHUXING,ERZHISHIJINGYINGZHEZAICANYUSHICHANGJINGZHENGGUOCHENGZHONGDEJIEDUANXINGZHUANGTAI。WENTIDEGUANJIANZAIYUNENGGOUTONGGUOYOUXIAODEGONGJUSHOUDUANJINXINGKEGUANFANYING,ERFEIGAINIANDELIFAJINGQUELIDING。ZHEIYEJIUSHIWEIHEDADUOSHUGUOJIAHUOZHEDIQUDEFANLONGDUANFABINGMEIYOUZAILANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIGUIZHITIAOKUANZHONGZHUANMENDUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIJINXINGDINGYI,MUQIANYEZHIYOUHANGUO、YINDUYIJIWOGUODENGSHAOSHUGUOJIACAIQULEZHEIZHONGZUOFA。GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,ZAILIFADUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFALVRENDINGZUOCHUGUIDINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEDINGYITIAOKUANZAIKEGUANSHANGHAIHUIGANRAODAOYIXILIEGUANLIANTIAOKUANDESHIYONG。SUOYIWULUNYUFOU,TADOUMEIYOUCUNZAIDEBIYAO。QICIYINGDANGSHIZHIFENJIEDI18TIAODEQUANHENGYINSU。YIFANGMIAN,ZHURUXIANGGUANSHICHANGDEJINGZHENGZHUANGKUANG、JINRUXIANGGUANSHICHANGDENANYICHENGDUDENGWANQUANKEYIZAIJINGZHENGPINGGUHUANJIEJINXINGYOUXIAOFANYING;LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHURUJINGYINGZHEKONGZHIXIAOSHOUSHICHANGHUOZHEYUANCAILIAOCAIGOUSHICHANGDENENGLI、JINGYINGZHEDECAILIHEJISHUTIAOJIANDENGKEYIZAIHELIXINGFENXIHUANJIEJINXINGYOUXIAOFANYING。JINYIJINGYINGXINGWEISHEXIANLVEDUOXINGDINGJIAWEILI,QIANZHEDANGZHONGDEJINRUXIANGGUANSHICHANGDENANYICHENGDUKEYICHONGFENBIAOMINGLVEDUOXINGDINGJIASHIFOUJUBEIBIYAODESHICHANGHUANJING,JISHISHILVEDUOXINGDINGJIADEKEXINGXING23;HOUZHEDANGZHONGDEJINGYINGZHEDECAILIKEYIZHIJIEFANYINGXINGWEIZHUTIDEQIANZAINENGLI,CONGERKEYIZAIJIAOGAOCHENGDUSHANGHELIPANDUANCHUQIXINGWEIDEZHUGUANDONGJI。

                              三、相对优势的制度确认比较模糊

                              (一)相对优势的制度确认比较模糊的表现形式

                              GENJUQUANWEIMEITIBAODAO,WOGUOJINXIENIANLAIGEDIFASHENGDUOQIYINXIAOQUJUMINQIANGLIERENWEITIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHESHOUQUDECHEWEIZUJINGUOGAOERXINGCHENGDEGUIMOMINSHIJIUFEN。24DUIYUZHEIXIESHEHUIWENTIDEYOUXIAOJIEJUE,JIUHUAJIEJIUFENDEFALVXUANZEWENTIERYAN,WOMENTONGCHANGZIRANSHOUXIANHUIXIANGDAOHETONGFA。XIAOQUJUMINHETIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHESHIJUYOUPINGDENGGUANXIDEMINSHIZHUTI,TAMENZHIJIANZHISHAOCUNZAISHISHIXINGDEFUWUXIEYI。DANGQIANZHERENWEIHOUZHESHOUQUDECHEWEIZUJINGUOGAOSHI,WANQUANKEYIGENJUHETONGFAYOUGUANXIANSHIGONGPINGDEGUIDINGJINXINGXUNQIUFALVJIUJI。DANSHICONGGONGKAIDEMINSHIPANJUELAIKAN,CAIQUCILEIZUOFADEZHANBIZAIZHENGTISHANGSHIFEICHANGDIDE。JIUQIYUANYIN,ZHUYAOYINGDANGYOUYIXIASANGEFANGMIANYUANYOU:DIYI,SHENGSUNANDUJIAODA,KENENGWANGWANGNANYIDEDAOFAYUANDEZHICHI;DIER,SUSONGCHENGBENJIAOGAO,TEBIESHISHIJIANCHENGBEN;DISAN,JUPAHOUMIANZAODAOBIANXIANGBAOFU,PIRUDAOQIJUJUEJIXUTIGONGCHEWEI。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,RENMENZIRANYOUHUIJIANGMUGUANGZHUANXIANG《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》。SUIRANWEILESHENGHUOGOUMAIFUWUSHIDEXIAOQUJUMINJUYOUWANQUANDEXIAOFEIZHESHIGESHENFEN,BINGQIEGAIFAQUESHIQINGXIEXINGDIWEIXIAOFEIZHEGUIDINGLEDUOXIANGJUTIDEQUANLI,DANSHIQIZUOYONGXIAOGUOSIHUBINGWUMINGXIANGAIGUAN,XIAOQUJUMINDESUQIUJIBENNANYIYINCIDEDAOYOUXIAOMANZU。ERZHISUOYIHUICHUXIANZHEIZHONGJUMIAN,HEXINZAIYU《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DESHISHIJIZHIGUANJIANTONGYANGYILAIYUSILI。JINGUANGAIFAZHUANMENSHELILEGELEIXIAOFEIZHEBAOHUZUZHI,BINGFUYUQIBAXIANGJUTIDEGONGYIXINGZHIZE,RANERTAMENBINGMEIYOURENHESHIZHIXINGDEZHIFAQUANXIAN,YINCIYEJIUNANYIZHIJIETIGONGQIANGYOULIDEBANGZHU。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YOUJIANYUCI,BAOKUOHENDUOZHUANYERENSHIZAINEIDEZHUTIKAISHIFENFENJIANGSHIYEJUJIDAOXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》SHANG。SHOUXIAN,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DUICHAOGAODINGJIAZUOLEYUANZEXINGJINZHIGUIDING。QICI,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZAISHISHIJIZHISHANGMUQIANZHUYAOYILAIYUGONGGONGZHIFA。GENJUGAIFADI38TIAOGUIDING,RENHEDANWEIHUOZHEGERENZHIYAOCAIYONGSHUMIANXINGSHIBINGTIGONGXIANGGUANSHISHIHEZHENGJUJINXINGJUBAODE,FANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUDOUHUIJINXINGDIAOCHA,BINGWEIJUBAORENBAOMI。ZUIHOU,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZAIYOUGUANCHAOGAODINGJIADEFALVZERENBUFENYOUZELINGTINGZHIDEGUIDING。SUIRANLILUNJIEDUIZELINGTINGZHIDEFALVXINGZHIHAICUNZAIBUTONGCHENGDUDEZHENGYI,DANSHITAQUEWANQUANKEYIMANZUCICHUXIAOQUJUMINDESUQIU;BINGQIE,MEISHOUWEIFASUODEJIASHANGBINGCHUSHANGYINIANDUXIAOSHOUE1%YISHANG10%YIXIADEFAKUANTONGCHANGNENGGOUYOUXIAOWEISHETIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEZAICITIGAOHUOZHEBIANXIANGTIGAOCHEWEIZUJIN。DANSHIXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》YOUGUANCHAOGAODINGJIADEJINZHIXINGGUIDINGYECUNZAIYANGEDESHIYONGQIANTI,JISUOSHEDEJINGYINGZHEBIXUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。RUGUOBEIDIAOCHADUIXIANGBUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI,NEIMECIJINZHIXINGGUIDINGYEJIUWUFADUIQIJINGYINGXINGWEISHIYONG。GENJUSHIJIANLAIKAN,CHUFEIJIANGANJIANSUOSHEDEXIANGGUANDILISHICHANGJIEDINGWEIMOUGEJUMINXIAOQUHUOZHEMOUGEJIEDAOXIAQUHUOZHEQITAJIAOXIAODEXINGZHENGQUHUA,FOUZEDABUFENQINGXINGDANGZHONGTIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEDESHICHANGFENEQISHISHIHENXIAODE,XIANYOUDADAO1/10DE。ERANZHAOXIANGGUANSHICHANGJIEDINGDEJIBENYUANLI,WULUNSHIMOUGEJUMINXIAOQUHAISHIMOUGEJIEDAOXIAQUHUOZHEQITAJIAOXIAODEXINGZHENGQUHUA,JUNNANYIGOUCHENGDULIDEXIANGGUANDILISHICHANG。YINCI,ZHEIXIETIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEJIBENWUFAYIJUXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI19TIAOBEITUIDINGWEIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。DANZHEIBINGBUDENGYUTAMENJIUBUKENENGBEIRENDINGWEIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI,YINWEIXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI18TIAOHAIGUIDINGLESHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEZONGHERENDINGFANGSHI。GENJUZHEITIAOGUIDING,SHICHANGFENEZHIBUGUOSHIQIZHONGYIXIANGQUANHENGYINSUERYI。ERZIXIDUIZHAOZHEITIAOGUIDINGSUOLIEJUDEQITAQUANHENGYINSU,CHULEDISIXIANGDEYILAICHENGDUYIWAI25,ZHEIXIETIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEHENDUOZAIDUIYINGZHIBIAOSHANGJIBENDOUCHENGXIANCHUBIJIAORUOSHIXINGTAI。ZHENDUIZHEIZHONGQINGXING,BAIZAIWOMENMIANQIANDEYIGEFALVWENTIJIUSHINENGFOUJINJINJUCIERRENDINGYIGEJINGYINGZHEJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   RUGUOKEYIJINJINJUCIJIURENDINGYIGEJINGYINGZHEJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI,NEIMEJIUYIWEIZHEXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》BAORONGXINGDICAINALEXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUN。“XIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUNQIANGDIAOLEQIYEZHIJIANDEXIANGHULILIANGDUIBI,BINGRENWEIDANGJIAOYIFANGZAIYIDINGQINGKUANGXIAJUYOULEISIZAISHICHANGZHONGCHUYULONGDUANDIWEIDEQIYEDESHICHANGLILIANGSHI,HUISHIDEJIAOYIXIANGDUIFANG‘YILAIYU’GAIQIYE,CONGERYINQIJINGZHENGFASHANGDEXIAOGUO。”26JIUXIAOQUJUMINYUTIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEGUANXIERYAN,QIANZHEDUIHOUZHEWANGWANGYOUZHEGAODUDEYILAIXING。SUIRANYOUXIAOQUJUMINZUCHENGDEYEZHUWEIYUANHUIHEJUMINWEIYUANHUIZAILILUNSHANGDUIZHURUCHEWEIZUJINDENGWUYESHIXIANGYOUZHEJUEDINGQUAN,DANSHISHOUZHILIJIEGOUBUJIANQUAN、LIYIDAIBIAOGUOYUFENSAN、BOYINENGLICUNZAIJIAODAXUANSHUDENGDUOZHONGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,TIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEZAIHENDUOQINGKUANGXIAQUEDUICIYOUZHESHIZHIXINGDEKONGZHIQUAN。DUIYUZULINCHEWEIDEXIAOQUJUMINLAIJIANG:YIFANGMIAN,ZHOUBIANQITAJUMINXIAOQUHUOZHEQISHIYEDANWEIDUIWAITONGCHANGCAIQUDEFENGBIXINGGUANLISHIDETAMENWANGWANGMEIYOUTIDAIXINGXUANZE;LINGYIFANGMIAN,JIBIANFUJINYOUTIGONGCHEWEIZULINFUWUDE,ZHEIYEBUTAIFUHEWOMENRICHANGSUOXUDEBIANJIEXING。YINCI,TIGONGWUYEFUWUDEJINGYINGZHEDUIYUXIAOQUJUMINERYANQUESHIJIBENHUIYONGYOUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEI。RUOGENJUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUN,JIUKEYIRENDINGQIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI;CHUFEITAMENNENGGOUZHENGMINGSUOCAIQUDECUOSHIJUYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,FOUZEJIUHUIGOUCHENGFANLONGDUANFASUOJINZHIDECHAOGAODINGJIA。DANSHIDUIYUXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》SHIFOUBAORONGXINGDICAINALEXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUN,WOGUOHENDUOJINGZHENGFAZHUANJIADUICICHIZHEQIANGLIEDEZHIYIYUFANDUITAIDU。27DANSHIDANCHUNCONGFALVTIAOWENSHANGLAIKAN,LIFASIHUYOUBINGWEIDUICIZUOCHUMINGQUEDEJINZHI。

                              (二)相对优势的制度确认比较模糊的解决路径

                              RUOYAOJIEJUESHANGSHULIFAWENTI,ZESHOUXIANXUYAOHUIDAFANLONGDUANFASHIFOUYINGDANGYINRUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUNZHEIGEWENTI。BUYANERYU,RUGUOFANLONGDUANFADUILANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDELIFAYINRUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUN,NEIMELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFALVSHIYONGMENJIANJIUHUIDADAJIANGDI。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,WULUNSHIZUOWEIJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENDEXIAOFEIZHEHAISHIJINGYINGZHEDEWEIQUANNANDUDOUHUIYINCIDAFUJIANGDI。JIBIANMEIYOUQITAGENGWEIYOUHUADEANPAI,ZHENDUILANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFANLONGDUANMINSHISUSONGDUIYUSIRENERYANZAISUSONGXIAOYISHANGYEJIANGSUIZHIYOUSUOTIGAO,ERZHEIJIANGHUIYOUXIAOCUJINFANLONGDUANFADESIRENSHISHI。“CONGSHISHIZHUTIDEXINGZHIHESHISHICHENGXULAISHUO,FANLONGDUANFADESHISHIYOULIANGGEJIBENDESHISHITUJINGHEJIZHI,JIFANLONGDUANFADEGONGGONGSHISHIHESIRENSHISHI。QIANZHESHIZHIZHUANMENDEFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUYIFADIAOCHACHULILONGDUANXINGWEISUOJINXINGDEXINGZHENGZHIFA,HOUZHESHIZHIYOUGUANZHUTI(JINGYINGZHE、XIAOFEIZHEDENG)JIULONGDUANXINGWEIZHUIJIUMINSHIZERENERYIFAXIANGFAYUANTIQIDEMINSHISUSONG。TAMENXIANGHUPEIHE、XIANGHUBUCHONG,GONGTONGWEIHUSHICHANGJINGZHENGZHIXU,QUESHAOQIZHONGRENHEYIGEFANGMIANDOUBULIYUFANLONGDUANFADEQUANMIANHEYOUXIAODESHISHI。”28DANSHI,RUGUOFANLONGDUANFADUILANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDELIFAYINRUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUN,NEIMEKONGPAJIANGHUIZHIJIEYANZHONGYINGXIANGBAOHUSHICHANGGONGPINGJINGZHENGZHEIGEJIBENLIFAZONGZHIDEYOUXIAOSHIXIAN。SHOUXIAN,SUOYOUJINGYINGZHEXIANGDUIRENHEZHUTIERYANDOUHUIBUTONGCHENGDUDIYONGYOUMOUXIEFANGMIANDEXIANGDUIYOUSHI。WULUNQIYEDEGUIMODAXIAO,JINGJIZIBEN、SHANGYEJISHU、GUANLITUANDUI、ZHENGCEDAIYUDENGZHUDUOFANGMIANGUYOUDEGETICHAYISUODIEJIACHANSHENGDEZUOYONGSHIDEMEIGEJINGYINGZHEXIANGDUIJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENLAIJIANGZONGHUICUNYOUMOUXIEXIANGDUIYOUSHI,TAMENZHISHIYINRENERYI、YINSHIERYIHUOZHECHENGDUBUTONGERYI。QICI,SHICHANGJINGZHENGDEDONGTAIHUAXUYAOMEIGEJINGYINGZHECHONGFENFAHUIGEZIXIANGDUIYOUSHICANYUBOYI。YIFANGMIAN,ZHIYOUJINGYINGZHENENGGOUBUDUANYANGZHANGBIDUAN,CAINENGSHIDETAMENBUHUIBEISHICHANGSUOXUNSUTAOTAICHUJU;LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHIYOUJINGYINGZHEBUDUANYANGZHANGBIDUAN,CAINENGYOUXIAOCUSHIQITAQIYETEBIESHIJINGZHENGDUISHOUBUDUANJINXINGJISHUCHUANGXIN。ZUIHOU,FALVGENBENWUFADUIZHEIZHONGXIANGDUIYOUSHIDESHIYONGJIEXIANZUOCHUYIGEHELIERYOUMINGQUEDEGUIDING。YINWEIXIANGDUIYOUSHIYUANYUBUTONGZHUTIZHIJIANDEWEIGUANGUANXI,SUOYIXIANGDUIYOUSHIDEFAHUIZAIGENBENSHANGZHISHISHEJIJUTILIYIDEFENPEIWENTI,ERLISHIJINGYANYIJINGCHONGFENZHENGMING,CHUFEICUNZAISHICHANGSHILINGQINGXING,ZHENGFUHENNANDUICIZUOCHUYIGEWANQUANLINGSUOYOURENDOUXINFUDEJUNHENGANPAI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YINCI,FANLONGDUANFABUYINGDANGYINRUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUN。CONGSHIZHILAIKAN,WOGUOCENGJINGDUICIZUOCHUGUOJIAOWEIJIANJIEDEHUIDA。HUIGUFANLONGDUANFADEZHIDINGLICHENG,JIUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUNDEYINRUWENTIBINGBUSHIZHIJINCAIBEITICHULAIDE。ZAOZAI2007NIANZHIQIAN,SHEHUIGEJIEJIUWEIRAOFANLONGDUANFACAOANDUICIZHANKAIGUOJILIEDEZHENGLUN。YIBUFENRENRENWEI:WEILENENGGOUYOUXIAOBAOHUXIAOFEIZHELIYI、SHIXIANSHIZHIXINGDEGONGPINGYUZHENGYIDENG,WOGUOYINGDANGJIEJIANDEGUOHUOZHERIBENDEZUOFA,ZAIFANLONGDUANFAZHONGDUILANYONGXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEIDEXINGWEIJINXINGGUIZHI。29LINGYIBUFENRENZERENWEI:XIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUNCUNZAIZHONGDAQUEXIAN,WOGUOBUYIZAIFANLONGDUANFAZHONGDUICIJIAYIFANYING,FOUZEJIANGHUIZAOCHENGLILUNYUSHIWUCHUXIANYANZHONGHUNLUAN。30ERWULUNSHICONGGUOQUDUIWAIGONGBUDEFANLONGDUANFACAOANLAIKANHAISHIGENJUXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEGUIDING,XIANGGUANTIAOWENBIAOSHUQUESHIBINGMEIYOUCHUXIANGUOXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEIZIYANG。SHISHISHANG,ZHEIBINGBUSHIXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUNQIJINWEIYIYICIZAIWOGUODEYIBULIFAZHONGBEISHIZHIXINGDIFOUDING。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,GUOWUYUANFAZHIBANCENGJINGZAI《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOFANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA(XIUDINGCAOANSONGSHENGAO)》DI6TIAOZHONGMINGQUEGUIDING,JINGYINGZHEBUDELIYONGXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEI,SHISHIXIALIEBUGONGPINGJIAOYIXINGWEI:(1)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,XIANDINGJIAOYIXIANGDUIFANGDEJIAOYIDUIXIANG;(2)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,XIANDINGJIAOYIXIANGDUIFANGGOUMAIQIZHIDINGDESHANGPIN;(3)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,XIANDINGJIAOYIXIANGDUIFANGYUQITAJINGYINGZHEDEJIAOYITIAOJIAN;(4)LANSHOUFEIYONGHUOZHEBUHELIDIYAOQIUJIAOYIXIANGDUIFANGTIGONGQITAJINGJILIYI;(5)FUJIAQITABUHELIDEJIAOYITIAOJIAN。BENFASUOCHENGDEXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEI,SHIZHIZAIJUTIJIAOYIGUOCHENGZHONG,JIAOYIYIFANGZAIZIJIN、JISHU、SHICHANGZHUNRU、XIAOSHOUQUDAO、YUANCAILIAOCAIGOUDENGFANGMIANCHUYUYOUSHIDIWEI,JIAOYIXIANGDUIFANGDUIGAIJINGYINGZHEJUYOUYILAIXING,NANYIZHUANXIANGQITAJINGYINGZHE。JINGGUOSHENSHENDEQUANHENG,XIUDINGHOUDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOFANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》BINGMEIYOUNARUXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEITIAOKUAN。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DANSHIBUKEFOURENDESHI,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEGUIDINGQUESHICUNZAIMOHUZHICHU,BIXUCONGXINGSHIHESHIZHISHANGQUANMIANJIAYIWANSHAN。RUOWOMENZAIZHENDUISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDERENDINGBIAOZHUNSUOCUNZAIDELIFAWENTISHANGCAIQUQIANMIANSUOTIDEJIEJUEFANGFA,ZEZHEIGEWENTIJIUKEYIBEIFUDAIJIEJUE。YISHICHANGJIEGOUBIAOZHUNWEIJICHU,JIASHANGMINGQUEJUTIDEYOUXIANXIUZHENG,JIUKEYIYOUXIAOQUEBAOZAIGUANYULANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEFANLONGDUANLIFASHANGBUHUIZAIYOUCILEIWENTI。JIARULIFAJIGUANZUIZHONGBINGBURENWEIXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZAISHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDERENDINGBIAOZHUNSHANGCUNZAISHIZHIXINGWENTI,HUOZHESUOCAIQUDEJIEJUEFANGFABINGBUBAOHANJIANGXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DI18TIAODENEIRONGCONGXINGSHISHANGZUOCHUQUANBUSHANCHU,TEBIESHIZHISHAOMEIYOUTICHUGAITIAODI4XIANGYOUGUANYILAIXINGDEQUANHENGYINSU,NEIMEZAIFALVXIUDINGZHONGZEYOUBIYAOZHIJIEDUICIXIANGQUANHENGYINSUDESHIYONGZUOCHUXIANZHIXINGZHIYIN。JIUHEXINNEIRONGERYAN,FANLONGDUANFABIXUMINGQUEKAOCHABUJINJINSHILIANGGETEDINGDEZHUTIZHIJIANDEJUTIGUANXI,ERBIXUJIYUMUBIAODUIXIANGYUBUTEDINGDEZHUTIZHIJIANZAIZHENGTISHANGDEGUANXI。YIJI,SHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIJUJIAOYUMUBIAODUIXIANGDUIDUOSHUSHICHANGZHUTIDELILIANGCHENGDU,XIANGDUIYOUSHIZHEZHONGYUTEDINGLIANGZHEZHIJIANDELILIANGBIJIAO。ZAICIGUIZEYUESHUXIA,JIBIANJINJINYIJUZHEIXIANGQUANHENGYINSUJINXINGRENDINGYIGEJINGYINGZHESHIFOUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI,TAZAISHIZHISHANGYEBUHUICHUXIANXIANGDUIYOUSHIDIWEILILUNDESHIJIANJIEGUO。RUGUOXIANGGUANSHICHANGDEDABUFENZHUTIDUIMUBIAODUIXIANGDEYILAICHENGDUDOUBIJIAOGAO,NEIMEZHEIYINGDANGKEYIBIAOMINGQIZAIXIANGGUANSHICHANGSHANGQUESHIJUYOUHENQIANGDEZHIPEIDIWEI,ERBUSHITAZHISHIXIANGDUIYUGEBIEHUOZHESHAOSHUZHUTIJUYOUXIANGDUIDEYOUSHIDIWEI。

                              四、抗辩事由的立法表述明显多元

                              (一)抗辩事由的立法表述明显多元的表现形式

                              SUIRANFANLONGDUANFADUIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHESHELILETESHUDEFALVYIWU,DANSHIZHEIXIEFALVYIWUDECHENGDANBINGBUSHIWUTIAOJIANDE。ZHIYOUTAMENBUNENGJIUZIJISUOSHISHIDEJINGYINGXINGWEITICHUHELIDEKANGBIANSHIYOUSHI,QISUOZUOSUOWEICAIHUIBEIRENDINGGOUCHENGLANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI。DUIYUCILEIGUIZEANPAI,LILUNJIETONGCHANGSHIYONGMEIGUOZAIFANTUOLASIFADESIFASHIJIANZHONGFAZHANQILAIDEHELIYUANZEJINXINGGAIKUO。HELIYUANZEDEJIBENYAOYIJIBINGBUSHIZHIYAOJINGYINGZHESHISHILEMOUZHONGXINGWEIJIUBIRANGOUCHENGLONGDUANXINGWEI,HAIXUYAOGENJUXINGWEIDONGJI、SHEHUIXIAOGUODENGDUOGEYINSUJINXINGZONGHEPINGGUHOUCAINENGZUOCHUDINGLUN。31CONGDI17TIAODI1KUANDEJUTITIAOWENLAIKAN,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DUILANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDELIFAYESHICAIYONGLEHELIYUANZE。DANSHIZAIKANGBIANSHIYOUDEJUTIBIAOSHUSHANG,LIFAMUQIANCAIQUDEZUOFABINGFEIWANQUANYIZHI。RUBIAO2SUOSHI,ZHEIZAIZHENGTISHANGYOUSANZHONGYONGCIFANGSHI。

                              表2 抗辩事由的三种用词
                            表2 抗辩事由的三种用词

                              WUYONGZHIYI,FENKAILAIKAN,TAMENGEZIDOUNENGGOUYOUXIAOZHICHIHELIYUANZEDESHIJIYINGYONG。JIUXINGSHIERYAN,ZHEIXIEXIANDINGCUOCIDESHIYONG,SHIDETAMENSUODUIYINGDEJINGYINGXINGWEIZAISHOUDAODEJINGZHENGGUIZHITAIDUSHANGMINGXIANYUMEIGUOZAIFANTUOLASIFADESIFASHIJIANZHONGFAZHANQILAIDEBENSHENWEIFAYUANZECUNZAIGENBENCHABIE。SUOWEIBENSHENWEIFAYUANZE,JIZHIYAOJINGYINGZHESHISHILEMOUZHONGXINGWEI,BULUNQIXIJIYUHEZHONGDONGJIHUOZHEKENENGHUICHANSHENGSHENMEXIAOGUO,DOUJIANGHUIBEIZHIJIERENDINGGOUCHENGLONGDUANXINGWEI。32YINGDANGKEYISHUO,XIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》ZHENDUIHENGXIANGLONGDUANXIEYIDEDI13TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGHEZHENDUIZONGXIANGLONGDUANXIEYIDEDI14TIAOGUIDINGJIUSHICAIYONGLEBENSHENWEIFAYUANZE。ERDI17TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGYUCIMINGXIANYOUZHECHABIE,ZUIQIMASUOSHEDEJINGYINGXINGWEIBUXIANGQIANMIANGUIDINGDANGZHONGSUOLIEDEFENGEXIAOSHOUSHICHANGHUOZHEYUANCAILIAOCAIGOUSHICHANG、XIANDINGXIANGDISANRENZHUANSHOUSHANGPINDEZUIDIJIAGEDENGNEIYANGJIUZHIJIEBEIFALVSUOJINZHI。JIUNEIRONGERYAN,ZHEIXIEXIANDINGCUOCIDESHIYONGSHIDETAMENSUODUIYINGDEJINGYINGXINGWEIZAIXINGZHIRENDINGSHANGBIXUYUHELIXINGFENXIGUAGOU。YI“BUGONGPINGDE”WEIXIAN,YIWEIZHEZHIYAOJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHENENGGOUZHENGMINGQISUOSHISHIDEYIGAOJIAXIAOSHOUSHANGPINHUOZHEYIDIJIAGOUMAISHANGPINSHIGONGPINGDE,ZEBUHUIBEIRENDINGWEIGOUCHENGCHAOGAODINGJIAHUOZHECHAODIDINGJIA。YI“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”WEIXIAN,YIWEIZHEZHIYAOJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHENENGGOUZHENGMINGQISUOSHISHIDEYIDIYUCHENGBENDEJIAGEXIAOSHOUSHANGPIN、JUJUEYUJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENJINXINGJIAOYI、XIANDINGJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENZHINENGYUQIJINXINGJIAOYIHUOZHEZHINENGYUQIZHIDINGDEJINGYINGZHEJINXINGJIAOYI、DASHOUSHANGPIN、DUITIAOJIANXIANGTONGDEJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENZAIJIAOYIJIAGEDENGJIAOYITIAOJIANSHANGSHIXINGCHABIEDAIYUSHIYOUZHEZHENGDANGLIYOUDE,ZEBUHUIBEIRENWEIGOUCHENGLVEDUOXINGDINGJIA、JUJUEJIAOYI、XIANDINGJIAOYI、DASHOU、CHABIEDAIYU。YI“BUHELIDE”WEIXIAN,YIWEIZHEZHIYAOJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHENENGGOUZHENGMINGQISUOSHISHIDEZAIJIAOYISHIFUJIAQITAJIAOYITIAOJIANSHIHELIDE,ZEBUHUIBEIRENWEIGOUCHENGFUJIABUHELIDEJIAOYITIAOJIAN。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DANSHI,SHANGSHULIFABIAOSHUGEZIKEYIBAOHANDEKANGBIANNEIRONGBICICUNZAIBUTONGCHENGDUDECHAYI。JIU“BUGONGPINGDE”YU“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”ERYAN,HOUZHEDEFANWEIMINGXIANYAOBIQIANZHEDEFANWEIKUANFANDEDUO。CONGXINGZHISHANGLAIJIANG,QIANZHEZHISHEJIGONGPINGJIAZHIDEPANDUAN,ERHOUZHEZEKEYISHEJIHENDUOJIAZHIDEPANDUAN,CHULEGONGPINGYIWAI,HAIBAOKUOZHURUXIAOLV、ZIYOU、ZHIXUDENG。33JIU“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”YU“BUHELIDE”ERYAN,SUIRANLIANGZHEZAIFANWEISHANGYINGDANGSHIJIBENXIANGTONGDE,DANSHIHAISHICUNZAISHAOXUQUBIE。ZAISHIJIANZHONG,QIANZHEKEYIZHIJIEBAOHANYIBUFALVSUOZUODEJUTIGUIDING,JINGUANZHEIXIEGUIDINGKENENGYINSHEHUIDEFAZHANERZAIHELIXINGSHANGDADAZHEKOUSHENZHIWANQUANSANGSHI,ERHOUZHEZAIYAOQIUSHANGSIHUHENNANRONGNAZHEIXIE。JIU“BUGONGPINGDE”YU“BUHELIDE”ERYAN,JINGUANHOUZHEZAILILUNSHANGYINGDANGYEKEYIBAOHANQIANZHE,RANHOULIANGZHEZAIGENGDUOQINGKUANGXIASIHUSHIWANQUANPINGXINGDE。YIZHENDUIBIAOZHUNBIYAOZHUANLIDEFRANDYUANZEWEILI,JIUYAOQIUZHUANLICHIYOUZHEZAIQIZHUANLIBEINARUYIGEBIAOZHUNZHIHOUBIXUANZHAOGONGPING、HELI、WUQISHIDEFANGSHIXIANGSUOYOUZHUTIJINXINGXUKE,SUIRANJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIJINGYINGZHESUOSHISHIDEBUTONGJINGYINGXINGWEIZAIHELIXINGKANGBIANDEJUTISHIYOUSHANGKENENGSHENZHIYINGDANGSHIBUJINXIANGTONGDE。LIRU,JIUYIDIYUCHENGBENDEJIAGEXIAOSHOUSHANGPINERYAN,KEYIWEIJIANGJIACHULIXIANHUOSHANGPIN、JIJIEXINGSHANGPIN、YOUXIAOQIXIANJIJIANGDAOQIDESHANGPINHEJIYASHANGPINDEHUOZHEYINQINGCHANGZHAIWU、ZHUANCHAN、XIEYEJIANGJIAXIAOSHOUSHANGPINDE;JIUJUJUEYUJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENJINXINGJIAOYIERYAN,KEYIWEIJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENYOUYANZHONGDEBULIANGXINYONGJILUHUOZHECHUXIANJINGYINGZHUANGKUANGCHIXUEHUADENGQINGKUANG,KENENGHUIJIJIAOYIANQUANZAOCHENGJIAODAFENGXIANDE。DANFANLONGDUANFADELIFABIAOSHUZAIKEYIHANGAIDEFANWEISHANGBUCUNZAICHAYI。FOUZE,GUQIEBULUNXINGSHIKEGUANCUNZAIDEBUTONGYI,DOUHUIZAISHIZHISHANGSHIDELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEHELIXINGKANGBIANZAIBIAOZHUNSHANGCUNZAIBUTONGYI,CONGERDAOZHIBUTONGXINGWEIZHIJIANCHUXIANJINGZHENGGUIZHIBUGONGXIANXIANG,BUTONGCHENGDUDIYINGXIANGLIFADEKEXUEXING。34

                              (二)抗辩事由的立法表述明显多元的解决路径

                              CONGJINGYANSHANGKAN,ZHENDUIDUOYUANHUASHIXIANGDAOZHINEIRONGBUTONGYIWENTIDEJIEJUEFANGFAZAIJIBENSILUSHANGBINGBUFUZA,TONGCHANGJIANGQIDANYIHUAJIKEMANZUXUQIU。JUTIJIU“BUGONGPINGDE”“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”“BUHELIDE”ZAISHIZHISHANGSHIDELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEHELIXINGKANGBIANZAIBIAOZHUNSHANGCUNZAIBUTONGYIWENTIERYAN,LIFAZHIYAOTONGYISHIYONGSANZHEDANGZHONGDERENHEYIGEJIUKEYIJIEJUEMUQIANSUOCUNZAIDEWENTI。ERDUICI,WOMENXUYAOKAOLVDEGUANJIANWENTISHIJIUJINGZEYONGHEZHEGENGWEIKEXUE。35SHANGSHUDUI“BUGONGPINGDE”“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”“BUHELIDE”DEZUHEBIJIAOYINGDANGNENGGOUBIAOMING,“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”YINGDANGSHIZUIWEIQIADANGDELIFABIAOSHU。YIXIANDINGJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENZHINENGYUQIJINXINGJIAOYIHUOZHEZHINENGYUQIZHIDINGDEJINGYINGZHEJINXINGJIAOYIWEILI,TAZAIHELIXINGKANGBIANSHANGZHISHAOYINGDANGBAOKUOYIXIASIGESHIYOU:DIYI,WEILEBAOZHENGCHANPINZHILIANGHEANQUANDE;DIER,WEILEWEIHUPINPAIXINGXIANGHUOZHETIGAOFUWUSHUIPINGDE;DISAN,DAIGONGXIEYILVXING;DISI,SHEJIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU。CONGFANCHOUHANGAIDESHIJIAOLAIKAN,“BUGONGPINGDE”YINGDANGWUFAYOUXIAOBAOHANZHURUWEILEBAOZHENGCHANPINZHILIANGHEANQUANZHILEIDESHIXIANG;ERJIUDAIGONGXIEYILVXINGHESHEJIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHULIANGGESHIXIANGERYAN,SUIRANTAMENZAIXINGSHISHANGDOUSHIZHIJIEJIYUQITAFALVDEZHIDUXINGGUIDING,DANSHITAMENZAITONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIAQUESHISHISHUYUJIAOWEIHELIDESHEHUIANPAI,DANSHIZHEIBINGBUYIWEIZHE“BUHELIDE”JIUNENGGOUWANQUANZONGSHIYOUXIAODIHANGAITAMEN。YISHEJIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUWEILI,RENMENDUIFANGZHIJIAGEFEICHANGANGGUIDEJINKOUKANGAIYAOWUDEPINGJIAJIUCUNZAIHENDADECHAYI,QIZHONGJIUBAOKUOHELIXINGYUHEFAXINGDEBUTONGCHENGDUFENYE。ER“MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU”ZEKEYIDUIZHEIXIESHIXIANGJINXINGYOUXIAOHANGAI,TANENGGOUZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGMANZUHELIYUANZEDEYOUXIAOSHIYONG。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIDUILIFAZONGZHIDETIXIANFANGSHIBUXIEDIAOZHEIGEWENTISHANG,RUGUOCAIQUTONGGUOFEIXITONGHUADEFALVLIJIELAIJINXINGJUBUHUADEYINGDUI,NEIMELIFAJIEHEKANGBIANSHIYOUDEWANSHANXUQIUZEYINGDANGZUOCHURUXIAGUIDING,JIJINZHIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHECONGSHIXIALIELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEXINGWEI:(1)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,YIGAOJIAXIAOSHOUSHANGPINHUOZHEYIDIJIAGOUMAISHANGPIN;(2)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,YIDIYUCHENGBENDEJIAGEXIAOSHOUSHANGPIN;(3)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,JUJUEYUJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENJINXINGJIAOYI;(4)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,XIANDINGJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENZHINENGYUQIJINXINGJIAOYIHUOZHEZHINENGYUQIZHIDINGDEJINGYINGZHEJINXINGJIAOYI;(5)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,DASHOUSHANGPINHUOZHEZAIJIAOYISHIFUJIAQITAJIAOYITIAOJIAN;(6)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,DUITIAOJIANXIANGTONGDEJIAOYIXIANGDUIRENZAIJIAOYIJIAGEDENGJIAOYITIAOJIANSHANGSHIXINGCHABIEDAIYU;(7)GUOWUYUANFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOURENDINGDEQITALANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEXINGWEI。BIJIAOERYAN,RUGUOCAIQUTONGGUOXITONGHUADEFALVXIUDINGLAIYUYICHEDIJIEJUE,NEIMELIFAJIEHEKANGBIANSHIYOUDEWANSHANXUQIUZEYINGDANGZUOCHURUXIAGUIDING,JIJINZHIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHECONGSHIXIALIELANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEXINGWEI:(1)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,YIDIYUCHENGBENDEJIAGEXIAOSHOUSHANGPIN;(2)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,DASHOUSHANGPIN;(3)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,JUJUEYUJINGYINGZHEJINXINGJIAOYI;(4)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,XIANDINGJINGYINGZHEZHINENGYUQIJINXINGJIAOYIHUOZHEZHINENGYUQIZHIDINGDEJINGYINGZHEJINXINGJIAOYI;(5)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,ZAIYUJINGYINGZHEJIAOYISHIFUJIAQITAJIAOYITIAOJIAN;(6)MEIYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,DUITIAOJIANXIANGTONGDEJINGYINGZHEZAIJIAOYIJIAGEDENGJIAOYITIAOJIANSHANGSHIXINGCHABIEDAIYU;(7)GUOWUYUANFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOURENDINGDEQITALANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEXINGWEI。

                              五、结语

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XIJINPINGTONGZHIZAIDANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOZHONGQIANGDIAO,QUANMIANYIFAZHIGUOSHIGUOJIAZHILIDEYICHANGSHENKEGEMING,BIXUJIANCHILIXINGFAZHI,TUIJINKEXUELIFA、YANGEZHIFA、GONGZHENGSIFA、QUANMINSHOUFA。SUIRANDAXINGQIYEWEIBIJIUJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEI,DANSHIJUYOUSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEJINGYINGZHEWANGWANGSHIDAXINGQIYE。ERGENJUSHIJIEJINBAINIANDEJINGJIFAZHANGUILVLAIKAN,DAXINGQIYEZAIYIGEGUOJIADEJISHUCHUANGXINHUODONGZHONGTONGCHANGBANYANZHESHIFENZHONGYAODEJIAOSE,TAMENYIBANDOUSHI“TUJINXINGDONG”DEFAQIZHEHEZHUDAOZHE。YINCI,FANLONGDUANFAZHENDUILANYONGSHICHANGZHIPEIDIWEIDEGUIZHILIFABIXUZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGBAOCHIKEXUEXING。MUQIAN,SHISANJIEQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIYIJINGJIANGXIANXING《FANLONGDUANFA》DEXIUDINGGONGZUOLIERULIFAGUIHUA,QIDAILIFANENGGOUDUICIJISHIJIAYIWANSHAN,CONGERWEIWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIDEJINYIBUFAZHANTIGONGGENGWEIJIANQUANDEFALVBAOZHANG,CUJINZHENGFUYUSHICHANGGAODUDEOUHE。

                              注释

                              1[1]丁茂中:《反垄断法的目标选择及其功能优化刍议》,《现代财经》2011年第8期,第123页。
                              2[2]颜运秋:《反垄断法的终极目的及其司法保障》,《时代法学》2005年第6期,第45页。
                              3[3]钟刚:《反垄断法豁免制度研究》,北京大学出版社2010年版,第105页。
                              4[4]刘继峰:《反垄断法益分析方法的建构及其运用》,《中国法学》2013年第6期,第22页。
                              5[5]张占江:《行政性垄断的反垄断法规制架构重构》,《华东政法大学学报》2015年第4期,第40页。
                              6[6]全国人大常委会法制工作委员会经济法室:《中华人民共和国反垄断法条文说明、立法理由及相关规定》,北京大学出版社2007年版,第17页。
                              7[7]孔祥俊:《反垄断法原理》,中国法制出版社2001年版,第562页。
                              8[8]《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法》第10条规定:“消费者享有公平交易的权利。消费者在购买商品或者接受服务时,有权获得质量保障、价格合理、计量正确等公平交易条件,有权拒绝经营者的强制交易行为。”
                              9[9]戴治勇:《选择性执法》,《法学研究》2008年第4期,第28页。
                              10[10]丁茂中:《垄断行为法律责任条款实施困境的消解》,《法学》2017年第9期,第159页。
                              11[11]王健、朱宏文:《反垄断法实施问题研究》,法律出版社2013年版,第47-49页。
                              12[12]许光耀:《支配地位滥用行为的反垄断法调整》,人民出版社2018年版,第63页。
                              13[13]喻玲:《从威慑到合规指引--反垄断法实施的新趋势》,《中外法学》2013年第6期,第1214页。
                              14[14]王晓晔:《反垄断法》,法律出版社2011年版,第198-199页。
                              15[15]《禁止滥用市场支配地位行为暂行规定》第8条。
                              16[16][美]欧内斯特·盖尔霍恩、威廉姆·科瓦契奇、斯蒂芬·卡尔金斯:《反垄断法与经济学》(第5版),任勇、邓志松、尹建平译,法律出版社2009年版,第6-7页。
                              17[17]《最高人民法院关于审理因垄断行为引发的民事纠纷案件应用法律若干问题的规定》第10条。
                              18[18]徐士英:《竞争政策研究--国际比较与中国选择》,法律出版社2013年版,第231页。
                              19[19][美]赫伯特·霍温坎普:《联邦反托拉斯政策竞争法律及其实践》,许光耀、江山、王晨译,法律出版社2009年版,第542页。
                              20[20]刘进:《法律不确定性视角下的反垄断法实施机制选择》,《竞争政策研究》2016年第2期,第42页。
                              21[21]黄勇:《中国反垄断民事诉讼若干问题的思考》,《人民司法》2008年第19期,第21页。
                              22[22]江山:《论反垄断法解释的知识转型与方法重构》,《现代法学》2018年第6期,第65-66页。
                              23[23]许光耀:《掠夺性定价行为的反垄断法分析》,《政法论丛》2018年第2期,第50页。
                              24[24]王则楚:《小区停车费涨价,业主须有发言权》,《南方日报》2015年7月31日第AA2版。
                              25[25]需要指出的是,现行《反垄断法》对此所用的立法表述“其他经营者对该经营者在交易上的依赖程度”本身就是存在立法问题的,不应仅仅限于“其他经营者”,而应当包括所有潜在的交易相对人。所以,我们在此就忽视小区居民的身份属性。事实上,小区居民与提供物业服务的经营者在车位租金上发生的纠纷也越来越多地发生在很多商户与物业公司之间,即经营者对经营者。
                              26[26]李剑:《相对优势地位理论质疑》,《现代法学》2005年第3期,第101页。
                              27[27]陈丹舟:《相对优势地位理论基础研究》,《竞争政策研究》2016年第3期,第19页。
                              28[28]王先林:《我国反垄断法实施的基本机制及其效果--兼论以垄断行业作为我国反垄断法实施的突破口》,《法学评论》2012年第5期,第98页。
                              29[29]王丽娟、梅林:《相对优势地位滥用的反垄断法研究》,《法学》2006年第7期,第67页。
                              30[30]王晓晔:《论滥用“相对优势地位”的法律规制》,《现代法学》2016年第9期,第79页。
                              31[31][美]基斯·N.希尔顿:《反垄断法--经济学原理与普通法演进》,赵玲译,北京大学出版社2009年版,第83页。
                              32[32]李胜利:《美国联邦反托拉斯法百年历史经验与世界性影响》,法律出版社2015年版,第49页。
                              33[33]叶卫平:《反垄断法价值问题研究》,北京大学出版社2012年版,第55-106页。
                              34[34]丁茂中:《论差别待遇的合理性分析标准》,《上海对外经贸大学学报》2018年第5期,第40页。
                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   35[35]金善明:《〈反垄断法〉文本的优化及其路径选择--以〈反垄断法〉修订为背景》,《法商研究》2019年第2期,第66页。

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