牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                  1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 法律论文 > 旅游中零负团费的制度困境与建议

                    旅游中零负团费的制度困境与建议

                    时间:2020-04-22 14:13作者:李莉 张婷
                    本文导读:这是一篇关于旅游中零负团费的制度困境与建议的文章,近年来伴随着旅游业的兴盛,零负团费现象也愈演愈烈。在2010年全国首例查处零负团费案件中,旅游主管部门依照《旅行社条例》,认为旅游委托业务中,委托方和受托方均负有合理定价的义务,以双反违反这一义务为由,做出了行

                      摘    要:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} 文章运用案例分析、规范分析、政策价值的研究方法,研究了旅游中零负团费表现的隐性化、更不易于法律适用这一现象的法律制度成因。法学零负团费本质是旅游服务合同中约定的服务价格等于或低于旅游服务成本,旅行社在旅游服务合同履行过程中,通过各种隐性形式收取回扣来弥补损失的非正常盈利模式。零负团费损害了旅游消费者的公平交易权益和对旅游产品的选择权,破坏了旅游市场秩序。现行法律制度下,对零负团费的规制有其制度困境,主要在于《旅游法》中认定标准不明确,表现在《旅游法》的第35条明确禁止了零负团费情形,但是实效却不太理想,主要是因为对“不合理低价”、诱骗、强迫、“具体购物场所”范围等认定不清。对于规制旅游中零负团费,建议可以从完善立法、加强监管、自律和他律方面入手,建立起综合协调机制。

                      关键词: 旅游; 零负团费; 困境; 规制;

                      Abstract: This thesis uses case studies, normative analysis, and policy value research methods to study the causes of the legal system of zero-density group fees in tourism, which is less likely to be legally applicable. The purpose is to propose countermeasures. After the analysis, it is concluded that the zero-negative group fee is essentially the service price agreed in the travel service contract is equal to or lower than the travel service cost. In the process of fulfilling the travel service contract, the travel agency collects the rebate through various implicit forms to make up for the loss. The zero-negative group fee damages the fair trade rights of tourism consumers and the choice of tourism products, which undermines the order of the tourism market. Under the current legal system, the regulation of zero-negative group fees has its institutional dilemma, mainly because the criteria for identification in the Tourism Law are not clear. It is manifested in the fact that Article 35 of the Tourism Law explicitly prohibits zero-negative group fees. However, the effectiveness is not ideal, mainly because of the unreasonable low price, deception, coercion, and the scope of “specific shopping places”. For the regulation of zero-negative group fees in tourism, it is suggested that we can start from the aspects of improving legislation, strengthening supervision, self-discipline and heteronomy, and establishing a comprehensive coordination mechanism.

                      Keyword: tourism; “Zero or Negative Fee for Tour”; dilemma; legistration;

                      引 言

                      近年来伴随着旅游业的兴盛,零负团费现象也愈演愈烈。在2010年全国首例查处零负团费案件中,旅游主管部门依照《旅行社条例》,认为旅游委托业务中,委托方和受托方均负有合理定价的义务,以双反违反这一义务为由,做出了行政处罚的决定。1至此,零负团费问题开始在法学理论界引起了关注。2学界对这一问题的共识是,均认为应当予以规制,应该从旅行社、导游、行业规范、旅游消费者等方面入手,全方位解决零负团费问题。这些观点促使了2013年版的《中华人民共和国旅游法》(以下简称《旅游法》)中对零负团费问题的重点规制。尤其是第35条,明确禁止了零负团费,且从旅行社行为的主客观方面,将零负团费构成问题要件化。《旅游法》施行后,适用中却出现了两类问题:第一,“一价全包”现象普遍,即旅行中不再安排指定购物和自费项目,这是一刀切地机械理解35条后的结果3;第二,零负团费的表现形式趋于隐蔽,即尽量规避35条的适用,但运用其他方式达到与零负团费一样的目的,这是规避法律的结果。这两类问题都是35条带来的负外部性问题,问题产生的原因表面看似是旅游行业服务类型的同质性程度高带来的营利难度,和旅行社逐利本性的角逐中零负团费在营利方面的无往而不利。本质原因则是2013年版的《旅游法》第35条规定,构成要件的类型化程度比较单一,比较难以适用于相比较灵活的旅游交易实践。即便针对实务中理解和适用35条不统一的情形,《国家旅游局关于严格执行旅游法第三十五条有关规定的通知》(以下简称《通知》)专门提出了解决方案4,但其毕竟是政策性文件,影响程度有限。就这一问题,法律层面的规定并未见深入,法学界也很少从具体的构成要件角度、民法视角等对这一问题进行分析反思。基于此,本文重点分析旅游中零负团费的运行现状和制度困境,阐释零负团费规制中的关键问题,以期提出更为可行的建议。
                     

                    旅游中零负团费的制度困境与建议
                     

                      一、 旅游中零负团费的运行现状与制度困境

                      (一) 旅游中零负团费的运行现状

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                      (二) 现行法中规制零负团费的制度困境

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                      1. 民法的规定无法规制零负团费。

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                      2. 《消费者权益保护法》(以下简称《消法》)的相关条款无法直接适用。

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                      3. 特别法的规定适用困境明显

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                      二、 旅游中零负团费法律规制的关键问题

                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIJIANCHI《LVYOUFA》JINZHILINGFUTUANFEIDEZHENGTIZHIDUJIAGOUXIA,ZAIGUIZHILINGFUTUANFEIWENTISHI,RENGYOURUXIASANFANGMIANWENTIXUYAOLIQING。

                      (一) “不合理低价”的认定

                      YIZHAODI35TIAO,LINGFUTUANFEIRENDINGYAOJIANZHIYISHI“LVXINGSHEBUDEYIBUHELIDEDIJIAZUZHILVYOUHUODONG”。BUHELIDIJIADEFANMIANSHIHELIDIJIA[4],YIZHAODUIZHEIYITIAODEFANDUIJIESHI,HELIDIJIAKEBEIJIESHOU。WENTISHI,LVXINGSHEZUZHILVYOUHUODONGDEJIAGESHIFOUHELIHENNANPANDUAN。DIYI,LVYOUJIAGEYOUSHICHANGDINGJIA,BUYOUGUOJIATONGYIDINGJIA。ERSHICHANGJIASHOUKONGYUGONGQIUGUANXI,LVYOUFUWUFEIYONGDEJIAGEBENSHENSHOUDANWANGJI、LUXIAN、ZHENGCE、QIHOUDENGYINSUYINGXIANG,JUYOUBODONGXING、YIBIANXING。YINCI,JIAGEHUIZAIYIDINGFANWEINEIBODONG,SHIYIGEQUJIAN,ERFEIJUTIDEJINE,WUXINGZHONGZENGJIALERENDINGJIAGESHIFOUHELIDENANDU。DIER,JIBIANGONGBULETONGYIDERENDINGBIAOZHUN,SHIYONGZHONGRENGCUNZAINANTI。《TONGZHI》ZHONGGUIDING,LVXINGSHEYIDIYUJIEDAIHEFUWUFEIYONGDEJIAGEHUOZHEXINGYEGONGRENDEHELIJIAGETIGONGLVYOUFUWU,QIEWUZHENGDANGLIYOUHECHONGFENZHENGJUZHENGMINGDE,YINGRENDINGWEI“YIBUHELIDEDIJIAZUZHILVYOUHUODONG”。WENTISHI,LVYOUCHANPINSHILVYOUZHEYIDISHENGHUOJINGLIHELVYOUQIYECHANPINDEFUHECHANPIN[5],JIEDAIJIAGESHANGQIEKEYILIANGHUAWEIZHUSU、JIAOTONGDENGZHIBIAO,JINERTONGGUOBIZHAOTONGXINGYEBIAOZHUNSHIBIEQIDINGJIAHELIYUFOU。DANSHILVYOUZHEYIDISHENGHUOGANSHOUQUEWUFATONGYIBIAOZHUN,TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIASHIYIZHONGSHUSHIFANGSONGDESHENXINZHUANGTAIYUGANGUANTIYANDEZONGHEZHUANGTAI,QUEHENNANYONGGUDINGZHIBIAOLAIHENGLIANG。JIBIANJIADINGXIAOFEIZHETONGYIDIFANGDESHENGHUOJINGLIZHUANGTAIKEYIQUEDINGYIGECHANGLIANG、BUBIANLIANG,ZHEIYICHANGLIANG、BUBIANLIANGDUIYINGDEJIAGESHIDUOSHAO,YIRANMEIYOUDINGLUN。KUANGQIE,LVXINGSHEZAISHENMEJIAGEXIAXUYAOLVXINGSHENMECHENGDUDEFUWU,DANXINGKONGJIANHENDA,SUOWEIDEXINGYEGONGRENDEHELIJIAGE,YEQIANQUEDUIGONGRENYIJUDEXIHUA,ZHEIYITIAODEGUIDINGJIYILIUYUXINGSHI。

                      (二) 诱骗、强迫的认定问题

                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DI35TIAOWEIJIULVXINGSHEDE“YOUPIANLVYOUZHE”DEXINGWEIZUOCHUJUTIGUIDING,《TONGZHI》ZHONGJIANGQIXIHUAWEI,LVXINGSHEHUOZHEQICONGYERENYUANTONGGUOXUJIAXUANCHUAN,YINMANLVYOUXINGCHENG、JUTIGOUWUCHANGSUOJISHANGPINHUOZHELINGXINGFUFEILVYOUXIANGMUDENGZHENSHIQINGKUANGDESHOUDUAN,YOUSHILVYOUZHECANJIALVYOUHUODONGHUOZHEGOUMAIXIANGGUANCHANPINHEFUWUDE,YINGRENDINGWEI“YOUPIANLVYOUZHE”。《TONGZHI》DELIFASILUSHIDUIYOUPIANXINGWEIJINXINGLIEJU。TONGGUOWENYIFENXIDEZHI,YOUPIANHANYOUTUIJIAN、YINDAODEYISI,YEHANYOUYOUDAO、QIPIANDEYISI。TUIJIAN、YINDAOHEYINYOU、QIPIANSHOUXIANSHILIANGSHANGDEQUBIE,SUIZHECHENGDUDEJIASHEN,ZHUJIANJIUHUICHANSHENGZHIDEQUBIE。LVXINGSHEHEDAOYOUDETUIJIANXING、JIANYIXING、YINDAOXINGDEXINGWEIYIBANBINGBUHUIFANGAILVYOUXIAOFEIZHEDEZHENSHIYISIBIAOSHI,ZIZHUXIAOFEIDEXUANZEQUANHAIZAIXIAOFEIZHESHOUZHONG,YINGGAISHIFALVSUOYUNXUDE。ZHIYOUXUJIAXUANCHUAN、YINMANZHENSHIQINGKUANGDENGQIPIAN、QIZHAXINGWEICAIHUISHIXIAOFEIZHEXIANRUCUOWUDERENSHIZHONG,BINGZUOCHUXIANGYINGDEYISIBIAOSHI,JINERSUNHAIYOUKEDEXIAOFEIZHEQUANYI,WEIFALVSUOJINZHI。XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG,TUIJIANXING、YINDAOXINGXINGWEIYUQIPIAN、QIZHAXINGWEI,ZHENSHIDEYISIBIAOSHIDAOCUOWUDEYISIBIAOSHI,ZHEIXIEGAINIANZHIJIAN,BINGFEIFEICIJIBI、YIMULERANDEZHUANGTAI,YOUZHUDUOJIEYUERZHEZHIJIANDEZHUANGTAIQIECUNZAIYAOSUBUQING、RENDINGBUMINGDEWENTI。JIAZHIZAISHIWUZHONG,WEILEGUIBIFALV,YOUPIANXINGWEICONGBIAOXIANXINGSHILAIKANGENGJIAJUYOUYINBIXING。RUHEQUEDINGYOUPIANXINGWEIDEBIAOZHUNGENGWEIMOHU。《LVYOUFA》DI35TIAODI2KUANDEDANSHUYEJILELVXINGSHEHEDAOYOUGUIBIFALVDEKONGJIAN,ZHIYAOXIESHANGYIZHIHUOZHELVYOUZHEYAOQIU,JIUWEIFALVSUORONGREN。LVXINGSHEBIANKEYIHELVYOUZHEDUICIZUOCHUBUCHONGXIEYILAIGUIBIFALVDEYUESHUHEYOUZEBUMENDEJIANGUAN。

                      DUIYUQIANGPODERENDINGWENTI,XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGCUNZAICONGZIYUANDAOBIXUDEHUISEDIDAI,JIEDINGJUYOUYIDINGDEMOHUXING。SHIZIYUANXIAOFEIHAISHIBEIQIANGPOXIAOFEIYEGENGDUOTINGLIUZAILVYOUZHEDEZHUGUANCENGMIAN。DUIZHUGUANDEPANDUAN,PANDUANLVYOUZHESHIZIYUANDEYISIBIAOSHIHAISHIYOUYUBEIQIANGPOERZUOCHUDEFEIZHENSHIDEYISIBIAOSHI,XUYAOJIEHELVYOUZHEDEXINGWEIDENGWAIBUKEGUANQINGKUANGJIAYIPANDUAN。CONGBEIPOGOUWUDAOSHIHOUWEIQUANYECUNZAIZHEIKONGJIANJIANGEHESHIJIANFENLI,RURUOSHIZHONGMEIYOULIUXIAZHENGJU,SHIHOUQUZHENGFEICHANGNAN。

                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YOUPIANHEQIANGPODERENDINGWENTIYEGUANSHEXIANXINGPEIFUYIWUDELVXING。LVYOUZHONG,BUNENGWANQUANPAICHUGEBIELVYOUZHEZIYUANGOUWUDEQINGXING。CISHI,YIGELVYOUTUANZHONGYOUXIELVYOUZHEZIYUANGOUWU,ERLINGYIBUFENLVYOUZHESHICHUYUBEIBIWUNAIDEHUOZHEBEIQIPIANERXIAOFEI,NEIMEZHEIXIEZIYUANXIAOFEIDELVYOUZHEMIANDUILINGYIBUFENRENNENGGOU“BANLITUIHUOBINGYOULVXINGSHEXIANXINGDIANFUTUIHUOHUOKUAN”DEQINGKUANG,CHUXIANDABIANCHEDEQINGXINGYEYOUKENENG。CISHI,DUILVXINGSHEHELVYOUDIZHENGCHANGJINGYINGDESHANGDIANDENGGOUWUCHANGSUOERYANYOUSHIGONGPING。HUANYANZHI,GETIRENDINGJIADALELVYOUZHEGERENDEJUZHENGFUDAN,ZENGJIALEZHENGFUBUMENDEJIANGUANCHENGBEN。ERYILVYOUTUANWEIDANWEIDERENDINGFANGSHI,ZEYUNXULEDABIANCHEQINGXINGDECUNZAI。YINCI,ZAIRENDINGYOUPIAN、QIANGPOXIAOFEISHIHOU,RUHEZAIBAOHUHAOGETIDEXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIDETONGSHIJIANGULVXINGSHEDELIYI,JIUXUYAOMINGQUECAIQUDUIGETIZHUGUANZHUANGTAIRENDINGDEXINGSHI,HAISHIYILVYOUTUANWEIDANWEIDERENDINGFANGSHI。

                      (三) “具体购物场所”的范围界定问题

                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   《LVYOUFA》MEIYOUDUI“JUTIGOUWUCHANGSUO”DEFANWEIJINXINGJIEDING。《TONGZHI》YEMEIYOUDUI“JUTIGOUWUCHANGSUO”DEFANWEIJINXINGJIEDING。ZI《LVYOUFA》CHUTAIHOU,LVXINGSHEYEZUOCHULEXIANGYINGDEBIANTONG。CHUANTONGDEGOUWUCHANGSUODEXINGSHIYEYOUSUOZHUANBIAN。DAZHE“BOLANZHONGXIN”“YISHUZHAN”“WENHUADIANTANG”DENGMINGHAODESUOWEIDELVYOUJINGDIANZEXIERULELVYOUHETONG[6]。ZHEIXIEWENHUAYISHUCHANGSUOSHIJISHANGYOUXIANGDANGYIBUFENZHISHIGOUWUCHANGSUODELINGLEICHENGWEI,SHUYUXINPINGZHUANGJIUJIU,YEJUYOUXIAOFEISHUXING。LVXINGSHEJIECIYINYOULVYOUZHEZHUDONGJINXING“ERCI”XIAOFEI,YINWEIYOULEWENHUAYISHUDEDIANZHUI,ZHEIXIECHANGSUODESHANGPINTONGCHANGJIAGEBUFEI,LVXINGSHEFANERNENGGOUBIANXIANGDEDAOGENGDUOHUIKOU。LVYOUGUOCHENGZHONGDEGOUWUCHANGSUODEGAITOUHUANMIAN,WUYISHIDELVXINGSHEHUOQUHUIKOUDEFANGSHIGENGWEIYINBI,WEIFAJINGYINGXINGWEIYEGENGNANCHACHU。YINCI,ZAIFALVFAGUICENGMIAN,XUYAOJINYIBUMINGQUE“JUTIGOUWUCHANGSUO”DEFANWEI,JINERZENGJIAFATIAONEIRONGDEKECAOZUOXING。

                      三、 我国零负团费法律规制的正当路径

                      (一) 完善零负团费的法律认定体系

                      JIANQUANCHENGSHUDELVYOUFALVTIXISHIGUIFANLVYOUSHICHANG,BAOZHANGLVYOUXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIDEFALVHOUDUN,XIANXINGLVYOUFALVFAGUISHANGYOUXUYAOWANSHANDEDIFANG。WANSHANLINGFUTUANFEIDEFALVRENDINGTIXI,YAOWANSHANYI《LVYOUFA》WEIZHUDAODELVYOUFALVTIXI。

                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   HONGGUANSHANGERYAN,YIJU《LVYOUFA》《LVXINGSHETIAOLI》JIXIANGGUANFALVGUIDING,JIEHEJUTIWENTIHESHIJIQINGKUANG,ZHIDINGXIANGYINGDESHISHIXIZE,JIAKUAIWANSHANPEITAOZHENGCE,MINGQUEZERENZHUTIYIJICHUFABIAOZHUN,ZUOCHULIANGHUADEJUTIGUIDING,YIZENGJIASHIWUZHONGDEKECAOZUOXING,CUJINLVYOUXIANGGUANFALVFAGUIZAIJUTICENGMIANDELUOSHI。

                      1. 对于“不合理低价”的认定问题。

                      SHOUXIANXUYAOMINGQUE,LINGFUTUANFEISHIDIJIESHEYUZUTUANSHEZHIJIANDEYIZHONGSHICHANGJIAOYIXINGWEI[7]。ZHEIYIWEIZHE,LINGFUTUANFEIBENZHISHISHICHANGZHUTILIYIGOUJIE,DUIXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGDEJIAGEQIZHA。ZHIGUANDEJIAGEZHISHIBIAOXIANG,JINCONGDIJIAYIGEBIAOXIANWUFARENDINGWEISHIBUSHIBUHELI。CONGGUOWAILVYOUYEYUNXINGJINGYANKAN,YECUNZAITEDINGDELVYOUXIANGMUYUHANGKONGGONGSILIANHECHUSHOUCHAODIJIAYOUDECHANPIN[8],XIAOFEIZHEBINGBURONGYIZAIDINGLIHETONGZHICHUJINJINTONGGUOJIAGEJINXINGWANQUANDESHIBIE。YINCI,LIFAZHEYINGGAIFAHUIFALVDEZHIYINGONGNENG,KEYICAIYONGLEIXINGHUALIEJUDEFANGSHI,DUI“BUHELIDIJIA”YUYIGUINA,BINGFUYIDOUDITIAOKUAN,DUIXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGYINDAO。

                      2. 关于诱骗和强迫问题。

                      YINWEIYOUPIANHEQIANGPOSHEJIDANGSHIRENYISIBIAOSHIDEZHENSHIXINGWENTI,SUOYILIFAJISHUSHANG,JIBENGAINIANSHANGXUYUXIANXINGMINSHIFALVBAOCHIYIZHI,YINGSHIYONG“QIZHA”ZHEIYIGAINIAN。YIFANGMIAN,KEYIBAOZHENGFALVYONGYUDETONGYIXING;LINGYIFANGMIANZAISHIJIANZHONGHAICUNZAIYIZHONGQINGKUANG,JIYOUKEQINGCHUZHIXIAO“LINGFUTUANFEI”TUANDUIZHILIANGHOU,RENGRANJIANCHIGOUMAI,CISHIZHENGFUJIUBUYINGGANSHE[9]。CONGFALVXIAOGUOJIAODUERYAN,JIUSHIFUYUDANGSHIRENJIAOYICHEXIAOQUAN,SHIYONGQIZHAYICIHOU,BIANYUYU《MINFAZONGZE》ZHONGCHEXIAOQUANJIEGUI。

                      3. 关于购物场所消费问题。

                      GOUWUCHANGSUOZHISHIQIANGPOXIAOFEIDECHANGDI,DUICHANGDIBENSHENDEXIANZHIMEIYOUYIYI,YEBUJUYOUKEXINGXING,SUOYIBUXUYAOJIANGUANLVXINGSHESHIFOUZHIDINGGOUWUCHANGSUO,ERSHIXUYAOGENJUGOUWUPINCI、GOUWUJIAGE、GOUWULEIXINGYUDIJIESHEDEYONGJINZHIJIANDEGUANLIANGUANXIZUOCHUGUIDING。

                      (二) 规范旅游合同,细化内容条款

                      LVYOUHETONGSHIJISHANGSHIFUWUHETONG。YIJU《LVYOUFA》DI57TIAOGUIDING,LVYOUFUWUHETONGSHIZHILVYOUJINGYINGZHEYULVYOUZHEYUEDINGLVYOUHUODONGGUOCHENGZHONGLVXINGSHEHELVYOUZHEZHIJIANQUANLIYIWUGUANXIDEXIEYI。《LVYOUFA》DI5ZHANGDUI“LVYOUFUWUHETONG”ZUOLEZHUANMENGUIDING。LVYOUZHONGLINGFUTUANFEIXIANXIANGDEGUIZHIXUCONGGUIDINGHETONGXINGZHIRUSHOU,YINWEILVYOUHETONGSHILVXINGSHEHELVYOUZHEQUANLIYIWUDEZAITI,SHILVYOUZHESHIHOUWEIQUANDEPINGZHENG[6]。LVYOUHETONGNEIRONGDEGUIFAN、YANJINZHIGUANZHONGYAO。SUOYIYAOGUIFANLVYOUHETONGDEQIANDING,JIAQIANGDUIHETONGDEGUANLI,JIANGUANHETONGDELVXING。XIANXINGFALVGUIZHIDEDUIXIANGBUSHITUANFEIDELINGFU,ERSHIGUIZHILINGFUTUANFEIBEIHOULVXINGSHEBUYIZHAOGUIDINGLVXINGHETONG,ANZHONGSHOUQUYONGJIN、“RENTOUFEI”DENGGEZHONGXINGSHIDEHUIKOU,QINFANXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIDEXINGWEI。ZAIQIANDINGHETONGSHI,LVXINGSHEYINGJINYIBUXIHUAXINGCHENGANPAI,YAOBAOZHENGCHONGFENJINLEHETONGNEIRONGSHUOMINGYIWU,BAOZHANGLVYOUZHEDEZHIQINGQUAN。ZAILVXINGHETONGSHI,LVXINGSHEYINGANZHAOHETONGGUIDINGDEQUANLIYIWUYANGELVXING,BAOZHANGLVYOUXIAOFEIZHEQUANYI,CHENGDANQIXIANGYINGDESHEHUIZEREN。

                      (三) 完善旅游市场自律和他律机制

                      JIAQIANGLVYOUSHICHANGDEZILVHETALVYINGDANGSHIGUIZHILVYOUZHONGLINGFUTUANFEIDEZHENGDANGLUJINGZHIYI。DUIYUTALVERYAN,LVYOUXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENJIQITAYOUZEBUMEN,YINGYIZHAOFALVGUIDING,QIANGHUASHICHANGJIANGUAN,GUIFANLVXINGSHEZHUNRU,JIADAZHIFALIDU,TONGGUOPEITAOCHUFADENGFANGSHIJIADAWEIFACHENGBEN,SHIXING“HEIMINGDAN”GUANLI,DAOBILVYOUFUWUJINGYINGZHEGUIFANJINGYING。XINGZHENGBUMEN、SIFABUMENHAIYINGQIESHILVXINGZISHENZEREN,BAOZHENGLVYOUZHETOUSU、JIUJIQUDAODECHANGTONG,BAOZHANGLVYOUZHEZUOWEIRUOSHIYIFANGDEHEFAQUANYI。ZAIZILVFANGMIAN,XINGYEXIEHUICHONGFENFAHUIQIZIWOGUANLI、ZIWOJIANDU、ZIWOJIAOYUZUOYONG,PEIHEXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENJINXINGZIWOYUESHU,WEIHULVYOUSHICHANGDEZHIXU,BAOZHANGLVYOUSHICHANGDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。CIWAI,LVYOUXIAOFEIZHEYINGPEIYANGLIANGHAODEXIAOFEIXINLI,JUYOUQINGXINGLIXINGDEXIAOFEIYISHI,YEYINGZENGQIANGWEIQUANYISHI,ZAIJIESHOULVYOUFUWUDEGUOCHENGZHONGYOUZHENGJUYISHI,CONGERBIANYUZAIRIHOUWEIQUANZHANJUZHUDONGDIWEI。

                      结 语

                      WOGUOFALVDUIZHEIYIWENTIDEHUIYING,HONGGUANSHANGLAIKAN,JINGLILELIFAXIAOLIDENGJICONGDIDAOGAO、LIFALEIXINGCONGSANJIANYUGEGEFALVDAOYOULEZHUANMENDE《LVYOUFA》DESIKAOHESHENGHUAGUOCHENG;WEIGUANSHANGKAN,DUIYULINGFUTUANFEIGOUCHENGYAOJIANHUADERENSHIJIASHEN,NINGJIEWEI《LVYOUFA》DI35TIAODEGUIDING;DUIYUJUTIYAOJIANDERENSHI,YEGENGWEIJINGZHUN。LIRU:《LVXINGSHETIAOLI》ZHONGDUIYUFEIYONGDERENSHISHI“BUDIYUJIEDAIHUOFUWUCHENGBENDEFEIYONG”,ER《LVYOUFA》ZHONGZESHI“BUHELIDEDIJIA”,ZHEIBAOZHENGLEDANGSHIRENSHUANGFANGZAIQUEDINGLVYOUJIAGEFANGMIANDEZIZHUXING,BINGQIESHILVYOUZHONGDELINGFUTUANFEIYUZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDEDIJIAYOUDEYIQUFEN,MINGQUELELINGFUTUANFEISHIYILINGFUTUANFEILAIZHAOLAIYOUKE,ZAISHIJILVYOUFUWUGUOCHENGZHONGTONGGUOGEZHONGZIFEIXIANGMUJIYOUPIAN、QIANGPOYOUKEDAOZHIDINGGOUWUCHANGSUOGOUWUXIAOFEIDENGXINGSHISHOUQUHUIKOU,MIBUKUISUN,SHIXIANYINGLI。ZHEISHIJISHANGSHIDUILVYOUXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEQINSUN,BULIYULVYOUSHICHANGDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。

                      DANCONG《LVYOUFA》SHIYONGZHONGYUDAODEKUNJINGKEYIKANCHU,WOGUOMUQIANFALVJIULINGFUTUANFEIDEGUIDING,HAICUNZAIBUZU。YIFANGMIAN,ZUOWEIJIBENFADEMINFAWUFAZAILVXINGFEIYONGDINGJIAFANGMIANJIYULINGFUTUANFEIYIGENGWEIJUTIDEGUIZHI。ZUOWEITEBIEFADE《XIAOFA》ZHONGSHIYONGDEJINGYINGZHEFANWEIDEJUXIANKEGUANSHANGZHUZHANGLELINGFUTUANFEITUANZHONGLVXINGSHETUIXIEZERENDEKENENG,ER《LVYOUFA》ZAISHIYONGZHONGYOUBIXUJIEYOUSHANGSHUFALVGOUJIANDEJIBENGAINIANLAIZHANKAIJIESHIHEYUNYONG,WUFARAOKAI,YOUCIXINGCHENGLELINGFUTUANFEIFALVGUIZHIDEZHIDUKUNJING。LINGYIFANGMIAN,《LVYOUFA》DI35TIAODUILINGFUTUANFEIZUOCHUDEJINZHIXINGGUIDING,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYIZHILELINGFUTUANFEILUANXIANG,DANBINGWEIDADAOGENCHUDEXIAOGUO,ZHUYAOSHIYINWEIDUI“BUHELIDIJIA”DERENDINGHEJIANGUANWENTI、YOUPIANHEQIANGPODERENDINGWENTIYIJI“JUTILVYOUCHANGSUO”DEFANWEIRENDINGWENTIDENGGUIDINGBUGOUJUTIQINGCHU,DAOZHICAOZUOLIQIANJIA。CHUQUEYOUYUDIYUCHAYI、SHOURUSHUIPINGDENGBIANLIANGDEYINGXIANGWAI,SHANGSHUYAOJIANJUYOUZAIFALVSHANGXIHUADEKONGJIAN,KEYIYOUSUOZUOWEI。

                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,GUIZHILVYOUZHONGDELINGFUTUANFEIXIANXIANG,YINGGAIFAHUIFALVDEDAOXIANGGONGNENG,CONGDI35TIAODEGOUCHENGYAOJIANJIAODUSHENRUWAJUE,MINGQUELINGFUTUANFEIHEJUYOUHUIKUIXINGZHIDEDITUANFEIDEJIEXIAN,JIJIAGEBENSHENBINGFEIGOUCHENGYAOJIANDEZHONGYAOKAOLIANGYAOSU,ERSHIYAOKANJIAGEZAILVYOUHETONGLVXINGGUOCHENGZHONGSHIFOUYOUYUYUANDIYUSHICHANGJIAERYOUPIANLVXINGZHEDEMUDE。YOUQISHIZAIXIANSHANGYOUXINGSHENGDESHIDAI,YOUPIANDESHOUDUANKENENGYIFANLIDENGZHANGXIANXINGTAICUNZAI,DIYUSHICHANGJIADEPANDUANYEXUYAOJIEHEZHANGXIANYINSU。ZONGZHI,XUYAOZAI《LVYOUFA》ZHONGTIXIANYOUKEDELVYOUXIAOFEIZHEDIWEI,WEITIGONGGENGWEIMINGQUE、SHUNCHANGDEWEIQUANLUJING。ZUIZHONGGOUJIANMINSHIJIBENFA、《XIAOFA》《LVYOUFA》SANFATIXIWANZHENG、XIEDIAOYIZHIDEFALVTIXI。TONGSHI,ZAIFALVSHIYONGZHONG,KEYIJIZHONGYANJIUFALVTIAOWENYULVYOUHUODONGHUDONGZHONGGENGYOUGUILVXINGDEANLI,JIASHENDUIYAOJIANLIJIE,CONGERGENGZHUNQUEDIBAWOTIAOWENDESHIYONG,SHIDEZAILINGFUTUANFEILIYISHOUSUNDELVYOUXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIDEDAOZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDEBAOZHENG。

                      参考文献

                      [1] 朱斌,王莹.我国旅游业"零负团费"现象初探[J].价格理论与实践,2013,(3):43-44.
                      [2] 彭惠军,黄翅勤,胡最.游客网络团购旅游线路意愿及阻碍因素研究[J].商业研究,2013,(10):104-109.
                      [3] 丁志帆,王朝明.“零负团费”治理困境的破解之道--基于巴泽尔产权理论的分析[J].郑州大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2013,(2):69-74.
                      [4] 印伟."零负团费"经营行为的违法性认定[J].人民论坛,2019,(7):98-99.
                      [5] 贾跃千.零团费演化机制分析[J].旅游科学,2006,(1):56-62.
                      [6] 王惠静.旅游"零负团费"问题法律规制再检审--兼论《旅游法》适用中的新问题[J].法学杂志,2016,(7):79-86.
                      [7] 丁志帆王朝明."零负团费"治理困境的破解之道——基于巴泽尔产权理论的分析[J].郑州大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2013,(2):69-74.
                      [8] 渠涛.对《旅游法》中有关民事法律关系问题的解读和思考,[J].旅游学刊,2013,(9):14-16.
                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   [9] 李文亮.从"零团费"和"霸王条款"说起[J].旅游学刊,2004,(6):6-7.

                      注释

                      1 参见http://finance.sina.com.cn/consume/puguangtai/20100909/.shtml。
                      2 参见宋汉林的《旅游零负团费:法律视角的规制与反思》,《价格理论与实践》,2010,(12):42-43;傅林放的《论“零负团费”的法律治理》,《旅游学刊》,2010,(9):71-76。
                      3 参见周人果的《〈旅行社条例〉拟修订剑指“零负团费”》[N].南方日报,2016-12-01(B04)。
                      4(1)参见http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-12/17/content_2549423.htm。
                      5(2)参见《消法》第4条、第9条、第10条、第16条。
                      6(3)参见《消法》第3条 。
                    牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   7(4)[北大法宝引证码]:CLI.C.69865139。

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