牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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              2. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 教育教学论文 > 德国中小学教师培育体制分析

                德国中小学教师培育体制分析

                时间:2020-02-13 11:07作者:王薇
                本文导读:这是一篇关于德国中小学教师培育体制分析的文章,德国中小学教师具有较高的社会地位和待遇,这与德国严格、独特的教师培养制度密不可分。德国的中小学教师培养制度由“标准制度—资格制度—培训制度”构成,形成了完整的教师培养体系,旨在培养高质量、高素质的中小

                  摘    要: 德国中小学教师培养形成了由“标准制度—资格制度—培训制度”构成的制度体系,在国家层面出台了全面系统的教师教育标准,采用严格的阶梯式教师资格审核制度,并配以多样化的职后培训辅助措施,从而保障德国中小学教师质量,这为我国中小学教师培养制度的完善提供了可供借鉴的思路。

                  关键词:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} 教师培养; 教师教育制度; 德国教师教育; 中小学教师标准;

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                  一、德国中小学教师的标准制度

                  WEILETIGAOZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIZHILIANG,DEGUOYIBIAOZHUNWEIYINLING,FENBIEYU2004NIANHE2008NIANBANBULE《JIAOSHIJIAOYUBIAOZHUN:JIAOYUKEXUE》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《BIAOZHUN》)HE《GEZHOUTONGYONGDEDUIJIAOSHIJIAOYUDEXUEKEZHUANYEHEXUEKEJIAOXUEFADENEIRONGYAOQIU》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《YAOQIU》),DUISHIFANSHENGBIYESHIYINGJUBEIDEZHISHI、TAIDUHENENGLIZUOCHULEQUANGUOTONGYIDEBIAOZHUNHEYAOQIU,CHENGWEIGAOXIAOSHIFANLEIZHUANYEDEPINGJIAJICHU。2013NIAN,DEGUOJINYIBUCHUTAILE《SHIFANSHENGNENGLIQINGXIANGCEYANBIAOZHUN》,YONGLAIJIANYANXIANGCHENGWEIJIAOSHIDEXUESHENGSHIFOUZHENDESHIHECHENGWEIJIAOSHI。

                  1. 全面涵盖教育科学、学科专业和学科教学法的要求

                  DEGUODE《BIAOZHUN》HE《YAOQIU》,FENBIEZAIJIAOYUKEXUE、XUEKEZHUANYE、XUEKEJIAOXUEFASANGELINGYUJICHULEGUOJIACENGMIANDEGUIDING。《BIAOZHUN》SHIDEGUOCHUTAIDESHOUBUQUANLIANBANGJIAOSHIJIAOYUBIAOZHUN,ZHONGDIANSHICONGJIAOSHIZHIYEDEJIAODU,MINGQUEJIEDINGCHUJIAOSHIJIAOSEDEDINGWEIJINEIHAN,TICHUZHIYEJIAOSHIYINGZHANGWODEJIBENNENGLI(YEKECHENGWEI“TONGYONGNENGLI”)。ZHEIXIENENGLICEZHONGHONGGUANHEZONGHENENGLI,BIRUYUXUESHENGDEGOUTONG、DUIXUESHENGDEJIAZHIYINDAO、JIAOSHIDEZIWOFANSIDENG,BUSHEJIJUTIXUEKEDEZHUANYEZHISHI,YEBUSHEJIJUTIXUEKEZHONGDEJIAOXUENEIRONGHEJIAOXUEFANGFA。《YAOQIU》ZECONGXUEKEZHUANYEJIAODU,GUIDINGLEZAIJUTIXUEKESHANGJIAOSHISUOYINGZHANGWODEXUEKEZHUANYEZHISHI、XUEKERENZHIFANGFA、XUEKEJIAOXUEFAZHISHIHEXUEKEJIAOXUENENGLI。BIRUSHUXUEXUEKEJIAOSHI,YINGGAIZHANGWOJICHUSHUXUEZHISHI、YINGYONGSHUXUEZHISHI、SHUXUEFANGFALUN、SHUXUEXUEKEJIAOXUEFA、SHUXUEXUEKEJIAOXUESHEJI、ZUZHIHEPINGJIANENGLIDENG。

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SHANGSHULIANGGEGUOJIAZHENGCEWANZHENGDIHANGAILEZHONGXIAOXUEZHIYEJIAOSHISUOYINGJUBEIDETONGYONGNENGLIHEXUEKEZHUANYENENGLI。DUIYUERZHEDOUSHEJIDENENGLI,LIANGGEWENJIANZAIJIEDINGSHIGEYOUCEZHONG。《BIAOZHUN》GENGCEZHONGDUIZHIYEJIAOSHIDETONGSHIXINGYAOQIU,《YAOQIU》ZEZAIXUEKEJIAOXUESHANGJICHULEGENGWEIJUTIERYANGEDEYAOQIU。RUJIAOXUENENGLI,《BIAOZHUN》DEYAOQIUSHI:SHUXIPUTONGJIAOXUEFAHEXUEKEJIAOXUEFA,ZHANGWOMEITIJIAOYUXUEYUXINLIXUEDEZHISHI,SHUXIPINGJIAJIAOXUEXIAOGUOYUKECHENGZHILIANGDECHENGXU,NENGZAIJIAOXUEFAFANGMIANQIADANGDIRONGHEXIANDAIHUADEXINXIJISHUYUJIAOLIUJISHU。TONGYANGSHIJIAOXUENENGLI,《YAOQIU》GUIDING:YONGYOUXUEKEJIAOXUEFADEZHASHIHEYOUTIAOLIDEZHISHI,NENGGUIHUAHESHEJIXUEKEJIAOXUE,CHULIFUZADEKECHENGQINGJING,FENXIXUEKEZHISHINEIRONGJIQIJIAOYUXIAOGUO,ZHANGWOBENXUEKEDEXUEYEPINGJIAFANGFA。

                  2. 建立了教师能力的基本框架

                  《标准》提出了职业教师应具备的能力结构,由四大能力领域和八个具体能力构成教师能力的整体框架。[1]第一,教学能力。具体包括设计及实施课程的能力和支持学生学习的能力。第二,教育能力。具体包括了解学生社会文化生活条件的能力和价值观,引导及帮助学生形成自主行动的能力。第三,评价能力。具体包括诊断、鼓励学生并提供咨询的能力和评价学生表现的能力。第四,创新能力。具体包括职业理解和职业认同的能力以及终身学习的能力。该框架清晰、简明地呈现了德国国家层面对中小学教师职业能力的认识,突出强调了教学能力、教育能力、评价能力和创新能力作为中小学教师基础能力的重要地位,为指导教师职前教育和职后专业发展提供了标准框架。除了教学能力和教育能力这两个具有共识性的能力外,评价能力和创新能力成为德国政府最为看重的教师职业能力。
                 

                德国中小学教师培育体制分析
                 

                  3. 从大学学习、中小学实习两个阶段提出行为标准

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                  二、德国中小学教师的资格制度

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DEGUOZI1810NIANQIKAISHISHIXINGZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIZIGEZHIDU,SHEJIXIAOXUEHECHUJIZHONGXUE、SHIKEZHONGXUE、ZONGHEZHONGXUE、WENLIZHONGXUE4LEIJIAOSHIZIGEZHENGSHU。DEGUOZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIZIGERENDINGZHIDUFEICHANGYANGE,YAOHUODEZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIZIGEBIXUJINGGUOYIXIALIUCHENGZHONGDESIGEJIBENHUANJIE:DAXUEJIAOYUJIEDUAN—DIYICIGUOJIAKAOSHI—SHIXIJIEDUAN—DIERCIGUOJIAKAOSHI。[2]

                  1. 大学教育阶段:专业学习+短期实习

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DEGUODEJIAOSHIJIAOYUZHUYAOYOUGEZHONGZONGHEXINGDAXUEWANCHENG,XUESHENGZAIWENLIZHONGXUEBIYEHOUSHENQINGJIUDUZONGHEDAXUEDESHIFANZHUANYE,BUFENZHOUYOUDULISHEZHIDEGAODENGSHIFANYUANXIAO。XUESHENGZAICIJIEDUANDEZHUYAORENWUSHIZHUANYEXUEXIHEDUANQISHIXI。ZHUANYEYIBANYOUZHIYEJIAOYUZHUZHUANYEHEPUTONGJIAOYUFUZHUANYE,KECHENGYIBANBAOKUOGONGGONGJICHUKECHENG、ZHUANYEXUEKEKECHENGHEJIAOYUZHUANYEKECHENG;DUANQISHIXITONGCHANGZAIDISANGEXUEQIJINXING,ZHUYAORENWUSHITINGKEPINGKE。DAXUEJIAOYUJIEDUANDEXUEXISHIJIANHEYINGXIUXUEFENYUWEILAIRENJIAODEXUEDUANYOUGUAN:RUGUOWEILAIRENJIAOXIAOXUEHUOCHUZHONG,CIJIEDUANDEXUEXISHIJIANWEI3~4NIAN,WANCHENG210XUEFEN;RUGUOWEILAIRENJIAOGAOZHONG,CIJIEDUANDEXUEXIWEI4~6NIAN,WANCHENG270XUEFEN。ZHENDUIZHEIYIJIEDUAN,DEGUOBADENG-FUTENGBAOZHOU(JIANCHENG“BAFUZHOU”)YU2015NIAN10YUEQIDONGLESHIZIPEIYANGGAIGE,JIANGGAIZHOUDESHIFANLEIZHUANYEQUANBUDIAOZHENGWEIBENKEHESHUOSHIFENKAIDEXUEZHI,TIDAIYIWANGDEDiplom(BENSHUOLIANDU)XUEZHI。BULUNWEILAIZUONAGEXUEDUANDEJIAOSHI,DOUYAOCANJIABENKEXUEXIHOUDEGUOJIAKAOSHI,KAOSHITONGGUOHOUCAINENGSHENQINGSHUOSHIXUEWEI,SHUOSHIXUEWANHOUCANJIAKAOSHIBINGZHUANXIESHUOSHILUNWENCAINENGBIYE。

                  2. 第一次国家考试:研究论文+笔试+口试等

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DAXUEJIAOYUJIEDUANXUEXIJIESHUHOU,WEILAIZHUNBEICONGSHIJIAOSHIZHIYEDEXUESHENG,XUYAOCANJIADIYICIGUOJIAJIAOSHIZIGEKAOSHI。DIYICIGUOJIAJIAOSHIZIGEKAOSHIYOUGEZHOUJIAOYUZHUGUANBUMENZUZHIDEKAOSHIWEIYUANHUIFUZE,WEIYUANHUIZEYOUKAOSHIJIGOU、DAXUEJIAOSHOU、XUEKEZHUANJIA、ZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIDAIBIAOZUCHENG。KAOSHINEIRONGSHIJIAOYUKEXUEHUOXUEKEJIAOXUEFA;KAOSHIFANGSHIWEI:SHOUXIANYAOWANCHENGYIPIANYUJIAOYUXUEHUOXUEKEJIAOXUEYOUGUANDEYANJIULUNWEN,RANHOUJINXINGZHUANYEKEDEBISHI,ZHIHOUZAIJINXINGXUEKEZHUANYE、XUEKEJIAOXUEFAXIANGGUANZHISHIDEKOUSHI,ZUIHOUKAOSHIWEIYUANHUIGENJUGEXIANGKAOSHICHENGJIJINXINGZONGHEPINGFEN。DIYICIGUOJIAZIGEKAOSHITONGGUOHOU,KAOSHENGHUODEJINRUJIAOYUXUEYUAN、SHIXIXUEXIAOHUOHEZUOZHONGXIAOXUEXIAOJINXINGWEIQI1~2NIANJIAOYUSHIXIDEZIGE。DIYICIGUOJIAJIAOSHIZIGEKAOSHIMEINIANYOULIANGCIJIHUI,KAOSHIBUHEGEDEKAOSHENG,LIANGNIANZHINEIHAIKEYIZAIKAO。

                  3. 实习阶段:教育实践+集中培训

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DIYICIGUOJIAKAOSHITONGGUOHOUJINRUSHIXIJIEDUAN。KAOSHENGBENRENXIANGZHOUJIAOYUGUANLIBUMENSHENQING,DAOJIAOYUXUEYUAN、SHIXIXUEXIAOHUOZHONGXIAOXUESHIXI,SHIZHANGYINIANBANDAOLIANGNIAN。SHIXIDEZHUYAONEIRONGSHIKAIZHANJIAOYUJIAOXUESHIJIAN,JICHENGDANRICHANGJIAOXUEHEBANJIGUANLIGONGZUO。CIWAI,SHIXISHENGHAIYAOCANJIAXUEXIAODEJIZHONGPEIXUN,ZHUYAOZHENDUIJIAOYUGONGZUOZHONGDESHIJIANWENTIJINXINGTAOLUNHEXUEXI。BIRU,HAIDEBAODAXUEWEISHIXISHENGTIGONGMUBIAOYANTAOHEQINGJINGMONIDEPEIXUN。“MUBIAOYANTAO”SHIYIGECUSHISHIXISHENGSHIXIANZIWORENZHIHEZIWOJIANKONGDEGUOCHENG,YIHUIDA“WOWEISHENMEYAOXUANZEJIAOSHIZHEIGEZHIYE”“WODEQIANGXIANGHERUOXIANGYOUNAXIE”“WODEZHIYEFAZHANJIHUASHISHENME”“WODESHIXIMUBIAOSHISHENME”“SHIXIGUOHOUDUIZIJIXIANQIANZHIDINGDEMUBIAOYOUNAXIEFANSI”DENGWENTI;“QINGJINGMONI”ZHUYAOSHITONGGUOMONIJIAOYUDEZHENSHIQINGJING,BANGZHUSHIXISHENGLEJIEHEXUEXIRUHECHULIJIAOYUHUODONGZHONGZHENSHIFASHENGDESHIJIAN,BAXUEDAODELILUNZHISHIZHIJIEYUNYONGDAOJIAOYUSHIJIANDANGZHONG。LIRU,ZAIHAIZIMENFEICHANGCHAONAODEQINGJINGXIA,NIZENYANGCAINENGRANGTAMENANJINGXIALAIBINGJIANGZHUYILIXIYINDAOKETANGZHONG;ZAIRU,DANGXUESHENGZHIJIANFASHENGMAODUNSHI,NIGAIRUHECHULIDENG。

                  4. 第二次国家考试:表现性评价

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SHIXIJIESHUHOU,XUESHENGYAOCANJIADIERCIGUOJIAKAOSHI。DIERCIGUOJIAJIAOSHIZIGEKAOSHIRENGRANYOUZHOUJIAOYUGUANLIBUMENZUCHENGKAOSHIWEIYUANHUI。YUDIYICIGUOJIAKAOSHIBUTONGDESHI,ZUCHENGDIERCIKAOSHIWEIYUANHUIDECHENGYUANZENGJIALEKAOSHENGSHIXISHISUOZAIJIAOYUXUEYUANHUOZHONGXIAOXUEDEXIAOZHANGHEJIAOSHI。DIERCIGUOJIAKAOSHICEZHONGYUCAIYONGBIAOXIANXINGPINGJIAFANGSHI,KAOCHAKAOSHENGJINGGUOSHIXIHOUJIAOYUJIAOXUESHIJIANNENGLIDEFAZHANSHUIPING。DIERCIGUOJIAKAOSHINEIRONGBAOKUOJIAOAN、JIAOXUESHIJIANKE、KEHOUFANSIDENG,KAOSHIFANGSHISHEJIYANJIULUNWEN、BISHI、KOUSHIDENG。DIERCIGUOJIAKAOSHITONGGUOHOU,KAOSHENGNENGGOUQUDEGUOJIAJIAOSHIZIGEZHENGSHU。RUGUOWEITONGGUOKAOSHI,XUYAOYANZHANGSHIXIQI,BANNIANHOUHUIYOUYICIBUKAOJIHUI。

                  三、德国中小学教师的培训制度

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                  1. 专业进修

                  DEGUODEDAXUESHENGZAIJINGGUODAXUEXUEXI、XUEXIAOSHIXI、SHIYONGHEGEZHIHOUCHENGWEIZHENGSHIJIAOSHI。CHENGWEIZHENGSHIJIAOSHIYIHOU,ZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIHAIXUYAOCANJIAGUDINGSHIJIANDEZHUANYEJINXIU,YIJINYIBUGENGXINJIAOYUJIAOXUEDEZHUANYEZHISHI。DEGUOGEZHOUJUNYOUZUZHISHISHIJIAOSHIZHUANYEJINXIUDEJIGOU。YIBAFUZHOUWEILI,ZHOUNEIYOU3GEZHOUYIJIDEJIAOSHIJINXIUXUEYUAN,FENBIEZHENDUIZHIYEXUEXIAOJIAOSHI、PUTONGXUEXIAOJIAOSHIHEXUEXIAOGUANLICENGDEZHUANYEJINXIU。[3]ZHEIXIEJINXIUXUEYUANWEIJIAOSHIJINXIUTIGONGLELIANGHAODEPEITAOSHESHI,BIRUBAFUZHOUJIAOSHIJINXIUXUEYUAN,QIDILIWEIZHIBIANLI,XUEYUANSHEYOUSUSHEHECHUANGWEI,NENGGOUWEIJIAOSHITIGONGMEIZHOU2.5TIANDEMIANFEIZHUANYEJINXIU,ZHEIYECHENGWEIJIAOSHIYUANYICANYUJINXIUDEZHONGYAOYINSU。

                  2. 在职培训

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                  四、德国中小学教师培养制度的特点

                  1. 严格的教师资格认定制度

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DEGUODEJIAOSHIZIGERENDINGZHIDUFEICHANGYANGE,ZAIDAXUEHESHIXIJIEDUANHOU,BIXUYAOFENBIEJINGGUOLIANGCIGUOJIAKAOSHI。LIANGCIGUOJIAKAOSHIDENEIRONGYUXINGSHIFENGFUDUOYANG,BUDANYOUSHUMIANKAOSHI、KOUSHI,HAIYOUSHIJICESHIHEDANGCHANGZHUANXIELUNWEN;BUJINYOUJIAOYUXUEZHISHIDECESHI,HAIYOUQITAJIAOXUEXIANGGUANZHISHIDEKAOSHI。LIANGCIGUOJIAKAOSHIDOUYOUYIDINGBILIBUNENGTONGGUO,BIRUZAIDIERCIGUOJIAKAOSHIZHONG,MEINIANDOUYOU5%~10%DESHIXIJIAOSHIBUNENGTONGGUO,ERBUNENGYICITONGGUODEXUESHENGZHIYOUYICIBUKAOJIHUI,HAIYAOYANZHANGSHIXIQI。YANGEDEZIGEZHIDUYUDEGUOJIAOSHIDIWEIJIAOGAO、DAIYUYOUHOUYOUHENDADEGUANXI。DEGUOJIAOSHIZUOWEIGUOJIAGONGWUYUAN,BUJINXIANGYOUJIAOGAODEZHENGZHIDIWEI,LINGQUGUOJIAGONGZI,ERQIESHOUXIANFABAOHU,BUSHOUJIEPINDEWEIXIE,XIANGYOUZHIYEANQUANBAOZHANG。ZHEIYIQIEDUIXISHOUYOUXIURENCAICONGJIAO、TIGAOJIAOYUJIAOXUEZHILIANGQIDAOLEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                  表1 海德堡教师关键能力模型
                表1 海德堡教师关键能力模型

                  2. 连贯性、系统化的教师教育标准

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DEGUOCONGGUOJIACENGMIANCHUTAILEJIAOSHIJIAOYUBIAOZHUN,FUGAIJIAOYUKEXUE、XUEKEZHUANYE、XUEKEJIAOXUEFASANGELINGYU,BUJINGUIDINGLEJIAOSHIZAIDAXUEQIJIANLILUNXUEXIJIEDUANDEZHUANYEBIAOZHUN,HAIMINGQUETICHULEZAISHIXIJIEDUANDEJIAOSHIZHUANYEBIAOZHUN,XINGCHENGLELIANGUANXINGYITIHUADEJIAOSHIZHUANYEZHENGTIBIAOZHUN,JUYOUXITONGXINGHEQUANMIANXINGDETEDIAN。ZHIDEYITIDESHI,SUIRANDEGUODEJIAOSHIJIAOYUBIAOZHUNMINGQUEZHICHULEJIANGLAIYAOCONGSHIJIAOSHIZHIYEDEDAXUESHENGBIYESHIZAIZHISHI、NENGLIHETAIDUFANGMIANYINGGAIDADAODEMUBIAO,YETICHULEZAIJIAOYUKEXUE、XUEKEZHUANYEJIJUTIJIAOXUEFADENGFANGMIANDENEIRONGBIAOZHUN,DANBINGMEIYOUGUIDINGSHIXIANMUBIAODEKECHENGNEIRONGHEJUTITUJING。YINCI,DEGUOGEZHOUHEGEGAOXIAODOUKEYIZAIGUOJIACENGMIANDEJIAOSHIJIAOYUBIAOZHUNDEJICHUSHANG,CHUANGZAOXINGDIKAISHEJIAOSHIJIAOYUKECHENG,XUANQUDUOYANGHUADEJIAOSHIJIAOYUFANGFA,WEIJIAOSHIJIAOYUDESHISHITIGONGKAIFANGXINGDEKONGJIAN。

                  3. 注重教师学科专业知识以外的能力培养

                牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   CONGSHANGSHUJIESHAOKEYIKANCHU,DEGUODEJIAOSHIPEIYANGTEBIEZHUZHONGSHIJIANNENGLI。JIANGXUESHENGZAIDAXUELILUNXUEXIQIJIANDEDUANQISHIXIHEDISANJIEDUANDESHIXIJIAQILAI,DEGUOXUESHENGSHIXIDESHIJIANYAOBIWOGUOBENKESHIFANJIAOYUJIGEYUEDESHIXISHIJIANZHANGHENDUO。ZAISHIXIGUOCHENGZHONG,SHIXISHENGBUJINYAOJIAOKE,GENGZHUYAODESHIYAOMIANDUIHECHULIJIAOYUJIAOXUEZHONGZHENSHIFASHENGDEWENTI,RUCIYILAI,RUZHIHOUDEXINJIAOSHINENGHENKUAIDISHIYINGSHIJIGONGZUODETIAOZHAN。CIWAI,DEGUODEJIAOSHIPEIYANGLINIAN,BUJINJINGUANZHUJIAOSHIBENXUEKEDEZHUANYEZHISHI,ERQIEFEICHANGZHUZHONGJIAOSHIGEFANGMIANDEZONGHENENGLI。BIRUHAIDEBAODAXUETICHUDEJIAOSHI“GUANJIANNENGLIMOXING”,TONGGUOJIZHONGYANTAO、ZHIDINGJIHUA、QINGJINGMONIDENGFANGSHI,PEIYANGJIAOSHIDEZHUANYENENGLI。ZHEIZHONGQIANGDIAOFENLEIYAOQIU、QIANGHUASHIJIANTIYANDEZHIQIANPEIYANGFANGSHI,WEIJIEJUEMUQIANWOGUOZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIJIAOYULILUNYUJIAOYUSHIJIANTUOJIE、JIAOSHIZHISHIMIANXIAZHAIDENGWENTITIGONGLEJIJUQIFADESILU。

                  参考文献

                  [1] 徐斌艳.德国教师教育标准的理论依据及内涵分析[J].外国中小学教育,2007(2).
                  [2] 樊红.德国中小学教师培养与发展模式及启示[J].当代教育科学,2009(11).
                  [3] 巴符州教育部.巴登-符腾堡州2016年教育计划[EB/OL].www.bildungsplaene-bw.de,2016.

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