牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 程颐的道德哲学及其当代价值

                  程颐的道德哲学及其当代价值

                  时间:2020-01-31 15:50作者:黄勇 陶涛
                  本文导读:这是一篇关于程颐的道德哲学及其当代价值的文章,在这篇文章中,我将重点讨论程颐的道德哲学及其当代意义,关注的问题则包括:为何要做一个道德的人或做道德的事(以下简化为“为何要有道德”)、能否有道德、如何有道德、道德的人与道德社会之间的关系,以及道德形

                    摘要:本文重点讨论程颐的道德哲学及其当代意义,关注的问题则包括:为何要有道德、能否有道德、如何有道德、道德的人与道德社会之间的关系,以及道德形而上学。相应地,本文基于程颐的乐、德性之知、仁、礼、理等核心概念分别对以上问题给出了回答。在程颐看来,成为道德的人是一种快乐,每个人应该并且能够成为道德的人,并且对于不同种类的人应有不同程度的爱。程颐道德哲学最独特的地方在发展出了一种对古典儒学中的道德价值进行本体论-神学论阐释的道德形而上学。

                    关键词:程颐; 道德; 乐; 知; 仁; 礼; 理;

                    作者简介:黄勇,哈佛大学神学博士、复旦大学哲学博士,香港中文大学教授、博士生导师(中国香港999077);  陶涛,系清华大学哲学博士,南京师范大学哲学系副教授(南京210023)。;

                  Contemporary Significance of Cheng Yi's Moral Philosophy

                    Abstract:This paper focuses on Cheng Yi's moral philosophy and its contemporary significance,paying attention to such issues as: the reason why one should be moral; the possibility to be moral; how to be moral; the relation between moral persons and moral society; and moral metaphysics. Correspondingly,these questions are answered through analyzing his basic concepts and ideas,especially joy,knowledge of/as virtue,humane,propriety,and principle. In Cheng Yi's perspective,it is a joy to be moral,and everyone should and can be moral. Moreover,there should be different degrees of love for different kinds of people. What is most unique about it is its development of a moral metaphysics as an onto-theological articulation of moral values advocated by classical Confucians.

                    Keyword:Cheng Yi; morality; joy; knowledge; humane; propriety; principle;

                    CHENGYI,YUQIXIONGCHENGHAOSHI“BEISONGWUZI”(QITASANRENSHIZHOUDUNYI、ZHANGZAI、SHAOYONG)DEHEXINRENWU。ZHONGGUOXUESHUJIETONGCHANGJIANGSONGMINGSHIDAIDERUXUECHENGWEILIXUE,ERTAMENZEKEYIQIADANGDIBEISHIWEILIXUEDECHUANGSHIREN,YINWEIZHIYOUZAITAMENDEZHEXUEZHIZHONG,“LI”SHOUCIZHANJULEZHONGXINDIWEI。YINCI,YUGUDIANRUXUEXIANGBI,LIXUEDEXINGERSHANGXUEDEDAOLEGENGJIACHONGFENDIFAZHAN。RANER,YUGUDIANRUXUEYIYANG,DAODESHENGHUORENGSHILIXUEDEHEXINGUANZHUDIAN。TAMENSUOFAZHANCHULAIDEXINGERSHANGXUESHIWEILEJIGUDIANRUXUETIGONGYIZHONGBENTILUNDECHANSHU,YINCITABENZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGDAODEXINGERSHANGXUE。ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG,WOJIANGZHONGDIANTAOLUNCHENGYIDEDAODEZHEXUEJIQIDANGDAIYIYI,GUANZHUDEWENTIZEBAOKUO:WEIHEYAOZUOYIGEDAODEDERENHUOZUODAODEDESHI(YIXIAJIANHUAWEI“WEIHEYAOYOUDAODE”)、NENGFOUYOUDAODE、RUHEYOUDAODE、DAODEDERENYUDAODESHEHUIZHIJIANDEGUANXI,YIJIDAODEXINGERSHANGXUE。

                    一、为何要有道德

                    “WEIHEYAOYOUDAODE”ZHANGQIKUNRAOZHEDAODEZHEXUEJIA。ZHEISHIGELINGRENFEIJIEDEWENTI,YINWEITAZHUIWENDEBUSHI“WOMENWEIHEYAOYOUDAODE?”ZHEIGEXIANGDUIRONGYIHUIDADEWENTI。LIRU,WOMENKEYISHIYONGTUOMASI·HUOBUSIDELUNDIAN:RUGUOWOMENBICIDOUBUDAODE,WOMENJIANGSHENGHUOZAIZIRANZHUANGTAIZHIZHONG,ZHEISHIMEIGERENYUSUOYOUQITARENDEZHANZHENGDEZHUANGTAI。GENGZHUNQUEDISHUO,ZHEIGEWENTISHIZAIZHUIWEN“WOWEIHEYAOYOUDAODE,YOUQISHIDANGWODUITARENZHIBUDAODEBINGBUHUIDAOZHITARENDUIWOTONGDENGDEBUDAODE。”XIANRAN,ZHEISHIYIGESHOUXIANGUANXINTA/TAZIJILIYIDELIJIZHUYIZHESUOTICHUDEWENTI。JINGUANKANQILAIHENHUANGMIU1,DANZHEIGEWENTIZAIXIFANGZHEXUESHISHANGYIZAIZHONGFUDI、XIANGDANGYANSUDIBEITICHU。GELAOKONGHETADEXIONGDIADEMANTUOSIZAIBOLATUDE《LIXIANGGUO》ZHIZHONGFEICHANGXIANMINGDITAOLUNGUOZHEIGEWENTI(ZHISHIYI“WOWEIHEYAOZHENGYI”DEXINGSHICHUXIAN)(Plato,1963b,pp.361a-365b)。CIHOU,TUOMASI·HUOBUSIDE“BUFUZERENDESHAGUA”(Hobbes,1996,pp.96-97;p.197)YUDAWEI·XIUMODE“JIAOHUADEEGUN”(Hume,1957,pp.91-121)ZAICITICHULETONGYANGDEWENTI。WUYI,BOLATU(Plato,1963b,pp.589a-e)、HUOBUSI(Hobbes,1996,p.96)、XIUMO(Hume,1957,pp.102-103)YIJIXUDUOQITAZHEXUEJIA,TEBIESHIYALISHIDUODEHEKANGDE,DOUSHITUHUIDAZHEIGEWENTI。RANER,TAMENSIHUDOUWUFALINGRENMANYI,YINCIYOUSHIRENMENHUIRENWEIZHEIGEWENTISUIRANKEYILIJIE,QUESHIWUFAHUIDADE(cf.Meldon,1948,p.455;Copp,1997,pp.86-87;Nielsen,1989,p.299)。ZAIBENJIEZHONG,WOJIANGSHUOMINGCHENGYIDEDAODEZHEXUEKEYIWEIZHEIGEWENTITIGONGYIZHONGKEXINGDAAN。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   RUJIASIXIANGSHIYIZHONGDAODEZIWOXIUYANGDEXUEWEN。RANER,ZHEIZHONGZIWOXIUYANGDEZUIGAOMUBIAOSHI“LE”.CHENGYIHETAXIONGZHANGCHENGHAOSUOKAICHUANGDELIXUEYOUSHIYEBEICHENGWEIDAOXUE,GENJUFENGYOULANDESHUOFA,ZHEIZHONGXUEWEN“DAOXUEBUZHISHIYIZHONGZHISHI,YESHIYIZHONGXIANGSHOU”(FENGYOULAN,1995,DI131YE)。LIRU,JUNZISHIRUJIACHUANTONGZHONGDEDIANFANRENWU。RANER,DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,“FEILEZEYIWEIZUYIYUJUNZI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI181YE)。TONGYANG,RUJIAZIWOXIUYANGDEMUBIAOSHICHENGWEIYIGESHENGREN,CHENGYISHENGCHENG,“XUEZHIHANYANGQISUODEERZHIYULE,ZEQINGMINGGAOYUANYI”(《ERCHENGJI·CUIYAN》,2004,DI1189YE)。WEILELIJIEZHEIZHONGLE,CHENGYITEBIEJIESHILERUHELIJIE《LUNYU》ZHONGSUOSHUODE“BUGAIQILE”YU“LEZAIQIZHONG”.

                    ZAICHENGYIKANLAI,ZHEILIANGZHONGBIAOSHUXINGXIANGDIKEHUALESUOWEIDE“KONGYANZHILE”,JIZONGRANZAIPINQIONGSHITAMENRENGHUIGANDAOKUAILE。CHENGYISHUO,“YANZIZHILE,FEILEDANPIAOLOUXIANGYE,BUYIPINQIONGLEIQIXINERGAIQISUOLEYE,GUFUZICHENGQIXIAN。”(《ERCHENGJI·JINGSHUO》,2004,DI1141YE)TONGYANG,CHENGYIHAISHUO,KONGZI“SUISHUSHIYINSHUI,BUNENGGAIQILE……FEILESHUSHIYINSHUIYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·JINGSHUO》,2004,DI1145YE)ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,KONGYANZHISUOYIJUEDEKUAILE,SHIYINWEITAMENDESHENGHUOFUHEDAODEYUANZE(LIYI)。ZHIYAOYIGERENANZHAODAODEYUANZESHENGHUO,TAJIUKEYIZAIYUDAODERENHESHIQINGZHONGZHAODAOKUAILE。MENGZICENGSHUO“YANGXINMOSHANYUGUAYU”(《MENGZI·JINXINZHANGJUXIA》),ERCHENGYIZAIHUIDAXUESHENGDUIZHEIGEGUANDIANDETIWENSHISHUODAO:“CIYIJUQIANJIN,BURU‘LIYIZHIYUEWOXIN,YOUCHUHUANZHIYUEWOKOU',ZUIQINQIEYOUZIWEI。RANXUSHITICHADELIYIZHIYUEWOXIN,ZHENGEYOUCHUHUANSHIDE”(《ERCHENGJI·WAISHU》,2004,DI425YE)。CHENGYIZAIZHEILIQIANGDIAODESHI,KONGZIZHILEYUANZIDAODEYUANZESUOJIAOHUADEXIN,ERFEITAMENSUOPIANHAODESHIWUDUIGANGUANDEYINGXIANG。YINCI,ZAIPINGLUNMENGZITONGYIDUANLUODELINGYICHU,TAZHICHU,“RANQIONGLIYIDANGZHIYONGXINHUANJI,DANKULAOERBUZHIYUECHU,QINENGYANGXIN?”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI66YE)SUOYI,ZHONGYAODEBUJINSHIANZHAODAODEYUANZEXINGSHI,ERQIEYAOZHAODAORUCIXINGSHIDEKUAILE。

                    ZAIZHEILI,ZHONGYAODESHIYAOKANDAOZUOWEIRUJIAXIUSHENZUIGAOMUBIAODELE,YUWOMENCHANGSHIZHONGDELEJUYOUHEZHONGXIANGSIYUBUTONG。DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,SHOUXIAN,LEYIWEIZHEHAOWUYILVHEDANYOU。LIRU,CHENGYIGANTANDAO:“WEIRENCHUSHIJIAN,DEJIANSHIWUKEYICHU,DUOSHAOKUAIHUO”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI193YE)。ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,YIGEKUAILEDERENSHIYIGEDADAOLEWUYOUWULVJINGJIEDEREN。DIER,YONGYOUKUAILEXUYAOANZHAOBENXINGXINGDONG,ERWUXUJINXINGRENHERENWEIDEKEYINULI。SUIRANWOMENYINGGAIZAIYILIZHONGZHAODAOLE,DANCHENGYIWENDAO:“JINZHIYUYILIERXINBUANLEZHE,HEYE?CIZEZHENGSHISHENGYIGEZHUZHIZHANG。SUIZEXINCAOZHIZECUN,SHEZHIZEWANG,RANERCHIZHITAISHEN,BIANSHIBIYOUSHIYANERZHENGZHIYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI42YE)HUANYANZHI,RUGUONIXUYAOTEBIENULIQUZUOMOUSHI,NIJIUBUHUIGANDAOKUAILE。ZHIYOUDANGNIANZHAOBENXING、ZIRANERRANDIXINGDONGSHICAINENGGANSHOUDAOKUAILE。ZAIQIANZHEZHONG,JIUHAOXIANGNISHOUZHONGCHIWUYIQUWU,SUOYIBUKEBIMIANDIHUIRANGNIGANDAOBUZIRAN;ERZAIHOUZHEZHONG,JIUHAOXIANGNISHIYONGZIJIDESHOUQUQUWU,YINERWUBUCONG(CANJIAN《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI22YE)。

                    ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIZHONGYIYISHANG,RUJIASIXIANGZHONGDEHUANLE(LE)HEYINLE(YUE)MIQIEXIANGGUAN。SUIRANFAYINBUTONG,DANLE(le)YULE(yue)GONGXIANGXIANGTONGDEHANZI。KONGZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGZHICHU,YIGERENDEDAODE“XINGYU《SHI》,LIYULI,CHENGYULE”(《LUNYU。TAIBO》)。ZAIZHEILI,ZAISHI、LIYULEZHIZHONG,KONGZIJIANGLEPAIZAIZUIGAOWEIZHI。WEILEJIESHIZHEIYIDIAN,CHENGYIZHICHU“’XINGYUSHI,LIYULI‘ZIRANJIANYOUZHELICHU;ZHI’CHENGYULE‘,ZIRANJIANWUSUOYONGLI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI5YE)YIGERENBUXUYAOFUCHURENHENULIDEYUANYINSHI,YINLEDAILAILEYIZHONGKUAILE,MENGZIMINGQUEBIAOSHI:“LEZHISHI,LESIERZHE[RENYI],LEZESHENGYI;SHENGZEEKEYIYE,EKEYI,ZEBUZHIZUZHIDAOZHI、SHOUZHIWUZHI。”(《MENGZI·LILOUZHANGJUSHANG》)

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YINCI,CHENGYILIXUEZHILEYUWOMENDECHANGSHIZHILEYIWEIZHETONGYANGDESHI:MEIYOUYOUYU、MEIYOUZUAI、ZIFADI、ZIRANDIXINGSHI。RANER,LINGYIFANGMIAN,XIANERYIJIANDESHI,JIUSHENMEDAILAILELEERYAN,CHENGYIYUCHANGSHIYOUZHEJIERANBUTONGDEGUANDIAN。CHENGYIGANTANDAO:“JINSHIZHIREN,LEQISUOBUDANGLE,BULEQISUODANGLE;MUQISUOBUDANGMU,BUMUQISUODANGMU;JIEYOUBUSIQINGZHONGZHIFENYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI317YE)TONGCHANGCAIFUHUIDAILAIYIZHONGKUAILE,ERPINQIONGHUIDAILAIYIZHONGTONGKU。RANER,RUJIASUIRANBINGBUFOURENCAIFUSHIKUAILEDEYUANQUAN,DANRENWEIYIGERENDEKUAILEBUNENGLAIZIBUDAODEDEXINGWEI;XIANGFAN,KUAILEDEZHUYAOLAIYUANSHIDAODEXINGWEI,ERQIEZHEIZHONGKUAILEBUYINGGAISHOUDAOPINKUNHUOCAIFUDEYINGXIANG。SHISHISHANG,SHIJIANDAODEXINGWEIWANGWANGXUYAORENMENRENSHOUMOUZHONGSHENTISHANGDETONGKU,SHENZHIXISHENGSHENGMING。YINCI,ZAIYIGEZHEMINGDEDUANLUOZHONG,CHENGYITANDAOYIGENONGFUDUILAOHUDEWEIHAIXINGYOUZHEQUEQIEZHISHISHI,TASHUODAO,

                    XUSHIYOU“JIANBUSHANRUTANTANG”ZHIXIN,ZEZIRANBIE……DEZHIYUXIN,SHIWEIYOUDE,BUDAIMIANQIANG,RANXUEZHEZEXUMIANQIANG。GURENYOUSUNQUYUNMINGZHE,RUOBUSHIJIANDE,ZEYANNENGRUCI?XUSHISHIJIANDESHENGBUZHONGYUYI。(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI147YE)

                    CHENGRAN,ZHENGRUWOMENSUOKANDAODE,PINQIONGHESHENGMINGDEXISHENGBINGBUJIRENDAILAIHUANLE。YUPUTONGRENYIYANG,TAMENYEJIRUJIASHENGRENZAOCHENGTONGKU。DANSHI,RUGUOZHIYOUTONGGUOWEIFANDAODEYUANZECAINENGBIMIANZHEIZHONGPINQIONGHEXISHENG,NEIMEDUIYURUJIASHENGRENLAISHUO,TAOBITAMENHUIGENGJIATONGKU。XIANGFAN,RUGUOYIGERENYAOZUNSHOUDAODEYUANZE,BIXUYAOJINGLIPINKUNHEXISHENG,NEIMEZHEIGERENYEJIANGCONGZHONGGANDAOKUAILE。CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGJIANG,RUJIADEKUAILEYUWOMENCHANGSHIZHONGDEKUAILEJIERANBUTONG。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YINCI,CHENGYIDUI“WEIHEYAOYOUDAODE?”ZHEIGEWENTIDEHUIDASHI,CHENGWEIDAODEDERENSHIYIZHONGKUAILE。ZHEIGEDAANSHIFOUZUYIJILINEIXIETICHU“WEIHEYAOYOUDAODE”ZHEIGEWENTIDERENCHENGWEIDAODEDERENNI?CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGSHUO,TANENGZUODAO。DUIYUTAMENERYAN,JIANXINGDAODEXINGWEISHIWANQUANFUHELIXINGDE,YINWEIZHEIMEZUOSHIYIZHONGKUAILE。RANER,ZAILINGYIZHONGYIYISHANG,TAZUOBUDAO。TICHUZHEIGEWENTIDERENKENENGHUISHUO:JINGUANWOCHENGWEIDAODEDERENHUIGANDAOKUAILE,DANWEISHENMEWOBIXUYAOCHENGWEIDAODEDEREN,YINWEIWOCHENGWEIBUDAODEDERENYEHUIGANDAOKUAILEA?CHENGYIDEXINRUJIASIXIANGDUIZHEIGEWENTIDEHUIDAFEICHANGJIANDAN:DAODESHIRENDETEZHENG。CHENGYISHUO,“JUNZISUOYIYIYUQINSHOUZHE,YIYOURENYIZHIXINGYE。GOUZONGQIXINERBUZHIFAN,ZEYIQINSHOUERYI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI323YE)DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANYUMENGZIDEGUANDIANFEICHANGYIZHI:“WUCEYINZHIXIN,FEIRENYE;WUXIUEZHIXIN,FEIRENYE;WUCIRANGZHIXIN,FEIRENYE;WUSHIFEIZHIXIN,FEIRENYE。”(《MENGZI·GONGSUNCHOUZHANGJUSHANG》)ZAILINGYIGEDIFANG,MENGZISHUO“RENZHISUOYIYIYUQINYUSHOUZHEJIXI,SHUMINQUZHI,JUNZICUNZHI。”(《MENGZI·LILOUZHANGJUXIA》)DANGYIMINGXUESHENGXUNWENCHENGYI,MENGZIDEYISISHIBUSHISHUO,JUNZIYUSHURENZHIJIANDEQUBIEJINJINZAIYUBAOCUNHUOFANGQIRENYUDONGWUZHIJIANDEWEIXIAOCHAYISHI,TAKENDINGDIHUIDASHUO:“GUSHI。RENZHIYOUGETIANLI,QUEBUNENGCUNDE,GENGZUOSHENRENYE?TAISHANSUNMINGFUYOUSHIYUN:’RENYITIANDIYIWUER,JISHIKEYINWUXIUSHI。RUOFEIDAOYICHONGQIFU,HEYINIAOSHOUANXUMEI?‘”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI214-215YE)。JINJIEZHE,YIMINGXUESHENGWENDAOTANGRUHANYUDEYIJUHUA,“RENYOUMAORUNIUSHOUSHEXINGNIAOHUIERXINBUTONGYAN,KEWEIZHIFEIRENHU。JIYOUYANRUWODANZHE,QIMAOZEREN,QIXINZEQINSHOU,YOUEKEWEIZHIRENHU。”SUIRANCHENGYISHUOTABUNENGJINJIQIWEN,DANTATONGYI“RANRENZHIYAOCUNYIGETIANLI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI215YE),ZHEIGETIANLI“XIAOSHIZERUYIDI,DASHIZERUQINSHOU”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI177YE)。SUOYI,ZUIZHONG,CHENGYIHUIDALE“WOWEIHEYINGGAICHENGWEIDAODEDE?”WENTI:YINWEINISHIYIGEREN。DUIYURENLEIERYAN,XUNQIUKUAILESHIFUHELIXINGDE。CHENGRAN,ZUNXUNDAODEYUANZE,YIHUOZUOBUDAODEDESHI,DOUKEYIDAILAIKUAILE。DANSHI,YOUYURENLEIDUTEDEBIAOZHISHITAMENDEDAODENEIXIN,RENLEIBENZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGDAODECUNZAI,YIGERENJIUYINGGAIZAICHENGWEIDAODEZHIRENZHONGZHAOXUNKUAILE。

                  程颢程颐

                  配图 程颢程颐

                    二、能否有道德

                    ZAISHANGYIJIEZHONG,WOMENTAOLUNLECHENGYIXINRUJIADUI“WOWEIHEYINGGAIYOUDAODE”ZHEIGEWENTIDEHUIDA:YINWEINISHIYIGEREN!JIASHEZHEISHIYIGEHEYIDEDAAN,WOMENXIANZAIKEYIJIXUTAOLUNYIGEXIANGGUANDEWENTI:“WONENGFOUCHENGWEIYIGEDAODEDEREN?”ZHEISHIYIGESHEJIDAOYIZHIBORUO(akarasia,weakness of the will)HUOBUNENGZIZHI(incontinence)DEWENTI。SUIRAN“YIZHIBORUO”DEWENTISHUYUGENGGUANGFANDEXINGDONGLILUN,DANWOMENGUANZHUDEZHUYAOSHIDAODEFANGMIAN。TONGCHANG,WOMENDOUHUITINGDAO“WOZHIDAOSHENMESHIDAODEDE,DANWOZHISHIWUFAZUODAO”HUO“WOZHIDAOZHEISHICUODE,DANWOBUNENGBUZHEIYANGZUO”DESHUOFA。TANGNADE·DAIWEISEN(Donald Davidson)SHIYIWEIYOUYINGXIANGDEZHEXUEJIA,TAYIGERENJIUJUEDINGLEDANGDAIZHEXUEDUICIWENTIJINXINGZHEXUETANTAODEDAZHIFANGXIANG,ANZHAOTADEGUANDIAN:“ZAIZUOxSHI,SHIDONGZHEDEXINGWEISHIBUNENGZIZHIDE,DANGQIEJINDANG:(a)SHIDONGZHEYOUYIDIZUOx;(b)SHIDONGZHEXIANGXINHAIYOUQITADEXINGWEIXUANXIANGyDUITASHIKAIFANGDE;(c)SHIDONGZHEKAOLVDAOLESUOYOUSHIQING,BINGZUOCHUPANDUAN,ZUOyBIZUOxGENGHAO”(Davidson,1980,p.22)。LIRU,RUGUOYIGERENKAOLVDAOLESUOYOUDESHI,ZHIDAOZIJIZUIHAOBUYAOXIYAN,TAYEXIANGXINTANENGZUODAO,DANTAYIRANYOUYIDIQUXIYAN,NEIMEZHEIGERENJIUSHIYIZHIBORUODE。YUSUGELADIFANDUIYIZHIBORUOKENENGXINGDECHUANTONG(Plato,1963a,pp.358b-365d;Aristotle,1915,Book VII,Chapter 3)BUTONG,DAIWEISENMINGQUEDUANYANYIZHIBORUOSHIKENENGDE,BINGBARUHEJIESHITADEKENENGXINGDANGZUOZIJIDERENWU(cf.Davidson,1980;1982)。DAIWEISENDEGUANDIANYIJINGZHUDAOLEDANGQIANDUIZHEIGEWENTIDETAOLUN(LIRU,cf.Mc Intyre,1990,p.386;Audi,1979;1990)。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SUIRANYANGESHUOLAI,RUJIASIXIANGLIMEIYOUTICHUYIZHIBORUODEWENTI,DANZHEIGEWENTIDEHEXINNEIRONG,JIZHISHIYUXINGDONGDEGUANXI,YISHIRUJIACHUANTONGDEHEXINNEIRONG。JIARUYIZHIBORUOSHIKENENGDE,NEIMERENMENKENENGHUISHENGCHENG,SUIRANWOZHIDAOWOYINGGAISHIDAODEDE,DANWOHUOXUBUNENGZUODAO。CHUYUZHEIGEYUANYIN,CHENGYIRENWEIZHISHIXIANYUXINGDONG,BINGYINHANLEXINGDONG,TASHIJISHANGFOURENLEYIZHIBORUODEKENENGXING。TAMINGQUEBIAOSHI,ZHISHIBIRANHUIDAOZHIXINGDONG。SUIRANYOUXIERENKEYIZAIWUZHIDEQINGKUANGXIACAIQUXINGDONG(WULUNSHIMANGMUDIHAISHIZAIXIEPOXIA),DANSUOYOURENZAIZHIDAOZHIHOUJIUYIDINGNENGGOUCAIQUXINGDONG。YINCI,YIGERENZAIHUODEZHISHIZHIQIANBUYINGMIANQIANGXINGDONG,“MIANQIANGXINGZHE,ANNENGCHIJIU?”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI187YE)SUOYIZHONGYAODESHIYAOHUOQUZHISHI:“ZHIZHISHEN,ZEXINGZHIBIZHI,WUYOUZHIZHIERBUNENGXINGZHE。ZHIERBUNENGXING,ZHISHIZHIDEQIAN。JIERBUSHINIAOHUI,RENBUDAOSHUIHUO,ZHISHIZHI。RENWEIBUSHAN,ZHIWEIBUZHI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI164YE)SUOYOUCAIQULEBUDANGXINGDONGZHIRENDOUQUEFASHIDANGDEZHISHI,SUOYOUJUYOUSHIDANGZHISHIZHIRENBIRANHUICAIQUXIANGYINGDEXINGDONG。ZAITAKANLAI,SHENGCHENGYIGERENYONGYOUZHISHIQUEWUFAXINGDONG,ZHEISHIYIGEMAODUN:“GURENZHIBUSHANERYOUWEIBUSHAN,SHIYIWEICHANGZHENZHI。RUOZHENZHI,JUEBUWEIYI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI16YE)CHENGYIDEZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN(YIGERENZHIDAOSHENMESHISHAN,BIRANHUIXINGSHANSHI,YIGERENZUOCHUEXINGJINJINYINWEITAMENBUZHIDAO)HAOXIANGWEIBEILEWOMENDECHANGSHI,YINWEIYIGERENZHIDAOSHENMESHIZHENGQUEDE,QUEBINGBUZHENGQUEDIXINGSHI,SIHUSHIFENCHANGJIAN。WOMENDECHANGSHIJIASHELEYIGERENJUYOULIANGZHONGBUTONGDECAINENG:ZHILI(JIRENSHIDAOMOUSHIWUSHISHENME)YIJIYIZHI(JIJUEDINGYAOZUOSHENME)。YINCI,RENMENKENENGDUIMOUSHIWUYOUWANMEIDERENSHI,DANQUEJUEDINGBUGENJUZHEIXIEZHISHICAIQUXINGDONG,SHENZHIHAIYOUKENENGZUOCHUYUZHEIZHONGZHISHIJIERANXIANGFANDEXINGDONG。

                    ZHEIXIEMINGXIANDELIZISIHUBIAOMINGCUNZAIZHEYIZHIBORUO,WEILEFANBOBINGQIEJIESHIWOMENDERICHANGSHENGHUO,CHENGYIYONGLESANZHONGBUTONGDEFANGSHI,QUFENLELIANGZHONGZHISHIDELEIXING。SHOUXIAN,SHENZHIYUQIANZHIZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEQUBIE。LIRU,TARENWEI“RENFEIBUZHI,ZHONGBUKENWEIZHE,ZHISHIZHIZHIQIAN,XINZHIWEIDU。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI305YE)SUOYIZAIZHEILI,TACHENGRENLEYOURENZHIDAO,DANYIRANBUGENJUZHEIZHONGZHISHIXINGDONGDEKENENGXING。DANSHI,ZAITAKANLAI,ZHEISHIYIGEQIANZHI,TABUSHIYIGEJIANDINGDEXINNIAN。DANGJUYOUSHENZHIBINGJIANDINGDIXIANGXINTASHI,RENMENJIUBUKENENGBUGENJUZHEIXIEZHISHICAIQUXINGDONG。DUIYUCHENGYILAISHUO,ZHEIZHONGQIANZHIBINGBUNENGBEISHIWEIZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDEZHISHI。

                    DIER,TAQUFENLE“ZHENZHI”YU“CHANGZHI”:

                    ZHENZHIYUCHANGZHIYI。CHANGJIANYITIANFU,CENGBEIHUSHANG,YOURENSHUOHUSHANGREN,ZHONGMOBUJING,DUTIANFUSEDONGYIYUZHONG。RUOHUNENGSHANGREN,SUISANCHITONGZIMOBUZHIZHI,RANWEICHANGZHENZHI。ZHENZHIXURUTIANFUNAISHI,GURENNAIZHIBUSHANYOUWEIBUSHAN,SHIYIWEICHANGZHENZHI,RUOZHENZHI,JUEBUWEIYI。(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI16YE;TONGSHICANJIANDI188YE)

                    ZHENZHIYUCHANGZHIZHIJIANDEQUBIE,YUSHENZHIYUQIANZHIZHIJIANDEQUBIESHIXIANGTONGDE。YINCI,ZAILINGYICHU,TAJULEXIANGTONGDELAOHUDELIZI,TASHOUXIANSHUO“ZHIYOUDUOSHAOBANSHU,SHAYOUSHENQIAN”;RANHOU,ZAIJIANGSHULELAOHUHENONGMINDEGUSHIZHIHOUDECHUJIELUN,ZHEIGENONGMIN:

                    ZHENZHIHUYE。XUEZHESHENZHIYIRUCI……XUEZHEXUSHIZHENZHI,CAIZHIDESHI,BIANTAIRANXINGJIANGQUYE。MOUNIANERSHISHI,JIESHIJINGYI,YUJINWUYI。RANSIJINRI,JUEDEYIWEIYUSHAOSHIZIBIE。(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI188YE)

                    YOUYUCHENGYIJINGCHANGSHIYONGLAOHUYUNONGMINDEZHEIGEGUSHILAISHUOMINGZHENZHI,XUEZHEMENCHANGCHANGRENWEITADUIZHENZHIHECHANGZHIDEQUBIE,YEJIUSHIYUANYUZHIJIEJINGYANDEZHISHIYUYUANYUJIANJIEJINGYANDEZHISHIZHIJIANDEQUBIE2.RANER,ZAICHENGYIDEGUANDIANZHONG,SUIRANZHENZHIBIXULAIZIZHIJIEJINGYAN,DANBINGFEIYUANZIZHIJIEJINGYANDESUOYOUZHISHIDOUSHIZHENZHI。ZHENZHIYUANZIYIZHONGTESHUDEZHIJIEJINGYAN:NEIZAIDETIYAN。ZHEIYIDIANMINGQUELAIZISHANGWENZHONGTIDAODECHENGYIDUIXUEZHEZHENZHIDETAOLUN,YIJITAZIJIJIESHIJINGYISHIDEGERENJINGYAN。ZHIYOUZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,TACAIHUISHENGCHENG“RUOFUZHENZHI,WEIYOUBUNENGXINGZHE”(《ERCHENGJI·WAISHU》,2004,DI388YE)。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   RANER,CHENGYISUOZUOCHUDEZUIZHONGYAO,YESHIZUIJUZHENGYIDEQUFENZESHI“DEXINGZHIZHI”YU“WENJIANZHIZHI”ZHIJIANDEQUBIE,ERZHEIZUIZAOYOUZHANGZAITICHU:“WENJIANZHIZHI,FEIDEXINGZHIZHI。WUJIAOWUZEZHIZHI,FEINEIYE,JINZHISUOWEIBOWUDUONENGZHESHIYE。DEXINGZHIZHI,BUJIAWENJIAN。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI317YE)YICIQUFEN,WENJIANZHIZHISHIYIZHONGWAIBUZHISHI(WULUNYUANYUZHIJIEJINGYANYIHUOJIANJIEJINGYAN),ERDEXINGZHIZHIZESHIYUANYUNEIZAITIYANDENEIBUZHISHI。YINCI,CHENGYISHENGCHENG,“DAFANXUEWEN,WENZHIZHIZHI,JIEBUWEIDE。DEZHE,XUMOSHIXINTONG。XUEZHEYUYOUSUODE,XUSHIDU。CHENGYIZHULISHANGZHI,ZEYINGWUZIBIE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI178YE)。YINWEITASHINEIBUDE,SUOYIZHONGYAODESHIPINGJIEZIJIHUODETA(ZIDE),ERBUSHIWAIBUQIANGJIAFUYUDE,YINERTAYEBUNENGYANCHUAN(《ERCHENGJI·CUIYAN》,2004,DI1253YE)。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YINCI,“ZIDE”CHENGWEICHENGYIDEYIGEZHONGYAOGUANDIAN3.ZHEISHITACONGMENGZINEILIDEDAODEYIGEXIANGFA,MENGZISHUO,“JUNZISHENZAOZHIYIDAO,YUQIZIDEZHIYE。ZIDEZHI,ZEJUZHIAN;JUZHIAN,ZEZIZHISHEN;ZIZHISHEN,ZEQUZHIZUOYOUFENGQIYUAN,GUJUNZIYUQIZIDEZHIYE”(《MENGZI·LILOUZHANGJUXIA》)。CHENGYILIYONGMENGZI“ZIDEZHI”DEXIANGFA,JIESHILEDEXINGZHIZHIDEGUANDIAN。SHENGRENDANGRANKEYIJIAODAOWOMENDAODEYUANZE,DANCHUFEIWOMENZHENZHENGCONGZIJIDEXINZHONGBAWOTA,FOUZETARENGRANZHISHIWENJIANZHIZHI,ERBUNENGJILIWOMENANZHAOZHEIYANGDEDAODEYUANZEXINGSHI。YINCI,ZAITAKANLAI,“XUEMOGUIYUZIDE,DEFEIWAIYE,GUYUEZIDE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI316YE)。

                    ZAIZHEILI,“ZIDE”XUYAOYIGERENZHUDONGDENEIZAITIYAN。ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,“XUEWEIYI,ZHIZHIWEINAN。ZHIZHIFEINANYE,TIERDEZHIWEINAN”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI321YE)。YIGERENNENGGOUTONGGUO“TI”DUZIHUODEDEXINGZHIZHI,ER“TI”ZHEIGECI,WULUNZAIERCHENGZHEILI,YIHUOZAIZHENGGERUXUEZHIZHONGDOUJIQIZHONGYAO。JINNIANLAI,DUWEIMINGGUANGFANDIYANJIULE“TIZHI”DEGAINIAN。ZHENGRUDUWEIMINGZHENGQUEZHICHUDENEIYANG,SUIRAN“TI”ZAIZIMIANHANYISHANGYIWEIZHE“SHENTI”(body),DANTADEHANYIYAOBIZHEIGECIDEYINGWENDANCIFENGFUDEDUO。DANGRAN,DEXINGZHIZHIBIRANHUIZAISHENTISHANGBIAOXIANCHULAI,ERMENGZIYEYIZHICHULEZHEIYIDIAN(《MENGZI·JINXINZHANGJUSHANG》)。ZHEIYEJIUSHICHENGYISUOSHUODE:“YOUZHUZHONGZHE,BIXINGZHUWAI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI185YE)。SUIRANZHEIRENGYUCHENGYIDELINGYIGUANDIANYOUGUAN,JIYOUZHISHIDERENBIRANHUIYICIZHISHIXINGDONG,DANWOMENZAIZHEILIGUANXINDEZESHI,YIGERENZUICHURUHETONGGUO“TI”LAIHUOQUZHISHI。DUWEIMINGZHICHU:

                    ZAIPUBIANYIYISHANG,TIREN(recognition through ti),TICHA(awareness through ti),TIZHENG(justification through ti),TIHUI(understanding through ti),TIWEI(tasting through ti),TIWAN(appreciation through ti),TIJIU(inquiry through ti),TIZHI(knowledge through ti),JIEYUZHISHI、GUANCHA、ZHENGMING、PINWEIYULIJIEJIERANBUTONG。(DUWEIMING,2002,DI331-332YE)

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIZHEILI,DUWEIMINGZHENGQUEDIJINGGAOWOMEN,BUYAOJIANG“TIZHI”LIJIEWEITONGGUOYIGERENDESHENTIHUODEDEZHISHI。DANSHI,TABINGMEIYOUQINGCHUDIGAOSUWOMENZHEIYIWEIZHESHENME。DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,“TI”ZHEIGECIJIKEYIYONGZUOMINGCI,YEKEYIYONGZUODONGCI。SHOUXIAN,ZUOWEIMINGCI,TAZHIDESHIXIN,JIYIGERENDENEIXIN/XINZHI,MENGZICHENGZHIWEI“DATI”,ZIMIANYISISHI“WEIDADESHENTI”;YUQIXIANGDUIYINGDESHIWOMENDEWAIBUSHENTI,TACHENGZHIWEI“XIAOTI”,ZIMIANYISISHI“MIAOXIAODESHENTI”(《MENGZI·GAOZIZHANGJUSHANG》)4.ZHEIYEJIUSHICHENGYIWEIHEYAOSHUODAOSHANGWENYINGUODE“MOSHIXINTONG”.ZAITADUI《ZHONGYONG》JINXINGPINGLUNZHISHI,TAYEZHICHULEDEXINGZHIZHIYUWENJIANZHIZHIJIANDEBUTONG,HOUZHE“FEIXINZHIYE”(《ERCHENGJI·JINGSHUO》,2004,DI1154YE)。QICI,ZUOWEIYIGEDONGCI,“TI”ZHIDESHINEIXIN/XINZHIDEHUODONG。ZAIHUOQUDEXINGZHIZHIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,LEJIE“XIN”DE“NEIXIN”(heart)CENGMIANSUOFAHUIDEZUOYONGSHIJIQIZHONGYAODE。WENJIANZHIZHIYEBUJINSHIYIGERENPINGJIEGANGUANJIUNENGGOUHUOQUDEZHISHI,TATONGYANGXUYAO“XIN”DE“XINZHI”(mind)CENGMIANFAHUIZUOYONG,YINWEITAYEXUYAOYIGERENQULIJIE、ZHENGCHENGYUZHENGMING。DANSHI,ZHIYOUDANGZHISHITONGYANGBEI“XIN”DE“NEIXIN”CENGMIANSUOBAWOZHISHI,TACAINENGCHENGWEIDEXINGZHIZHI,ERZHEIZHONGZHISHIBUJINSHIZHANGWODEZHISHI,TONGSHIYEYIJINGCHENGWEIWOMENXINGDONGDEGENJI。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   CONGWOMENSHANGMIANDETAOLUNLAIKAN,SHENZHI、ZHENZHIYUDEXINGZHIZHISHITONGGUOYIGERENDENEIXINTIYANSUOHUODEDEZHISHI,PINGJIE“XINZHI”LIJIE,PINGJIE“NEIXIN”BAWO,YINCIYIGERENQINGXIANGYUANZHAOZHEIZHONGZHISHICAIQUXIANGYINGDEXINGDONG;ERQIANZHI、CHANGZHIHEWENJIANZHIZHIZESHITONGGUOWAIBUJINGYANHUODEDEZHISHI。JIBIANANZHAOXINZHINENGGOULIJIETA,DANTAMEIYOUBEINEIXINSUOBAWO,YINCIYIGERENBINGBUQINGXIANGYUCAIQUXIANGYINGDEXINGDONG。GENJUZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN,SUOWEIDEakrateHUOYIZHIBORUODEREN,JINJINJUYOUHOUYIZHONGYIYISHANGDEZHISHI。YOUYUYANGELAISHUO,HOUZHEDEZHISHIBINGBUNENGCHENGWEIZHISHI,WOMENYEJIUKEYISHUO,YIZHIBORUODERENSHIWUZHIDE。RANER,ZHENZHI、DEXINGZHIZHI,ZESHIDEYIGERENYOULEYUCHENGWEIDAODEZHIRENDEKENENGXING,BINGQIEMEIGERENZHIYAOCHANGSHIJIUNENGHUODE。SUOYI,MEIGERENYINGGAI,BINGQIENENGGOUCHENGWEIDAODEDEREN。ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,JUNZIYUXIAORENZHIJIANDEQUBIE,JINJINZAIYUQIANZHENULITONGGUOTAMENZIJIDEXINHUOQUDAODEZHISHI,ERHOUZHEMEIYOUZUOCHUZHEIYANGDENULI。ERQIE,CUNZAIZHEIZHONGCHAYI,BINGFEISHIYINWEIJUNZIBEIFUYULEXIAORENSUOBUJUBEIDENENGLI。WUNINGSHUO,ZHEISHIYINWEIXIAORENFANGQILEZIJI。YINCI,ZAITADUI《YIJING》DEPINGZHUZHONG,DANGBEIWENJIYOUXIERENWEIHEWUFAGAIBIANZHISHISHI,CHENGYIHUIDADAO:

                    RENGOUYISHANZIZHI,ZEWUBUKEYIZHE。SUIHUNYUZHIZHI,JIEKEJIANMOERJIN。WEIZIBAOZHEJUZHIYIBUXIN,ZIQIZHEJUEZHIYIBUWEI。SUISHENGRENYUJU,BUNENGHUAERRUYE,ZHONGNIZHISUOWEIXIAYUYE。(《ERCHENGJI·ZHOUYICHENGSHICHUAN》,2004,DI956YE)

                    三、如何有道德

                    WOMENSHUXIDEDADUOSHUDAODELILUNDOUTICHANGPUBIANDEDAODE,YINWEITAMENJIASHEDAODESHIDONGZHEHEDAODESHOUDONGZHEZAIDAODEYOUGUANDEFANGMIANDOUSHIXIANGSIDE。LIRU,DAODEDEDINGYANMINGLING:“JISUOYU,SHIYUREN”(Do unto others what you would have them do unto you),YOUSHIYEBEICHENGWEI“HUANGJINLV”;YIJITADEFOUDINGXINGBIAOSHU:“JISUOBUYU,WUSHIYUREN”(Don't do unto others what you would not have them do unto you),YOUSHIYEBEICHENGWEI“YINLV”.ZHEILIANGZHEDOUJIYUZHEIYANGYIZHONGGUANDIAN:ZUOWEIDAODESHIDONGZHE,WOXIHUANYUBUXIHUANDESHIWU,YUQITASUOYOUREN(ZUOWEIWOXINGWEIDESHOUDONGZHE)DOUSHIWANQUANYIYANGDE,ERWULUNTAMENSHISHEI,TAMENXIHUANYUBUXIHUANSHENMESHIWU。DANSHI,HUANGJINLV---WULUNSHIKENDINGXINGYIHUOFOUDINGXINGDEBIAOSHUFANGSHI---DEGENJIDOUSHICUNZAIWENTIDE。ZHENGRUAILUN·GEWOSI(Alan Gewirth)SUOZHICHUDENEIYANG,

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XINGWEISHIDONGZHEZIJIDEYIYUAN(ZIJIZUOWEISHOUDONGZHERUHEBEIDUIDAI),HUOXUYUTADEXINGWEISHOUDONGZHEMENXIANGYAOZIJIRUHEBEIDUIDAIDEYIYUAN,BINGBUYIZHI……YINCI……ZHEIHUOXU[SHISHOUDONGZHEMEN]ZAOSHOULEMOMINGDETONGKU……LIRU,YIGEXIHUANTARENYUZIJIZHENGLUNHUOANDOUDEREN,NEIMEANZHAOHUANGJINLV,TAJIUYOUQUANYUTARENZHENGLUN,HUORANGTARENXIANRUYIGEANDOUDESHEHUIWANGLUOZHIZHONG,ERBUGUANTARENZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIAZIJIDEYIYUANSHISHENME。(Gewirth,1980,p.133)

                    DEQUE,ZAIGUDIANRUJIASIXIANGZHONGYOUXUDUOHUANGJINLVDEBIAODA。JIUFOUDINGXINGBIAOSHUERYAN,KONGZIYAOQIUWOMEN“JISUOBUYU,WUSHIYUREN”(《LUNYU·WEILINGGONG》);JIUKENDINGXINGBIAOSHUERYAN,KONGZIZEGAOSUWOMEN“JIYULIERLIREN,JIYUDAERDAREN”(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)。ZAI《ZHONGYONG》ZHIZHONG,KONGZIJICHULEYIGEXIANGSIDELUNSHU,“SHIZHUJIERBUYUAN,YIWUSHIYUREN”,SUIHOUTAYOUSHUODAO,

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   JUNZIZHIDAOSI,QIUWEINENGYIYAN:SUOQIUHUZI,YISHIFU,WEINENGYE;SUOQIUHUCHEN,YISHIJUN,WEINENGYE;SUOQIUHUDI,YISHIXIONG,WEINENGYE;SUOQIUHUPENGYOU,XIANSHIZHI,WEINENGYE。(《ZHONGYONG》23)

                    ZUIHOU,ZAI《DAXUE》ZHIZHONG,HAIYOURUXIADUANLUO,

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SUOEYUSHANG,WUYISHIXIA,SUOEYUXIA,WUYISHISHANG;SUOEYUQIAN,WUYIXIANHOU;SUOEYUHOU,WUYICONGQIAN;SUOEYUYOU,WUYIJIAOYUZUO;SUOEYUZUO,WUYIJIAOYUYOU。(《DAXUE》11)

                    RANER,DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,ZHEIXIEGEZHONGBIAOSHUBEIHOUDE“HUANGJINLV”BINGFEIRUJIASIXIANGDEHEXIN。KONGZISHUO“WUDAOYIYIGUANZHI”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)。ZAI《LUNYU》DETONGYIZHANGJIE,CENGZIRENWEIFUZIZHIDAOBUGUOSHIHUANGJINLVERYI,ZHEIYETONGCHANGBEISHIWEILIJIEKONGZISUOSHUODEYIGUANZHIDAODEXIANSUO,HUODUITADEZHENGQUEJIESHI。RANER,CHENGYISHENGCHENG,KONGZIYIYIGUANZHIDEDAOBINGFEISHIHUANGJINLV,ERSHI“REN”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI307YE)。CHENGYICHENGREN,HUANGJINLVDEQUE“WEIDAOBUYUAN”,“JINHUREN”,SHI“RURENZHIMEN”,BINGQIESHI“RENZHIFANG”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI97YE),DANTAJIANCHISHUOTARENGRANBUSHI“REN”.WEISHENME?CHENGYIMINGQUEDADAO:“ZHIYIJIZHISUOHAOECHURENERYI,WEIZHIYUWUWOYE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI275YE)。DUIYUCHENGYILAISHUO,YIGERENZHESHIWUSIDE;YIGEWUSIZHIRENYUTARENXIANGCHUSHIHUIGENJUTAREN,ERBUSHIGENJUZIJI。HUANGJINLVKEYISHISHIJIAN“REN”DEYIZHONGFANGSHI,YINWEIYIFANGMIAN,SUIRANDAODESHIDONGZHEYUDAODESHOUDONGZHEZHIJIANCUNZAICHAYI,DANYECUNZAIXIANGSIZHICHU;DANGTAMENXIANGSISHI,JIUKEYIANZHAOHUANGJINLVXINGSHI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,GENJUTARENDEXIAIYUYANE,ERFEIZIJIDEAIHAOYUYANE,QUDUITARENSHISHIRENAIYAOKUNNANDEDUO,SUOYIDANGWOMENDUITARENDEXIAIYIWUSUOZHIHUOBUGOULEJIEZHISHI,HUANGJINLVSHIYIZHONGCIHAODEFANGFA,TONGSHIYOUZHUYUWOMENXUEXILEJIEBIEREN(GUANCHAWOMENDEXIHAOYUYANE,SHIFOUTONGYANGYESHITARENDEXIHAOYUYANE)。

                    CHUYUZHEIGEYUANYIN,CHENGYIGENGGUANZHU《LUNYU》ZHONGANHANDE、《MENGZI》ZHONGMINGSHUDE“AIYOUCHADENG”,ERFEIHUANGJINLV。ZHEIGEXIANGFADEHANYITONGCHANGBEILIJIEWEI,DUIYUBUTONGZHONGLEIDERENYINGYOUBUTONGCHENGDUDEAI:DUIJIARENDEAIGENGQIANG,DUITARENDEAIGENGRUO;DUIZHIJIELINLIDEAIGENGQIANG,DUIMOSHENGRENDEAIGENGRUO;DUISHANLIANGZHIRENDEAIGENGQIANG,DUIXIEEZHIRENDEAIGENGRUO;DUIRENLEIDEAIGENGQIANG,DUIQITASHENGWUDEAIGENGRUO。LIRU,SHENZHIJINTIANZUIZHEMINGDERUJIADUWEIMINGYESHENGCHENG“GUANAIZIJIJIATING、JIAZU、QINSHU、LINLI、CUNZHUANG、XIAN、SHEHUI、GUOJIA、SHIJIE、YUZHOUDEZEREN,YAOQUFENCHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEQIANGDU”(Tu,1999,p.29)。ZHEIZHONGJIESHISIHUZAIMENGZIYUMOJIADEZHENGBIANZHONGNENGZHAODAOYIXIEWENBENDEZHENGJU。ZAIMENGZIKANLAI,“MOSHIJIANAI,SHIWUFUYE。”(《MENGZI·TENGWENGONGZHANGJUXIA》)YINCI,WEILEHUIYINGMOJIAYIZIDE“JIANAI”GAINIAN,MENGZIWENDAO:“FUYIZI,XINYIWEIRENZHIQINQIXIONGZHIZIWEIRUOQINQILINZHICHIZIHU?”(《MENGZI·TENGWENGONGZHANGJUSHANG》)ZHENGSHIZAIZHEILI,WOMENDUIRUJIADEAIYOUCHADENGGUANNIANYOULEJINGDIANDEBIAOSHU。

                    RANER,CHENGYIGENJUZIJIDE“LIYIFENSHU”DEGUANDIAN,JI“AIYOUCHADENG”TIGONGLEYIGEBUTONGDE,BINGQIEGENGYOUQUDEJIESHI。CHENGYITICHUZHEIGEGUANDIANSHI,TASHIZAIHUIYINGTADEXUESHENGZHIYIYANGSHISUOTICHUDEYIGEGUANYUZHANGZAI《XIMINGPIAN》DEWENTI。ERZAIZHEIPIANWENBENDEKAIPIAN,ZHANGZAISHENGCHENG:

                    QIANCHENGFU,KUNCHENGMU;YUZIMIAOYAN,NAIHUNRANZHONGCHU。GUTIANDIZHISAI,WUQITI;TIANDIZHISHUAI,WUQIXING。MIN,WUTONGBAO;WU,WUYUYE……ZUNGAONIAN,SUOYIZHANGQIZHANG;CIGURUO,SUOYIYOUQIYOU……YUSHIBAOZHI,ZIZHIYIYE;LEQIEBUYOU,CHUNHUXIAOZHEYE。(ZHANGZAI,1978,DI62YE)

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XIANRAN,YANGSHIDUIZHEILIDEQIANJIJUQIANGDIAOWANWUYITIDEHUAGANDAOKUNHUO,TADANXINZHANGZAIZAIZHEILIYOUKENENGXIANRULEMOJIAWUCHADENGDEJIANAIZHISHUO5.ZUOWEIHUIYING,CHENGYIMINGQUEBIAOSHI“XIMINGZHIWEISHU,TUILIYICUNYI,KUOQIANSHENGSUOWEIFA,YUMENGZIXINGSHANYANGQIZHILUNTONGGONG。QIMOSHIZHIBIZAI?”,BINGQIEZAICIZHIHOULIJIZHICHU:

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XIMINGMINGLIYIERFENSHU,MOSHIZEERBENERWUFEN,LAOYOUJIREN,LIYIYE,AIWUDENGCHABENERYE,FENSHUZHIZANG,SHUSHENGERSHIREN,WUFENZHIZUI,JIANAIERWUYI。(《ERCHENGJI·WENJI》,2004,DI609YE)

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIZHEIDUANHUAZHONG,CHENGYISHENGCHENG,YIFANGMIAN,RUJIADEAISHIPUBIANDEAI,SHIDUISUOYOURENHESHIDEAI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,DUIBUTONGDERENHESHIWUDEAIBIXUSHIBUTONGDE,YAOQIADANG。ZAITAKANLAI,《XIMING》ZHONGQIANGDIAOWANWUYITIDEDUANLUOBIAOMINGLEWEIHEAIJUYOUPUBIANXING,DANYUCITONGSHI,JINGLAO、DUIGUERHERUOZHEDESHENQIEGUANAI、ZHAOGUERZIYIJIXIAOSHUNDENG,DOUBIAOMINGDUIBUTONGZHIRENDEAIYINGGAISHIBUTONGDE。HUANYANZHI,GENJUCHENGYI,YOUCHADENGDEAI,BINGBUSHIAIDECHENGDUYOUCHAYI,ERSHIAIDEZHONGLEIYOUCHAYI。ZHEIBINGBUYIWEIZHE,YIGERENAIYIXIERENYAOSHENYUQITAREN;ERSHISHUO,TAYIWEIZHEYAOYIBUTONGDEFANGSHIAIBUTONGDEREN,MEIYIZHONGAIDOUYAOSHIYINGTATEDINGDEDUIXIANG。GENJUCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,YIFANGMIAN,JIARUWOMENZHIGUANZHU“LIYI”ERHUSHI“FENSHU”,WOMENJIUFANLEMOJIAWUCHADENGDEJIANAICUOWU,JIYITONGYANGDEFANGSHIAISUOYOUREN,ERBUKAOLVAIDEDUIXIANGDEDUTEXING;LINGYIFANGMIAN,RUGUOWOMENZHIGUANZHULEYIZHONGTESHUDEAIDEBIAOXIAN,ERHUSHILETASUOBIAOXIANCHUDE“LIYI”,WOMENJIUHUIFANXIAYANGZHUZILIZHIAIDECUOWU,JIWOMENWUFAJIANGAITUIYANDAOTARENSHENSHANG。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   GENJU“LIYIFENSHU”DEGUANDIANLIJIEAIYOUCHADENG,WOMENJIUKEYIGENGHAODILIJIEMENGZISUOQUFENDESANZHONGBUTONGDEAI:“JUNZIZHIYUWUYE,AIZHIERFUREN;YUMINYE,RENZHIERFUQIN。QINQINERRENMIN,RENMINERAIWU”(《MENGZI·JINXINZHANGJUSHANG》)。ZAIZHEILI,AI、RENYUQINBUYINGGAIBEILIJIEWEITONGYIZHONGAIDESANZHONGBUTONGCHENGDU,ERSHISANZHONGBUTONGDEAI,SHIYONGYUSANZHONGBUTONGDEDAODESHOUDONGZHE:SHIWU,RENLEIHEFUMU。JIUCIERYAN,KONGZITUIJIANLEDUIDAILIANGZHONGBUTONGZHIRENDEBUTONGTAIDU,JI:YI“DE”BAODE、YI“ZHI”BAOYUAN,ERZHEITONGYANGYINGGAIBEILIJIEWEI,DUIDAILIANGZHONGBUTONGDERENYINGGAICHIYOUYUZHIXIANGYINGDEBUTONGZHONGLEIDEAI。YEZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,WOMENKEYILIJIEWEISHENMEKONGZISHENGCHENG“WEIRENZHENENGHAOREN,NENGEREN”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)。HUANYANZHI,CONGRUJIADEJIAODULAIKAN,“HEN”,JIUXIANG“AI”YIYANG,ZAIGENGPUBIANDEYIYISHANGYESHIYIZHONGAI。YIFANGMIAN,“REN”DEZUIJIBENHANYISHIAI,SUOYIZHIDAORUHEAIYUHENDERENZHESHIYIGECHONGMANAIDEREN;LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHENGRUCHENRONGJIEYIJINGZHICHUDENEIYANG,ZHEILIDE“HEN”BINGMEIYOURENHEEYIDEHANYI(cf.Chan,1963,p.25 note 53)。WUNINGSHUO,ZHEISHIYIZHONGSHENSHENDEYIHAN,TASUOAIDEDUIXIANGBINGMEIYOUXIANGTAMENYINGGAIDENEIYANG,CHENGWEIDAODEDEREN。YINCI,RUJIAZHISUOYIYAOCHABIEDUIDAIDEYUANYIN,BINGFEIYAOJUEDINGWOMENYINGGAIAIHUOBUAINAXIEREN,HUOZHEDUINAXIERENAIDEGENGDUO、DUINAXIERENAIDEGENGSHAO;ERSHISHUO,ZAIDAIRENJIEWUSHI,RUJIAYAOJUEDINGDESHIRUHEYIZUIQIADANGDEFANGSHIQUAISUOYOURENYUSUOYOUSHIWU。

                    MIANDUIZHEIXIEAIDEDUIXIANG,WEILEYIZUIQIADANGDEFANGSHIQUAIBUTONGDERENYUSHIWU,YIGERENBIXULEJIETASUOAIDEDUIXIANGDEDUTEXING。CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGLAIJIANG,CHENGYIHUITONGYIMENGZIDEGUANDIAN,JI:SUIRAN“REN”NEIZAIYUAIRENZHE,DANTABIAOXIANCHULAIXUDUOBUTONGZHONGLEIDEAI,ERAIDEZHEIXIEBUTONGZHONGLEIQISHIYAOQUJUEYUWAIBUDEAIDEDUIXIANG。YINCI,ZAIPINGLUNKONGZIZHEMINGDELUNSHU“KEJIFULIWEIREN”(《LUNYU·YANYUAN》)ZHISHI,CHENGYISHUODAO,KEJIZHE“YIWUDAIWU,BUYIJIDAIWU”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI125YE)。XIANRAN,ZHENZHENGDEAIBINGFEIYIZHONGCHAOYANDEAI。TABIXUJIYUYIGERENDUIAIDETEDINGDUIXIANGDEJINGYANZHISHI。FOUZE,YIGERENJIANGWUFAZHIDAOTASUOAIDEDUIXIANGDEDUTEXING,YINERWUFAYIQIADANGDEFANGSHIQUAIZHEIGEDUIXIANG6.ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,ZHEISHIJUNZIYUXIAORENZHIJIANDEZHUYAOQUBIE:“XIAORENZHINUZAIJI,JUNZIZHINUZAIWU”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI306YE)7.

                    四、道德的人与道德社会

                    QIJINWEIZHI,WOMENSUOTAOLUNDECHENGSHILIXUEDEDAODEZHEXUEDOUWEIRAOZHEGERENDEZIWOXIUYANG:WOWEIHEYAOYOUDAODE?WONENGFOUYOUDAODE?WORUHEYOUDAODE?CISHI,XUYAOTIDAOYIGECHANGJIANDEKANFA,DANTATONGCHANGYESHIYIGECHANGJIANDEPIPING:ZUOWEIYIZHONGGERENLUNLIXUE,RUJIAYOUQIQIANGCHU;DANZUOWEIYIZHONGZHENGZHIZHEXUE,TAYOUQIRUOCHU。XIANRAN,ZHEIZHONGKANFADEYOUXIAOXINGQUJUEYURUHEQIADANGDIQUFENGERENYUZHENGZHI。ZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANG,ZHEIZHONGQUFENSHIHEFADE。JIYUDAODEZHUTIDEGERENLUNLIXUEGUANZHUDESHIGETI;TASHEJIDAOYIGERENYINGGAISHISHENMEHE(HUO)ZUOSHENME。XIANGFAN,JIYUDAODEZHUTIDEZHENGZHIZHEXUEGUANZHUDESHISHEHUI,YOUQISHIZHENGFU;TASHEJISHEHUIYINGGAIRUHEZUZHIHEYUNXING。RANER,ZHEIBINGBURUXUDUODANGDAIZHENGZHIZIYOUZHUYIZHESUORENWEIDENEIYANG,GERENHEZHENGZHISHIFENKAIDE。ZIYOUZHUYISHENGCHENG,ZHENGZHIDEBUSHIGERENDE,GERENDEBUSHIZHENGZHIDE;ZHENGZHIZHEXUEZHIGUANZHURUHESHEDINGRENMENZAIGONGGONGGUANGCHANGSHANGDEYOUXIGUIZE。TABUGUANXINZAINEILIWANYOUXIDEDOUSHIXIESHENMEREN,BUGUANTAMENSHIHAODEHUOHUAIDE、SHANLIANGDEHUOXIEEDE、LITAZHUYIDEHUOLIJIZHUYIDE,ZHEIXIESHIGERENLUNLIXUEDEGONGZUO。JIUGERENBUSHIZHENGZHIERYAN,XUDUONVXINGZHUYISIXIANGJIAYIJINGTIAOZHANLEZHEIGEZIYOUZHUYIDEGUANDIAN,LIRU,JIATINGGUANXIBUSHIWANQUANGERENDESHI,ERSHIFEICHANGZHENGZHIXINGDE(cf.Okin,1989;2005)。RANER,TAMENQUEQINGXIANGYUTONGYIZHEIKUAIZIYOUZHUYIYINGBIDELINGYIMIAN:ZHENGZHIDEBUSHIGERENDE,JIYIGESHEHUIDEZHENGZHIZHIDUBUHUIYINGXIANGSHENGHUOZAIQIZHONGDERENSHIHEZHONGREN。SUIRANYIXIESHEQUNZHUYIZHE(cf.Sandel,1982,p.34)HESUOWEIDEXUESHUMAKESIZHUYIZHE(Cohen,2002,p.119;Murphy,1999,p.878)ZAITIAOZHANZHEIZHONGZIYOUZHUYISIXIANGFANGMIANHENQIANG,DANTAMENZAITIGONGTIDAIFANGANFANGMIANQUEHENRUO。ZAIBENJIEZHONG,WOJIANGTAOLUNCHENGYIDEDAODEZHEXUE,TATONGGUOJUJIAO“LI”DEGAINIANJIANGGERENYUZHENGZHILIANXILEQILAI。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “LI”ZAIRUJIACHUANTONGZHONGDEZHONGYAOXINGTAIGUOMINGXIANYIZHIYUNANYIHUSHI,ERQIEXUDUOXUEZHEDOUDUIQIJINXINGGUOYANJIU。RANER,DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,DUI“LI”DEXUESHUTAOLUNZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGDOUSHIJIYUXUNZIDUILIDEBIAOSHU。ZHEIDANGRANSHIKEYILIJIEDE。XUEZHEMENJIHUYIZHIRENWEI,KONGZIZUIZHONGYAODELIANGGESIXIANG,“REN”ZAIMENGZINEILIDEDAOLEZUISHENYUANDEFAZHAN,ER“LI”ZESHIZAIXUNZINEILIDEDAOLEXITONGXINGDICHANSHU。

                    ERWOYAOQIANGDIAODESHI,SUIRANMENGZIQUESHIMEIYOUXIANGXUNZINEIYANGQUANMIANDE“LI”LILUN,DANTADUI“LI”DELIJIEQUEJIERANBUTONG,BINGQIEZAISUIHOUDESONGMINGLIXUEZHONGDEDAOLECHONGFENFAZHAN,ERCHENGYIYUTADEXIONGZHANGCHENGHAOZHENGSHIQIGONGRENDEKAICHUANGZHE。DUI“LI”DEZHEIZHONGBUTONGLIJIEZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:(1)QIADANGDEZHENGZHIMUBIAOSHIYAOQUEBAORENMENYUANYIZUNSHOULIYI,ERBUSHIJIANGQISHIWEIQIANGJIAZAITAMENSHENSHANGDEYIZHONGWAIZAIYUESHU;(2)WAIZAIDELIYIGUIZE,SUIRANZHIZAIGUIFANRENMENDEGANSHOU,DANTASHIJISHANGYUANYURENMENDEZIRANQINGGAN;(3)ZHEIZHONGZIRANQINGGANYOUTAMENZAI“LI”SHANGDEXINGERSHANGXUEGENJI。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SHOUXIAN,LIYITONGCHANGBEILIJIEWEIGUIFANRENMENSHENGHUODEGUIZE。CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGJIANG,TAMENYILEISIYUFALVZHIXINGGONGNENGDEFANGSHIZHIXINGZHETAMENDEGONGNENG。DANGRAN,CHUFEIZUOWEILIYIDELINSHIBUCHONG,CHENGFAXINGFALVDEMUDE,JIUSHIYAOWEISHERENMEN,YIZHIYUTAMENBUGANZUOFALVJINZHIDESHIQING。YINCI,RENMENBUHUIZUOWEIFANLIYIDESHIQING,SHIYINWEITAMENHUIGANDAOXIUCHI;ERRENMENBUHUIZUOWEIFANFALVDESHIQING,SHIYINWEITAMENHAIPABEICHENGFA。ZHEISHIKONGZIZAI《LUNYU》DEYIGEZHEMINGDUANLUOLIDUILIANGZHEZUOCHUDEZHUYAOQUFEN:“DAOZHIYIZHENG,QIZHIYIXING,MINMIANERWUCHI。DAOZHIYIDE,QIZHIYILI,YOUCHIQIEGE。”(《LUNYU·WEIZHENG》)RANER,JIBIANLIYIYUFALVZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEZHEIZHONGQUBIE,DABUFENRENRENGYAOJINYIDINGDENULIQUZUNSHOULIYI。ZAIJIESHI《LUNYU·TAIBO》DI8JIE,JIDUANYANDAODEXINGWEI“XINGYU《SHI》,LIYULI,CHENGYULE”ZHISHI,CHENGYISHUODAO,ZAISHIYULIDEJIEDUAN,RENMENRENGRANXUYAOZUOCHUYIDINGDENULI,DANDAOLELEDEJIEDUAN,JIUWUXUYONGLILE(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI5YE)。CIWAI,ZAIJIESHI《LUNYU·YONGYE》DI27JIE,“JUNZIBOXUEYUWEN,YUEZHIYILI,YIKEYIFUPANYIFU”ZHISHI,CHENGYIZHICHU,“CIFEIZIDEYE,MIANERNENGSHOUYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI95YE)

                    RANER,RUJIADELIYI,HUOJIUCIERYAN,RUJIADEFALV,YUGUDAIZHONGGUOFAJIAYIJIXIANDAIXIFANGSHEHUIDEFALVZHISUOYIBUTONG,ZAIYUQIANZHEBUJINJINSHIQIANGPORENMENXINGSHANBIE。WUNINGSHUO,TAMENSHIYIZHONGGONGJU,ZHIZAIPEIYANGMEIGERENGUYOUDESHANLIANGRENXING,YIZHIYUTAMENZUIZHONGBUYONGMIANQIANGJIUNENGGOUZUNSHOUQIADANGDEGUIZE。RUGUOYIGERENYISHIDAOZHEIXIEGUIZEDENEIZAIJIAZHI,QISHIJIUSHITAMENZISHENRENXINGDEWAIZAIBIAODA,NEIMEZHEIZHONGBUQINGYUANJIUHUIXIAOSHI。YINCI,CHENGYISHUO:“FEILIBUSHITINGYANDONG,JIXIJINYOUGONG,LIZAIHECHU?”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI82YE)CHENGYIRENWEIZHEISHUYU“LE”DEJIEDUAN。ZAISHANGSHU《LUNYU·TAIBO》DI8JIEZHONG,KONGZIZAI“SHI”“LI”ZHIWAI,HAITIDAOLE“LE”,ERZHEISHITONGGUOLILIQILAIDAODEPINZHIDEDAOWANCHENGDEJIEDUAN。

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YINCI,ZAIPINGLUN“LIZHESUOYILIYE”SHI,CHENGYISHUO,YINLESHIDERENMENZAIZUNXUNZHENGDANGGUIZESHIHUIGANDAOGAOXING:“BUZHISHOUZHIWUZHI,ZUZHIDAOZHIYE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI128YE)。DAONEISHI,QIADANGDEGUIZEBUZAIBEIRENWEISHIXIANZHIYIGERENNEIXINGANSHOUDEWAIBUSHIWU,ERSHIJIFAYIGERENXINGWEIDENEIZAIDEDONGXI。JIUXIANGYIGERENZIRANDI、HUANLEDITIAOWU,YIGERENZUODAODEXINGWEISHIBUHUIGANDAOSHIWAIZAIGUIZEYAOQIUTAMENZUOCHUCIZHONGXINGWEI。XIANGFAN,YIGERENZUOCHUCIZHONGXINGWEISHI,HAIHUIGANDAONEIXINDEKUAILE。YINCI,CHENGYIZHICHU,“’DAERHUAZHI‘ZHISHIWEILIYUJIYI。QIWEIHUAZHE,RURENCAOCHIDULIANGWU,YONGZHISHANGBUMIANYOUCHA,RUOZHIYUHUAZHE,ZEJIBIANSHICHIDU,CHIDUBIANSHIJI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI156YE)ZAILINGYICHU,TALEIBICHENGZHONGLIANGDE“CHENG”QUJIESHI“LI”:“RENWUQUANHENG,ZEBUNENGZHIQINGZHONG。SHENGRENZEBUYIQUANHENGERZHIQINGZHONGYI,SHENGRENZESHIQUANHENGYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·WAISHU》,2004,DI384YE)

                    QICI,DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,LITONGYANGSHIYIZHONGNEIXINGANSHOU。ZAISHANGWENZHONG,WOMENJIBENSHANGJIANG“LI”SHIWEIXINGWEIDEWAIBUGUIZE,TATONGGUODAODEXIUYANGERNEIHUA。RANER,ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,ZHEIXIEGUIZEDELAIYUANBENSHENJIUBUSHIWAIBUDE。DANGRAN,SHISHENGRENZHIDINGLEZHEIXIEGUIZE。RANER,YANZHEMENGZIDELUJING,CHENGYIRENWEI“SHENGRENYUANRENQINGYIZHILI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI87YE)。HUANYANZHI,QIADANGDEGUIZEBUJINPEIYURENDEQINGGAN;TAMENYEYUANZIYURENDEQINGGAN。ZAICHENGYIKANLAI,“FUYOUWUBIYOUZE,FUZHIYUCI,ZIZHIYUXIAO,JUNZHIYUREN,CHENZHIYUJING……SHENGRENSUOYINENGSHITIANXIASHUNZHI,FEINENGWEIWUZUOZEYE,WEIZHIZHIGEYUQISUOERYI。”(《ERCHENGJI·ZHOUYICHENGSHICHUAN》,2004,DI968YE)YINCI,SHENGRENCHUANGLIGUIZESHIBINGFEIWUZHONGSHENGYOU。TAMENJINJINSHIZHIDINGLERENMENZIRANBENXINGJIUHUIZUNSHOUDEGUIZE。HUANYANZHI,SUIRANZAISHENGRENYONGLIYIQUGUIYUERENMENDEXINGWEISHI,ZHEIXIELIYISIHUSHIWAIZAIDE,DANCONGTAMENDEQIYUANLAIKAN,TAMENSHINEIZAIDE。JIUCIERYAN,CHENGYISHUODAO:“WUYOUZIDETIANLIZHE。RUFENGYIZHIWEIQIJUN,CHAITAZHIJI。LIYICHUYURENQINGERYI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI180YE)ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGJIANG,LISHIBARENLEIYUBIEDECUNZAIWUQUFENKAILAIDEBIAOJI。8ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,CHENGYIQUFENLE“LIZHIQI”YU“LIZHIBEN”:“LIZHIBEN,CHUYUMINZHIQING,SHENGRENYINERDAOZHIER。LIZHIQI,CHUYUMINZHISU,SHENGRENYINERJIEWENZHIER。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI327YE)ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,LIZHIQI,JINEIXIEWAIZAIGUIZE,BIXUYAOJIANLIZAILIZHIBENDEJICHUZHISHANG。

                    ZUIHOU,DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,LISHUYURENXING。CHULELIZHIBENYULIZHIQIDEQUFENZHIWAI,CHENGYIHAIQUFENLELIDE“XINGERSHANG”YU“XINGERXIA”.ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,SHENGRENJIANLILIYISHIWEILERENMEN:

                    YIXINGJUNCHEN、FUZI、XIONGDI、FUFU、PENGYOUZHIYI。QIXINGERXIAZHE,JUYUYINSHIQIFUZHIYONG;QIXINGERSHANGZHE,JIYUWUSHENGWUCHOUZHIWEI;ZHONGRENMIANZHI,XIANRENXINGZHI,SHENGRENYOUZHI。(《ERCHENGJI·YIWEN》,2004,DI668YE)

                    GENJUCHENGYIDEKANFA,WAIZAIGUIZE(LIZHIQI)SHIJIANLIZAIYUANCHUDERENLEIQINGGAN(LIZHIBEN)JICHUZHISHANGDE。RANER,LIZHIBENZHEIZHONGRENLEIQINGGANCONGHEERLAI?ZAICHENGYIKANLAI,TAMENYUANZIRENXING。CHENGYISHENGCHENG,RENXINGSHIRENSHENGERJUYOUDE,ZHENGSHITAJIANGRENYUQITACUNZAIZHEQUFENKAILAI,ERZHEIZHONGRENLEITEYOUDEBIAOZHIJIUSHIWUZHONGJIBENDEMEIDE:REN、YI、LI、ZHI、XIN。DANGWAIZAISHIWUYURENDESHENTIJIECHUJINERCIJILERENXINGSHI,RENDEQINGGANJIUCHUXIANLE。YIFANGMIAN,DANGZHEIXIEQINGGANFUHEZIRANRENXINGSHI,JIMEIYOUBEIZISIDEYUWANGNIUQUSHI,TAMENSHIFUHEZHONGYONGDE,RENDEZIRANBENXINGJIUDEDAOLEPEIYU。LINGYIFANGMIAN,DANGZHEIZHONGRENLEIQINGGANZOURUQITUSHI,JIUHUIDUIRENXINGZAOCHENGSUNHAI。“JUEZHE”YU“YUZHE”ZHIJIANDEQUBIEJIUZAIYU,QIANZHEGENJUBENXINGYINDAOQINGGAN(XINGQIQING),HOUZHEFANZHI(QINGQIXING)。YINCI,WAIZAIGUIZEJIYURENMENDEQINGGAN,ERRENMENDEQINGGANJIYURENDEBENXING。YINCI,CHENGYISHUO“YOUXINGBIANYOUQING。WUXINGANDEQING?……FEICHUYUWAI,GANYUWAIERFAYUZHONGYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI204YE)SUOYIDUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,SUIRANRENDEQINGGANSHIZAIRENDESHENTIYUWAIZAISHIWUJIECHUZHIHOUCAIYINFADE,DANTAMENBINGFEILAIZIYUWAIZAISHIWU,ERSHILAIZIYUNEIZAIDERENXING。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,“LI”ZHEIGEZAILIXUEZHONGZHIWANWU(BAOKUORENLEIZAINEI)ZHIZHONGJISHIZAIDEGAINIAN,YURENXINGMEIYOUSHENMEBUTONG。LIRU,CHENGYISHENGCHENG,“XINGJILIYE,SUOWEILI,XINGSHIYE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI292YE);BINGQIE“XINGJISHILI,LIZEZIYAO、SHUNZHIYUTUREN,YIYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI204YE)YOUYULISHIGUYOUDE、RENXINGDEYIBUFEN,CHENGYIRENWEI“LI”YU“LI”YESHITONGYIDE:“SHITINGYANDONG,FEILIBUWEI,JISHILI,LIJISHILIYE。BUSHITIANLIBIANSHISIYU”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI144YE);“BUHELIZEFEILI”(《ERCHENGJI·ZHOUYICHENGSHICHUAN》,2004,DI699YE)。

                    五、道德形而上学

                    WOMENSHANGMIANDUIRENXINGDETAOLUNJIANGWOMENDAIRULECHENGYIDEDAODEXINGERSHANGXUE。CHENGYISUOFUXINGDERUJIASIXIANGZAIXIFANGXUESHUZHONGBEICHENGWEI“XINRUXUE”(neo-Confucianism)。SUIRANYUGUDIANRUXUEDEXIANGBI,XINRUXUEZHI“XIN”YIJINGYOULEDALIANGDEJIESHI(LIRU,CANJIAN,MOUZONGSAN,1990,1.11-18;Chang,1963,pp.43-45),DANTAZUIDUTEDEDIFANGZAIYU,TAFAZHANCHULEYIZHONGDUIGUDIANRUXUEZHONGDEDAODEJIAZHIJINXINGBENTILUN-SHENXUELUNCHANSHIDEDAODEXINGERSHANGXUE,ZHEILEISIYUCHAERSI·TAILEDUIXIANDAIZIYOUZHUYIJIAZHISUOJINXINGDEBENTILUNCHANSHI(cf.Taylor,1995)。CHAERSI·TAILEFAXIANLEGOUCHENGXIANDAIZIYOUZHUYIJIAZHIGUANZHISHANDESANZHONGLAIYUAN(ZIRAN、LIXINGHESHANGDI),ERCHENGYIJIESHILEGOUCHENGRUJIAJIAZHIGUANZHISHANDEYIZHONGLAIYUAN:LI。“LI”ZHEIGEGAINIANYOUHENDUOBUTONGDEHANYI,DANWORENWEIZUIHAOCONG“SHENG”DEJIAODULAIJIAYILIJIE。

                    DANGRAN,ZHENGRUXUDUOXUEZHEZHICHUDENEIYANG,“LI”ZAIRUJIAWENBENZHONGZAOYICUNZAI。DANSHI,ZAICHENGYIJIQIXIONGZHANGCHENGHAOZHEILI,LIBUJINDIYICIHUODELEQIZHEXUETIXIDEZHONGXINWEIZHI,ERQIEHAIBEISHIWEIYUZHOUDEZHONGJISHIZAI。LIRU,CHENGYIBIAOSHI“SHIYOUSHILI,GUSHIYOUSHIWU;SHIYOUSHIWU,GUSHIYOUSHIYONG”(《ERCHENGJI·CHENGSHIJINGSHUO》,2004,DI1160YE)。YINERHENMINGXIAN,DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,LIZAIBENTILUNSHANGYAOYOUXIANYUSHIWU。TABUJINJIESHILESHIWURUHECUNZAI,ERQIEHAIJIESHILESHIWUWEIHESHIZHEIGETESHUSHIWUERBUSHIQITASHIWU。JIARUMEIYOULI,JIUMEIYOUSHIWU;SHIWUZHISUOYICUNZAI,ZHENGSHIYINWEILI。ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,CHENGYIJIANG“LI”ZHEIGESHUYUYUXUDUOQITAYONGLAIBIAOSHUZHONGJISHIZAIDESHUYUJIAOTISHIYONG,LIRUDAO、TIAN、XING、SHEN、XIN。LIRU,TASHUO,“ZAITIANWEIMING,ZAIRENWEIXING,LUNQISUOZHUWEIXIN,QISHIZHISHIYIGEDAO。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI204YE)9

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZUOWEIWANWUDEZHONGJISHIZAI,WANWUZHILIDOUSHITONGYIGELI。CHENGYISHUODAO,“LIZETIANXIAZHISHIYIGELI,GUTUIZHISIHAIERZHUN,XUSHIZHIZHUTIANDI,KAOZHUSANWANGBUYIZHILI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI38YE)TAJINERSHUODAO,“TIANDIZHIJIAN,WANWUZHILI,WUYOUBUTONG”(《ERCHENGJI·JINGSHUO》,2004,DI1029YE),YINCI“YIRENZHIXINJITIANDIZHIXIN,YIWUZHILIJIWANWUZHILI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI13YE)。RANER,YUCITONGSHI,CHENGYIYETANDAOLEBUTONGDESHIWUYOUBUTONGDELI。BUJINYOUWULI,SHILI,ERQIEYOURENLI。YINCI,CHENGYISHUO,“FANYANQIANWUFEISHIWU,WUWUJIEYOULI。RUHUOZHISUOYIRE,SHUIZHISUOYIHAN,ZHIYUJUNCHENFUZIJIANJIESHILI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI247YE)ZAIZHEILI,CHENGYITANDAOLEWULI(SHUIHUOZHILI)YIJIRENLI(JUNCHENFUZIZHILI)10.JUTIERYAN,CHENGYISHENGCHENG“TIANXIAWUJIEKEYILIZHAO,YOUWUBIYOUZE,YIWUXUYOUYILI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI193YE)。DANSHI,DANGWENJISHIFOUKEYITONGGUOGEYIWUERLIJIEWANLIZHISHI,CHENGYIDEDAANSHIJUEDUIFOUDINGDE(CANJIAN《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI188YE)。HUANYANZHI,BINGFEIJINJINCUNZAIWULIYURENLI,ERSHISHUOBUTONGDEWUYIJIBUTONGRENHESHIJIEYOUBUTONGDELI。

                    WEILELIJIE“YILI”YU“WANLI”ZHIJIANDEGUANXI,WOMENXUYAOHUIDAOCHENGYIDE“LIYIFENSHU”DESIXIANG。CONGBIAOMIANSHANGKAN,“LIYIFENSHU”YOULIANGZHONGYISI。ZAIYIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,FENSHUZHIDESHIWANWU;LINGYIZHONGQINGKUANG,FENSHUZHIDESHIWANWUZHONGBUTONGDELI。RANER,ZAICHENGYIKANLAI,ZHEILIANGZHONGYISISHIYIZHIDE。YOUYUWANWUJIEYOULI,BINGQIELIZAIBENTILUNSHANGYOUXIANYUWANWU,YINCIZUOWEIWANWUDE“FENSHU”YUZUOWEIWANLIDE“FENSHU”MEIYOURENHECHAYI。ZHEILIZHONGYAODESHIYAOKANDAO,DANGCHENGYISHUOWANLITONGXIANGYILIZHISHI,TABINGBUSHIZHIZAIWANLIZHISHANGHAICUNZAIZHEYIGELI,JIUXIANGZAIDUOZHONGJUTIDEAIZHISHANGHAICUNZAIZHEYIGEPUBIANDEAI。DANGYIGERENQUAIDESHIHOU,TADEAIDOUSHIJUTIDE。YIGERENYONGYUANWUFAYIPUBIANDEFANGSHIQUAI。YINCIZHONGYAODESHIKANDAO,DANGJIESHILIYIFENSHUDESIXIANGSHI,CHENGYIBUTONGYUTAZHIQIANDEFOJIAOTUYIJITAZHIHOUDEZHUXI,TAMEIYOUSHIYONG“YUEYINWANCHUAN”DEBIYU。YINWEIZHEIGEBIYUBIAOMINGCUNZAIZHEYIGEZHENSHIDELI(YUELIANG)ZAISHANGMIAN,ERWANLI(WUSHUHELIULIDEYUELIANG)ZHIBUGUOSHITADEYINGXIANG。JIBIANMEIYOUWANCHUANZHONGDEYINGXIANG,YUELIANGYEKEYICUNZAI;DANDUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,YILIYUWANLISHIBUKEFENDE。11

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YINCI,JINGUANYOURENRENWEICHENGYIDELIYUBOLATUDELINIAN/XINGXIANGYOUZHEXIANGSIZHICHU(CANJIANChang,1963,p.47;Fung,1953,p.507;HOUWAILU,1995,DI501YE),DANDUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,SUIRANLIQUESHIZAIBENTILUNSHANGYOUXIANYUWANWU,DANTABINGBUCUNZAIYUWANWUZHIWAI。ZAIJIESHI《YIJING》ZHONGDE“YIYINYIYANGZHIWEIDAO”ZHISHI,CHENGYISHUO“DAOFEIYINYANGYE,SUOYIYIYINYIYANGDAOYE,RUYIHEYIPIWEIZHIBIAN”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU,2004,DI67YE)。ZAIZHEILI,SUIRANTASHUOLIHUODAOBINGFEIYINYANGZHIQI,TATONGYANGSHUOLELISHIYINYANGZHIJIANDEBUTINGXIEDEZHUANHUA。JIARUORUCI,LIJIUBUNENGCUNZAIYUZHEIXIESHENGMINGWUZHIWAI。JIUCIERYAN,CHENGYISHUODEFEICHANGQINGCHU:“LILEYINYANGGENGWUDAO,SUOYIYINYANGZHEDAOYE。YINYANG,QIYE。QISHIXINGERXIAZHE,DAOSHIXINGERSHANGZHE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU,2004,DI162YE)

                    NEIME,ZAIBENTILUNSHANGJUEDINGQI,BINGQIEWUFAYUQIFENGEKAILAIDENEIGE“LI”DAODISHISHENME?SUIRANXUDUOXUEZHEYIJINGYISHIDAO,JIANGTAYUBOLATUDELINIANXIANGTIBINGLUNSHICUOWUDE,YINWEIHOUZHENENGGOUDULICUNZAIYUJUTISHIWUZHIWAI;DANRENGRANHENCHANGJIANDESHI,JIANGQISHIWEIWANWUDEGONGTONGBENZHI,HUOZHEZHILIWANWUDEGONGTONGFALV,HUOZHEWANWUZUNXUNDEPUBIANYUANZE,HUOZHEWANWUZHANGXIANCHUDEPUBIANGUILV,ZHIYAOWOMENRENWEIZHEIZHONGBENZHI、FALV、YUANZEHEGUILVWUFAYUJUTISHIWUFENKAIJIUXING。RANER,ZAIWOKANLAI,RUCIWUHUADILIJIECHENGYIZHILIDEFANGSHI(JIANGQILIJIEWEIMOUZHONGSHIWU,ZONGSHIBUKEJIAN)SHICUOWUDE;XIANGFAN,WORENWEI,DUIYUCHENGYIERYAN,LISHOUXIANBUSHIMOUZHONGSHIWU(some thing),ERSHISHIWUDEHUODONG(the activity of things)。ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,CHENGYIZAITANDAO《YIJING》SHISHUO,“ZIGURUZHEJIEYANJINGJIANTIANDIZHIXIN,WEIMOUYANDONGERJIANTIANDIZHIXIN。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI201YE)RANER,CHENGYISUOSHUODE“DONG”DAODISHENMEYISI?ZHEISHICHUANGZAOLIHUOFUYUSHENGMINGLIDEHUODONG(SHENG)。YINCI,TASHUODAO“SHENGSHENGZHILI,ZIRANBUXI”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI167YE)。CHENGYIZHISUOYIRENWEIWANWUCUNZAIDEYUANYINSHILI,BINGBUSHIRENWEILISHIDULIYUWANWUDEMOUZHONGSHIWU。WUNINGSHUO,QISHISHIZHEIZHONGFUYUWANWUSHENGMINGDEHUODONG(life-giving activity),ZAIBENTILUNDEYIYISHANGYOUXIANYUJUYOUSHENGMINGHUODONGDEWANWU。JIARUMEIYOUFUYUSHENGMINGDEHUODONG,WANWUJIUSHIXUWU,YINWEITAMENMEIYOU“QUCUNZAI”DEXINGWEI。DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGFUYUWANWUSHENGMINGDEHUODONG,SHIZHONGDOUSHIWANWUDEHUODONG;ERWANWU,SHIZHONGDOUSHIJUYOUSHENGMINGHUODONGDEWANWU。ZAILINGYICHU,CHENGYISHUODAO“DAOZEZIRANSHENGWANWU。JINFUCHUNSHENGXIAZHANGLEYIFAN,JIESHIDAOZHISHENG……DAOZEZIRANSHENGSHENGBUXI。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI149YE)WOMENHAIKANDAO,CHENGYIJIANGLIYUXINLIANXIZAIYIQI,WULUNSHIRENZHIXINHUOTIANDIZHIXIN。XIANZAIWOMENKEYIYONGFUYUWANWUSHENGMINGDEHUODONGLAIJIESHIZHEIYIDIAN:“XINSHENGDAOYE,YOUSHIXIN,SIJUSHIXINGYISHENG。CEYINZHIXIN,RENZHISHENGDAOYE。”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI274YE)12

                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   TONGGUOBATADE“LI”JIESHIWEIFUYUSHENGMINGDEHUODONG,WOMENJIUKEYILIJIE,CHENGYIDEXINGERSHANGXUEWEIHESHIYIZHONGDAODEXINGERSHANGXUE,SHIDUIRUJIAJIAZHIGUANDEBENTILUNCHANSHI,YINWEITAYURUJIAZUIHEXINDEDAODEJIAZHI“REN”MIQIEXIANGGUAN。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,RUJIAZUIZHONGYAODEJIAZHISHIREN、YI、LI、ZHI、XIN。ANZHAOCHENGYIDEGUANDIAN,ZAIZHEIWUZHONGMEIDEZHIZHONG,RENSHIZUIZHONGYAODE,YINWEIZAIMOUZHONGYIYISHANG,TABAOKUOSUOYOUQITADEMEIDE(CANJIAN《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI14YE)。YINCI,ZAIDUIRUJIAJIAZHIGUANJINXINGBENTILUNCHANSHISHI,CHENGYISHOUXIANGUANZHUDESHIREN。SHENMESHIREN?CHENGHAOZAISHUOWAN“WANWUZHISHENGYIZUIKEGUAN”ZHIHOU,JIXUSHUODAO,“CIYUANZHESHANZHIZHANGYE,SISUOWEIRENYE。RENYUTIANDIYIWUYE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI120YE)。HUANYANZHI,RENSHISHANDE,BUJINYINWEITASHIYIZHONGRENLEIJIAZHI;ERQIEHAIYINWEITAYUZHONGJISHITI,JIFUYUSHENGMINGDEHUODONGZHIJIANMEIYOUQUBIE。YINCI,RENBUJINKEYIZAITAYUTIANLI(JIFUYUSHENGMINGDEHUODONG)ZHIJIANDEGUANXIZHONGDEYILIJIE,ERQIETATONGYANGYEKEYIBEISHIWEIFUYUSHENGMINGDEHUODONGBENSHEN。DUIYUCHENGHAOERYAN,YAOHUOZHEJIUYIWEIYAOREN,SILEBIANQUESHILEREN。ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,ERCHENGDOUYONGSHUANGGUANDEFANGFACHANSHILERENDEYIYI。CHENGYISHUO“XINPIRUGUZHONG,SHENGZHIXINGBIANSHIRENYE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI184YE),ERCHENGHAOZEJIANGQIYIYILIJIEWEITIRENSHENGMINGDENENGLI(BURENZESHI“SHOUZUWEIBI”)(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI15YE)。HUANYANZHI,ZHONGJISHIZAIBENSHENJIUSHIDAODEDE。YINCI,CHENGHAOSHUO“’SHENGSHENGZHIWEIYI‘,SHITIANSUOYIWEIDAOYE,TIANZHISHIYISHENGWEIDAO”,TAJINERSHENGCHENG“JICISHENGLIZHE,JISHISHANYE”(《ERCHENGJI·YISHU》,2004,DI29YE)。ZAIZHEILI,CHENGSHIMINGQUEJIANGZUOWEISHENGMINGHUODONGDE“LI”YUDAODEDE“SHAN”LIANXIQILAILE。

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                    ZHUSHI

                    1这个问题经常被认为是荒谬的,因而可以安全地略过。例如,斯蒂芬·图尔明(Stephen Toulmin)认为,就像“为什么所有猩红色的东西都是红色的”问题一样,这是一个同义反复的问题(Toulmin,1964,p.162);另一方面,F·H·布拉德利(F.H.Bradley)认为这是一个自相矛盾的问题,因为它要求我们为道德、即为不自利提供一个自利的理由(Bradley,1935,pp.61-62)。然而,凯·尼尔森(Kai Nielsen)声称这个问题是有道理的,因为它的确在追问“对我而言,成为道德之人是否合乎理性”(Nielsen,1989,pp.286-287)。大卫·科普(David Copp)也认为这个问题是可以理解的,因为它是在询问“道德是否能够超越自利?”(Copp,1997,p.86)。
                    2例如,庞万里就说,“真知来源于直接经验并有德于心,而常知只是从间接经验中来的。真知是从生活经历、实践中来的,而常知是根据传闻而来的。”(庞:152)。
                    3研究理学的狄百瑞(De Bary)在他的着作《为己之学》(Learning for One's Self)之中,用了一章去阐释这个概念。他将“自得”翻译为“getting it by or for oneself”,在他看来,这个概念有两个重要的涵义:“一个相对浅薄的意思是,为了自己去学习或体验一些真理,从而获得内心的满足。在这里,自得具有’为了自己满足而学习‘’自我满足‘’泰然自若‘的涵义。这个术语的另一个涵义有着更深刻的意义:’从自我这里得到或找到道‘.”(De Bary,1991,p.43)并且,他把第二种涵义与《孟子》联系在一起。
                    4有趣的是,在西方哲学的传统中,身体与心灵通常被视为两个独立的实体;而在儒家传统中,它们都被视为“体”.一个是“小体”,一个是“大体”.
                    5的确,张载在另一个段落里使用了墨家用于表达普遍之爱的术语,兼爱:“性者万物之一源,非有我之得私也,惟大人为能尽其道。是故立必俱立,知必周知,爱必兼爱”(张载,1978,第5页)。
                    6在这里,我同意黄百锐(David Wong)的说法,“若要爱得好,更需要知道如何去做,而不是知道爱是什么。这涉及到能够在适当的时候、以适当的方式,妥协于他人的意愿;也能够在适当的时候、以适当的方式,拒绝他人的意愿。”(Wong,1989,pp.255-256)
                    7这类似于亚里士多德所说的:“那些在应当发怒的场合不发怒的人被看作是愚蠢的,那些对该发怒的人、在该发怒的时候不以适当方式发怒的人也是愚蠢的。”(Aristotle,1963,pp.1126a5-6)。
                    8潘富恩与徐余庆,在他们研究二程的过程中,同样发现:“仁义礼乐原出于民情,经过在’上‘者的理论化系统化又还原于民。”(潘富恩、徐余庆,1996,第160页)
                    9因此,我认为卢连章对二程的理解是错的,他认为理是第一位的,而其他范畴如天、性和命是第二位的(参见卢连章,2001,第116页)。相反,我认为牟宗三基本正确,他指出“此中其体、其理、其用,皆指’上天之载‘本身说,即皆指无声无臭、生物不测之天道本身说,是故易、道、神,亦是此天道本身之种种名,所指皆一实体也”(牟宗三,1990,1.23)。
                    10钱穆声称理学中只有物理而没有人理(钱穆,2001,第228页),我认为这一点是错的。在钱穆对于孔孟古典儒学与程朱新儒学所进行的区分之中,他说古典儒学讨论的是道,包含天道与人道,但没有物道;而新儒学讨论理,包含天理与物理,但没有人理。
                    11在解释如何区分两种不同的理时,牟宗三给出了另一种解释,即作为宇宙的本体论/形而上学基础的“理”(通过诸如“就体而言理”等表述来表达);与作为特殊事物自然倾向的“理”(通过诸如“就现实存在之种种自然曲折之势而言理”等表述来表达)。就前者而言,天下只有一个理;就后者而言,每个事物都有它特有的理。(牟宗三,1990,2.81)
                  牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   12我这里所提供的解释与牟宗三所给出的解释不同,牟宗三认为,与其兄程颢理解的理是即活动即存有不同,程颐理解的理是只存有不活动者(牟宗三,1990,1.44;2.78)。牟宗三的观点不仅普遍被台湾的学者(大多是他的学生)所接受,而且在大陆的学者中间也越来越流行。例如,庞万里同样认为,二程对于理的理解是不同的:程颢以变化和运动的视角理解它;而程颐以静止的万物结构来理解它。庞万里同样引用了张岱年,以及其他人,去支持他的这种解释。(庞万里,1990,第59页)

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