牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                            1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 张载“德性所知”理论的内涵与本质

                              张载“德性所知”理论的内涵与本质

                              时间:2019-02-07 15:25作者:崔宇 王昭颖
                              本文导读:这是一篇关于张载“德性所知”理论的内涵与本质的文章,在张岱年先生看来,中国的传统思想中有关于哲学的论述很多与“知”论密不可分,但是我们所说的“知论”却不是常理解的“知识论”,所以说,张载的“知”论不可避免的带有一些复杂性。反思其“见闻之知”“德性所知”

                                摘    要: 张载的关于知的论述可以分为德性所知和见闻之知。在张载的思想中,把气作为万物的实体,表现为太虚本体运诸气而发动。其“德性所知”思想根源也就是太虚。在阐述其内涵本源基础上探论“闻见之知”与“德性所知”之关系、“德性所知”与“德性之知”之比较,来凸显张载的“德性所知”其本质和内涵功夫,从而力图使张载的知论更加清晰。

                                关键词: 张载; 德性所知; 见闻之知;

                                一、“知”与“德”

                                (一)“知”的来源

                                ZHANGDAINIANRENWEI,“ZHILUNZHIZUIJIBENDEWENTI,SHIZHIZHIXINGZHIYULAIYUANWENTI。”ZAIQI《ZHONGGUOZHEXUEDAGANG》ZHONGYETAOLUNLEGUDAISIXIANGJIADUIYU“ZHIZHI”DELUNSHU。YAOXIANGQINGCHUDELEJIEZHANGZAIDEZHILUN,SHIBIYAODUITADESIXIANGZHONGDEYOUGUANZHIDEFANCHOUJINXINGZHENGLIKAOCHA。ZAIZHANGDAINIANXIANSHENGKANLAI,ZHONGGUODECHUANTONGSIXIANGZHONGYOUGUANYUZHEXUEDELUNSHUHENDUOYU“ZHI”LUNMIBUKEFEN,DANSHIWOMENSUOSHUODE“ZHILUN”QUEBUSHICHANGLIJIEDE“ZHISHILUN”,SUOYISHUO,ZHANGZAIDE“ZHI”LUNBUKEBIMIANDEDAIYOUYIXIEFUZAXING。FANSIQI“JIANWENZHIZHI”“DEXINGSUOZHI”DEFUZAXING。

                                XIANYISUOWEIDE“ZHI”LAIKAOCHABAWOQISIXIANGZHONGDEHANYI,ZHUYAOYI“JIANWENZHIZHI”HE“DEXINGSUOZHI”LAIJIAYILUNSHU,CONGZHONGBAWOZHANGZAIZHILUNDEBENRANHANYI。ZAILAIYUANFANGMIAN,ZHANGZIYOUZIJIDUDAODEJIANJIE。WANWUZAISHENGCHENGBIANHUAZHONG,ZAICITONGSHI“ZHI”YEYUNYUCHANSHENGTONGSHIJINXINGBIANHUA,ERJIUQIXINGZHIERYANNI,YOULIBUKAIQIHUADEDAODELINGYU,SUOYIZHANGZAIDE“ZHILUN”SHIJUYOUTESHUXINGDE,SHIQISIXIANGDEYIGEZHONGYAODELIANJIEHUANJIE。

                                ZAIZHANGZAIDEZHILUNZHONG,CONG“JIANWENZHIZHI”DEFASHENGDAOYUDEXIANGGUANDE“DEXINGSUOZHI”LAISHUO,TASHIZHONGCHUZAIYIGEYIZHIDEFANWEINEI。SHOUXIAN“JIANWENZHIZHI”ZUOWEIFUHE“ZHIHENEIWAI”DEZHI,CHENGXIANDESHIYIBANXIANXIANDEZHUANGTAI,“DEXINGSUOZHI”GENGJIAPIANXIANGDESHIDEXING,QIERZHESHIYOUQUFENDE。BAWO“JIANWENZHIZHI”HE“DEXINGSUOZHI”XIANGDANGYUZAITONGGUOERWENMUJIANDEWUGUANLAIBAWOJINGWEIDECAILIAOZAISHIJIAYU“XIN”DEZUOYONG。SUOYICONG“WENJIANZHIZHI”WEIQIERUDIAN,CAINENGGENGHAODEBAWOGEYAOSU。CONG“ERWEN”“MUJIAN”DEXIANXIANGUANWUZAIDAOYI“DAXIN”LAITIWUTIXIANLEGONGFUDEZUOYONG。ZHANGZAIDEZHILUNZONGDEGAIKUOLAISHUOSHI“SIZHIRENBUKEBUZHITIAN”JIANGTIANYURENDEGUANXIYIJIYINZANGHEXIANXIANGONGTONGCHENGXIANYU“ZHI”LUNDANGZHONG,LAIJIESHIQIBENRANYIYIQUESHIYOUQIDUDAOZHICHU。

                                (二)“德”的境界

                                JIYURENDETIANDIZHIXINGHERENZHIBENXINCONGERLAIRENSHIXINGYUTIANDAODESHIDEXINGSUOZHI。ZHANGZIYAN“JIANWENZHIZHI,NAIWUJIAOERZHI,FEIDEXINGSUOZHI;DEXINGSUOZHI,BUMENGYUJIANWEN。”ZAIZHEIGEFANGMIAN,ZHANGZAISUOJIANGDEGUANYUZHILUNDEWENTIDADOUSHIJIYUXINLAIJIANGDE,SHIJIESHANGDABUFENSHIPUTONGREN,ER“DAQIXIN”FANGNENGTIDASHIJIANWANWU,ZHEIXIEPUTONGRENTAMENZHINENGTINGLIUZAIERWENMUJIANDEJUXIANSHANG,QIEBUNENGCHAOYUECIJIEDUAN,ZHIYOUJINGGUOLE“JINXIN”SHENGRENCAINENGDAODADAOTIANRENHEYIDEYIZHONGJINGJIE,CONGERRENSHIXINGYUTIANDAO。CONGER“DEXINGSUOZHI”YEKEYIKANZUOSHIYIZHONGWUWOHEYIDEYIZHONGJINGSHENFANGMIANDEJINGJIE。“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHIYIZHONGJINGJIE,YIZHONGDAIYOURENSHILUNHEZHEXUEJINGSHENDEJINGJIE。TARENWEIZHANGZAISUOJIANGDE“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHICONGLIXINGRENSHIERBUSHICONGGANXINGRENSHIFAZHANCHUDEYIZHONG“ZHEXUERENSHI”。YOULEZHEIZHONGRENSHI,NENGGOUTIWU,LAISHIXIAN“TIANRENHEYI”DEMOSHIJINGJIE。YINCI,“DEXINGSUOZHI”YESHIYIZHONGSHENGRENSUONENGDADAODEJINGSHENJINGJIE,LEISIYUFENGYOULANXIANSHENGSUOCHONGSHANGDE“TIANDIJINGJIE”。

                                在内容方面,穷理和尽性两种不同的内容也在“德性所知”中所体现出来,“诚明所知,乃天德良知,非闻见小知而已。”理是不能离开事物而单独存在的,而穷理也是通过事物来找寻其内在的规律。见物到穷理过渡的阶段就是学习,学便是穷理,事物之理是后天的见解。张载也就在“尽性”的方面也有了“人”与“物”之分别。“穷理亦当有渐,见物多,穷理多,如此可尽物之性”。《张子语录·上》张子在这里的意思是通过见物到穷理的过渡,以此来尽物。先闻见事物,之后通过认识其自然本性,来得到后天的知识。通过了穷理的过渡,再经过气质的改变,便更好的能达到尽性。这就在此体现了“德性所知”只是在与人的道德相结合时才显现出一些先验的性质。
                               

                              张载“德性所知”理论的内涵与本质
                               

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZHICIZHIWAI,XUYAOZHONGSHIDEYIDIANSHI,“DEXINGSUOZHI”BUSHIYOU“JIANWENZHIZHI”ZHIJIECHANSHENGDE,BUSHIZHIJIESHOUDAOERMUGANGUANDEYINGXIANGDE。

                                二、“德性”与“见闻”

                                (一)见闻之知内涵

                                GUANYU“JIANWENZHIZHI”,ZHANGZAIDUIKONGZISIXIANGZHONGGUANYU“DUOWEN”“DUOJIAN”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)DESIXIANGJINXINGLEBUCHONGHEFAHUI。ZHANGZIYUN:“WENJIANBUZUYIJINWU,RANYOUXUYAOTA。ERMUBUDEZESHIMUSHI,YAOTABIANHEDENEIWAIZHIDAO,RUOBUWENBUJIANYOUHEYAN。”“JIANWENZHIZHI”SHIRENSHIDEJICHU,LAIYUANYUERWENMUJIAN,RUGUOBINGQINEIRENBIANRUMUSHIYIBAN。ZAIRENSHISHIWU、QIUQUZHISHIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,“JIANWENZHIZHI”KEYITONGGUOJIECHUWENJIANSHIWU、ZHIJIEJINGYANBIANBIESHIWU,LAIWEILEJIEQINEIZAIDEXINGTIGONGTUJINGSUCAI。QIEKEYIZUODAOGENNEIXINDELIANJIEZUOYONG,ZUODAO“DAQIXIN”。DANSHITADEJUXIANXINGZAIYUWUFAWENJIANTIANXIASUOYOUSHIWU,RENLEIDEERWENMUJIANSHIYOUXIANDEERKEGUANSHIWUDECUNZAISHIWUXIANDE。JIUHAOBU,RENDEYANJINGWUFAKANDAOQIANLIZHIWAIDEDONGXI,ERDUOYEBUNENGTINGDAOQIANLIZHIWAIDESHENGYIN,SUOYISHUORENDEERWENMUJIANSHIYOUJUXIANXINGDE。

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   TONGGUODUI“JIANWENZHIZHI”DETICHU,ZHANGZIRENWEIZAIRENSHISHIWUDANGZHONGBIRANHUIYOUYIGERENZHIDEZHUTI,QIECIZHUTISHIBUKEHUOQUEDE。ZHENGYINWEIRENZHIZHUTIDECUNZAI,SUOYIZAIERWENMUJIANDEGUOCHENGZHONGBIRANHUISHOUDAOZHUTIDEXIANZHI,JUYOUYIDINGDEFUMIANYIYI,CHENGWEI“JIANWENZHIXIA”。DANGRAN,ZHANGZAIDUIYUCI“JIANWENZHIXIA”SHIBUZHICHIDE,CAIQUYIZHONGFOUDINGDETAIDU,BINGMEIYOUFOURENJIANWENDEBIYAOXINGDANHUODUOHUOSHAODEFOUDINGLEQIBENRANDEYIGEHANYI。ZAICITONGSHI,ZHANGZIDUI“JIANWENZHIZHI”DEJUXIANXINGYEJINXINGLEYIGESHENHUAHESHENGHUA,ZHEIYESHITAYUQIANRENSIXIANGDEYIGEBUTONGZHICHU。TONGGUOCIYEBIAODACHULEERWENMUJIANDEJUXIANXING,GANGUANRENWUZHINENGLISHIYOUXIANDE,YEHUIYOUZHUGUANFANGMIANDEYINSUSUOYINGXIANG。RENRENDOUYOULIANGZHISIXIANG,SUOYIRENDESUOJIANKENENGHUISHOUBIAOMIANSHIWUDEMENGBI,CONGERYINGXIANGRENMENDEPANDUAN。SUOYIRENMENDEBAITUOYIXIEWENJIANFANGMIANDEJUXIAN,CAINENGRENSHISHIWU,LEJIESHIWUDEGENYUAN。ZAIQIUZHISHANGBUSHOUMIHUO,TANSUOSHIWUAOMIAO。

                                (二)“德性所知,不萌于见闻”

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “JIANWENZHIZHI”HE“DEXINGSUOZHI”DETICHUYUDANGSHIDEDABEIJINGYOUGUAN,YEKECONGZHENGTIHEJUBUDEGUANXIZHONGLAIBA“DEXINGSUOZHI”“JIANWENZHIZHI”ERZHEQUBIEKAILAI。“DEXINGSUOZHI”BENSHENJUYOUDAHEQUANDESHUXING,YESHIDUIZHENGTIDEYIGEBAWO。ER“JIANWENZHIZHI”DEERWENMUJIANSHIYOUJUXIANDE,YEJIUSHIJINJINDUIJUBUDEBAWO。GUCI,ZHIDANPINGJINJINDE“JIANWENZHIZHI”SHIYOUJUXIANXINGDE。TITIANXIAZHIWUBENLAIJIUSHIDUIYUTIANXIASHIWUDEYIGERENZHI,SUOYIBIXUSHIYONGZHENGTIDEBAWO。

                                ZHANGZAI“DEXINGSUOZHI”DETICHU,BUJINJINSHIQIANGDIAO“BUMENGYUJIANWEN”DE,ERQIEGENGZHONGYAODESHIQIANGDIAOYIZHONGCHAOYUEXING,“JIANWENZHIZHI”YU“DEXINGSUOZHI”ZAIZHANGZAIKANLAI,CIERZHESHIJINMIXIANGLIANDE,BUNENGFENKAIERLUNDE。ZHITAN“JIANWENZHIZHI”BUNENGGENGHAODELIJIE“DEXINGSUOZHI”,ZHIGUANZHU“DEXINGSUOZHI”ERLVEGUOLE“JIANWENZHIZHI”YESHIBURONGYIBEIRENMENSUOBAWO,GENGTOUCHEDELEJIEZHANGZAIZHILUNDEYANJIUNEIRONG。SUIRAN,BUSHIZHIJIELAIZIYU“JIANWENZHIZHI”,DANSHI“JIANWENZHIZHI”DUIYU“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHIYOUYIDINGDETUIDONGHEQIFAZUOYONGDE。

                                TONGGUOWENJIANBINGBUSHIZHENZHENGDEZHI,YAOJIAZHIYUDUIBENXINDERENSHI。ZHANGZIYUN:“ZHIHENEIWAIYUERMUZHIWAI,ZEQIZHIYEGUORENYUANYI。”ZAIZHEILIYEJIUSHISHUOMINGLEZHENZHENGDEZHISHIBUNENGYONGJINJINDEERWENMUJIANLAIHANGAIDE,RENZHENZHENGDEGANZHISHIYAO,TONGGUOCHAOYUEJIANWENDE“DEXINGSUOZHI”,KEFUJUXIANHESHUFU,JINXINGCHAOYUEDEGANZHI。SIWEIDEGANZHIBINGFEINEIWAIZHIHEERWENMUJIANSUONENGJIDE。YAOYIDAXINTIWU,YIRENXINHEYUTIANXIN,DADAOTIANRENHEYI,CONGERHUODECHAOYUEYUJIANCHANZHIZHIDE“DEXINGSUOZHI”CAIGENGSHIRENMENYINGGAIZHUIQIUDE。

                                三、德性所知之工夫

                                “DEXINGSUOZHI”ZAIQIZHONGYETIXIANLEZHANGZAIDEGONGFULUNTIXI,KEZHISIYUDEBIANHUAQIZHI。YAOTIWURENDEBENXINBENXING,ZUNCONGBENXINQUZUOSHI,YAO“XUQIXIN”“DAQIXIN”,ZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGZHILIQIESHOULI。ZHANGZAIZAIQIZHONGGENGJIAZHONGSHIDESHI“DAQIXIN”,ZUIDAXIANDUDEKUOCHONGRENZHIBEN,CHAOYUEWUWOZHIJIANDEJIEXIAN,DADAO“SHITIANXIAWUYIWUFEIWO,SHIJIEYUWOHEYI”DEZHUANGTAI。ZHANGZISUORENWEIYOUXINGYOUXIANGDEWANWUJITAIXUDOUSHIYOUQIGOUCHENGDE。WANWUYUWOZAIGENBENSHANGSHIMEIYOUFENBIEDE。“DAQIXIN”CAINENGTITIANXIAWANWU,DABUFENDERENWEIYIBANREN,TAMENZHINENGTINGLIUZAIERWENMUJIANDEJUXIANSHANG,QIEBUNENGCHAOYUECIJIEDUAN,ZHIYOUJINGGUOLE“JINXIN”SHENGRENCAINENGDAODADAOTIANRENHEYIDEYIZHONGJINGJIE,CONGERRENSHIXINGYUTIANDAO。

                                ZHANGZIZAI《XIMING》ZHONGYUN:“MIN,WUTONGBAO;WU,WUYUYE。”ZAIZHEILIDE“MINBAOWUYU”RENMINBAIXINGSHITONGBAOXIONGMEI,WANWUJIEYUWOMENXIUQIXIANGGUAN。RENHERENDOUCHENGLEXIANZAIYUZHOUZHENGTIDEYIGEBUFEN,MEIGERENDOUBUZAIGULIWUYUAN。ZAIRENLEIYUZIRANJIEDEXIANGCHUZHONGHEXIETONGYIDEFAZHAN,YOUHAOHEXIEFAZHANYETIXIANLEDUILIXIANGSHEHUIDEZHUIQIU。ZAIZHEILISUOSHUODE“MINBAOWUYU”YEKEYILIJIECHENGSHIDEXINGSUOZHITIWUYOU“DAQIXIN”BUDUANDAODADEYIGEZUIHOUDEJINGJIE。QICI,ZHANGZAISHUO:“FUGUIFUZE,JIANGHOUWUZHISHENGYE;PINJIANYOUQI,YONGYURUYUCHENGYE。CUN,WUSHUNSHI;MEI,WUNINGYE。”JIFUGUIFUZEBUKUAYAO,PINJIANYOUQIBUNANGUO,SHUNCONGSHILI,XINANLIDE,ZHIHOUANNINGERSHI,HUIGUIRENZUICHUDEYUANTOU。CIBIANDADAOLE“TIANRENHEYI”“MINBAOWUYU”DETIANDIJINGJIE。

                                ZONGZHI,ZHANGZAIDADAO“DEXINGSUOZHI”ERTICHUDEXIUYANGGONGFU,ZAITIWUTIANDIBENXINGDEJICHUSHANGYIBENXINGCHUSHI,JINJINGSHOULI。ZUIZHONGYAODESHIYAODADAO“DAQIXIN”TITIANXIAWANWU,CHAOYUE“JIANWENZHIZHI”,DAZHITIANERHEYI、MINBAOWUYUZHIJINGJIE。

                                四、“德性所知”与程颐“德性之知”

                                ZHANGZIDE“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHI“DAQIXIN”TITIANXIAWANWU,SHI“BUMENGYUJIANWEN”DE,“JIANWENZHIZHI”DUIYU“DEXINGZHIZHI”YOUZHEYIDINGDEQIFAZUOYONG。DAN“DEXINGSUOZHI”DUI“JIANWENZHIZHI”JUYOUYIDINGDECHAOYUEXING。

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ERCHENGYISUOTICHUDE“DEXINGZHIZHI”YUZHIBUTONG。CHENGYIDE“DEXINGZHIZHI”SHIBUPINGJIE“JIANWENZHIZHI”DE,TATONGGUOGEWULAIJINXINGDUINEIXINDEXINGWU,SHIYIZHONGXIANGNEIDEZHUIQIULAIHUODETIANLIZHIRENSHI。

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   CHENGYIDEZHONGYAOXUESHUOSHIYI“LI”WEIZHONGXINDELILUNTIXI。QIEZAIRENSHISHIWUDETUJINGZHONGCHANGDAO“GEWU”,RENSHIDELIANGZHONGTUJINGBULUNSHINAYIGE,DOUYAOXIANJINGGUO“GEWU”,YOUCIKAISHIRENSHISHIWU,LEWUQIZHONGZHILI。GEWUBIANSHIQIONGLI。CHENGYISHUODAO:“FANYANQIANJIESHIWU,WUWUJIEYOULI。”TABALIZUOWEILEZUIGAODEYUANZE。GESHIGEWUJIEYOUGEZIDELI,YICAOYIMU,YIRENYIWUJIEYOULI。“GEWU”JIUSHIGESHIWUZHILI,QIONGJINSHIWUZHILI。ZAICI,CHENGYIMINGQUETICHUQIONGJINWANSHIWANWUDELIBIANSHIGEWU。CHENGYIMINGQUETICHU“WENJIANZHIZHI,FEIDEXINGZHIZHI。WUJIAOWUZEZHIZHI,FEINEIYE,JINZHISUOWEIBOWUDUONENGZHESHIYE。DEXINGZHIZHI,BUJIAWENJIAN。”YEJIUSHIDEXINGZHIZHISHI“SUOGUYOUDE”。“WENJIANZHIZHI”DEERWENMUJIANZHIGANSHOUBIANSHITONGGUO“GE”LAIHUOQUZHISHI。SHIYIZHONGXIANGWAIDEERBUSHINEISHENGDE,SUOYIBUNENGHUODEQISHIWUSUOTIXIANDELI。ER“DEXINGZHIZHI”SHI“GE”RENZHIXIN,CONGNEIXINHUODEDEDUITIANLIDERENSHI。CIBIANYESHICHENGDEDEGUANJIAN。ZHUXIRENWEI,ZHANGZIDE“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHI“SHUOSHENGRENJINQINGSHI”,DANZAIWEIXUEFANGMIANLAISHUO,“WENJIANZHIZHI”SHIBUKEHUOQUEDE,SHIYIQIEZHISHI,YAOXIANGDADAODUILIDERENSHI,XUCONGERWENMUJIANKAISHI,BUDUANGUANTONG,SHANGXUEXIADA。WANGFUZHISHOUZHANGZAIYINGXIANGJIKENDINGJIANWENZHIZHI,YOUSHUODEXINGZHIZHISHI“BUMENGYUWENJIAN”DE。TASHUO:“DEXINGCHENGYOUERZIYU,RUANZHONGZIZHIQIKOUBI,BUDAIJINGERXI。”DEXINGZHIZHISHIKAONEIXINHUODEDE。

                                ZHANGZAISHUO:“BUZUNDEXING,ZEXUEWENCONGERBUDAO;BUZHIGUANGDA,ZEJINGWEIWUSUOLIQICHENG;BUJIGAOMING,ZEZEHUZHONGYONGSHISHICUOZHIYIYI。”《ZHONGZHENGPIAN》)CHENGYIJUCICHEDIHUAFENLE“JIANWENZHIZHI”HE“DEXINGZHIZHI”。ZAI《ERCHENGJI》ZHONGYUN:“WENJIANZHIZHI,FEIDEXINGZHIZHI。WUJIAOWUZEZHIZHI,FEINEIYE,JINZHISUOWEIBOWUDUONENGZHESHIYE。DEXINGZHIZHI,BUJIAWENJIAN。”(《ERCHENGJI·YICHUANXIANSHENGYUSHIYI》)ZHANGZIYOUSHUO:“DEXINGSUOZHI,BUMENGYUWENJIAN。”(《DAXINPIAN》)“ERMUSUIWEIXINGLEI,RANHENEIWAIZHIDE,ZHIQIWEIQIZHIZHIYAOYE。”(《DAXINPIAN》)ZONGZHI,CHENGYISUOSHUODE“DEXINGZHIZHI”SHIZHONGSHIYU“WENJIANZHIZHI”WUGUANDE。ZHANGZIZAIJIESHI“WENJIANZHIZHI”DEERWENMUJIANDEGANSHOUSHI,BIANSHITONGGUO“GEWU”,SHITONGGUODUIYUSUOJIANWUDEYIZHONG“GE”SHITONGGUOWAIZAIDEFANGSHIGEWU,HUOQUZHISHI;ER“DEXINGSUOZHI”YEJIUSHISHIWUBENLAISUOGUYOUDE,SHITONGGUOXIANGNEISHENGDE,DUIYURENXINDEGE,GUANYUDAODEZHENLIDERENSHI。

                                GUCILAISHUO,“WENJIANZHIZHI”DUIYUSHIWUTIXIANDELISHIHENNANHUODEDE,DAN“DEXINGSUOZHI”QUESHICHENGLIDEGUANJIANYIBU。ZHANGZAIDE“WENJIANZHIZHI”ZAIWEIXUEFANGMIANLAISHUO,SHIBUKEQUESHAODEZHONGYAOYINSU,SHIWANSHIWANWURENSHIDEKAISHI。YAOXIANGDADAOZHUXISUOSHUODE“SHUOSHENGRENJINQINGSHI”DE“DEXINGSUOZHI”,JINERTONGGUO“DEXINGSUOZHI”DADAODUILIDEYIGERENSHI。JIUXUDECONG“JIANWENZHIZHI”KAISHI,BUDUANDEJINXINGRENSHIGUANTONG。ZAICI,WANGFUZHIYETICHULE“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHI“BUMENGYUWENJIAN”,KENDINGLE“JIANWENZHIZHI”,TATICHUCISHUOFADEQIANTISHISHOULEZHANGZAIXUESHUODEYINGXIANG。KENDING“DEXINGSUOZHI”SHITONGGUOZIFAYUNEIXINLAIHUODEDE,TICHULE“DEXINGCHENGYOUERZIYU,RUANZHONGZIZHIQIKOUBI,BUDAIJINGERXI。”

                                CHENGYITONGGUOYANJIU,GENJUZHANGZAITICHUDE“BUZUNDEXING,ZEXUEWENCONGERBUDAO;BUZHIGUANGDA,ZEJINGWEIWUSUOLIQICHENG;BUJIGAOMING,ZEZEHUZHONGYONGSHISHICUOZHIYIYI。”(《ZHONGZHENGPIAN》)LAIDUI“JIANWENZHIZHI”HE“DEXINGSUOZHI”JINXINGHUAFEN,BINGTICHULE“DEXINGZHIZHI,BUJIAWENJIAN。”,RENWEI,“WENJIANZHIZHI”BINGFEIJIUSHI“DEXINGSUOZHI”。ZHIHOU,ZHANGZITICHULE“DEXINGSUOZHI,BUMENGYUWENJIAN。”(《DAXINPIAN》)TONGGUOERWENMUJIAN,ZAIHEZHIYUNEIXINDEDEXING,CAINENGBUDUANDEHUOQUZHISHI,RENSHIDAODEZHENLI,CHUCIZHIWAI,HAISHIYIZHONGJINGSHENDEJINGJIE,ZHANGZAIZAIZHENGGEDERENSHISHIWUGUOCHENGZHONG,MEIYOUFOUREN“JIANWENZHIZHI”DEDUIYU“DEXINGZHIZHI”DEQIFAZUOYONG。CHENGYIZERENWEIJIUSHIGUANYUDAODELIXINGDERENSHI。CHENGYIYUZHANGZAIGUANYUCIRENZHIDEBUTONGQIGENYUANZAIYUDUIYUXINDERENZHISHIBUTONGDE。ZHANGZAIGUANYUXINDELILUNSHITAIXUBENTIFASHENGZUOYONG,CHANSHENGCHUREN,RENCAIYOUDEBENXIN,DADAOTIANRENHEYISHIRENXINHETIANXINSHIHEYUTIANDAODE,XIANGGUANTONGDE。ERCHENGYIRENWEI,XINGJIUSHILI,XINSHISUOSHUYUWAIWU,YOUCILAIJINXINGZISHENGDE。YOUYUDUIYUXINDERENZHIJIESHIBUTONG,TAMENDERENSHIGUOCHENGYEJIUCHUXIANLEBUTONG。ZHANGZISUIRENWEIDEXINGSUOZHI“BUMENGYUWENJIAN”,DANQIZISHIZHIZHONGBINGWEIFOUREN“JIANWENZHIZHI”DUI“DEXINGZHIZHI”DEQIFAZUOYONG。YINCI,CIHOUDEZHU、LUZHIZHENG,WANGYANGMINGDE“ZHILIANGZHI”XUESHUO,DOUYUCIWENTIXIXIXIANGGUAN。

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “DEXINGSUOZHI”LUNYISHUOKEYISHUOSHIZHANGZAISIXIANGDEYIGEZONGHEXINGTIXIAN,QINEIRONGSHIHUXIANGGUANTONGDE。ZAIZHEILI,ZHANGZIRENWEI,QIUZHIQIUXUESHIYIGEYONGYUANMEIYOUZHIJINGDEGUOCHENG。“CHANGRENZHIXUE,RIYIERBUZIZHIYE。ZHONGNIXUEXING、XICHAYIYUTAREN,GUZISHIWUZHIYUQISHI,HUAERCAIZHI,QIJINDEZHISHENGZHEYU!”YICISIXIANGBUDUANXIANGWEIZHILINGYUFENJINWEIBANGYANGLAIZIMIAN、JILITAREN,GAOJIESHIRENZAIZHISHIWENTISHANGMIANBUYINGDANGYOURENHEXUJIAHEJIAOAO。RUGUOYIGERENRENSHIDAOZIJIYOUSHENMEZHIDAOHEBUZHIDAODESHI,JIUSHUOSHICIRENSHIYOUZHISHIDE,NEIZHONGRENWEIZIJIMEISHENMESHIQINGSHIZHIDAOHEBUZHIDAODE,NEIJIUBIAOMINGMEIYOUZHISHI。YINCI,ZAIYOURENQINGJIAODESHIHOU,BUYINZIJIYOUZHISHIERDAIMANBIEREN,ERSHIJINZIJISUONENGDEBAWENTIDEBENMOJIESHIQINGCHU,JIJIDEZHICHUJIEJUEDEBANFA。RUGUORENRENDOUXIANGKONGZINEIYANG,BA“YOUZHI”WEI“WUZHI”,NEIYANGJIUNENGGOUBAJINGDIANDANGCHENGDEXINYINGSHOUDEXUEXIGONGJU。ZHANGZAIFEICHANGZHONGSHISHIJIANZAIZHISHIZHONGDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG,TARENWEIYIQIEYOUSHIJIANJINGYANDERENDOUSHIGEZILINGYUNEIDENENGRENZHUANJIA,SUOQIUZHIDEXUEZHEXUXIANGTAMENXUEXI,ZAISHIJIANZHONGXUEXI,ZAISHIJIANZHONGQUPANDUANSHIQINGDEZHENWEI。TARENWEIJIANXINGHESHISHIGAOYURENSHIHEZHISHI。SUOYIJIYUCITATICHULE“XINGSHISHI”,ZHIYOUXINGLE,ZHENZHENGZUODAOLECAINENGBAZHISHIYUYOUXINGYOUXIANGDESHIWULIANJIEQILAI,TONGGUOSHIJIANQIUDEZHENZHI,ZAIZHEIYIFANGMIANYOUHENZHONGYAODELIJIE。ZAICITAYETICHULE“GONGWENGONGJIAN”,RENWEI“DADIZHONGSUOXIANGZHEBISHILIYE,LIZETIANDAOCUNYAN。”,ZHENLIZHANGWOZAIQUNZHONGSHOUZHONG。WEIHOULAIDEFAZHANYETIGONGLESIXIANGSHANGDEJIEJIAN。

                              牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   TADE“DEXINGSUOZHI”ZHEIYIMINGTIYESHITICHANGRENMENBAITUODIAOERWENMUJIANDEXIANZHI,GENGDUODEYAODADAODUIYUXINDE、DAODEDERENZHI,TIWURENZHIBENXIN,BUYAOJINJINSHIZUOXIANREN,YEYAOZUOSHENGREN,CONGERDADAOTIANRENHEYIDEJINGJIE。

                                参考文献

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                                [2]张载.张载集[M].北京:中华书局,1978.
                                [3]程颐,程颢.二程集[M].北京:中华书局,2004.
                                [4]王夫之.张子正蒙注[M].北京:中华书局,1975.
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