牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                          当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 朱熹“变化气质”的内涵及其工夫论

                          朱熹“变化气质”的内涵及其工夫论

                          时间:2020-03-21 10:12作者:崔涛 李红
                          本文导读:这是一篇关于朱熹“变化气质”的内涵及其工夫论的文章,“变化气质”在朱熹哲学中有着重要意义,他说:“人之为学,却是要变化气禀”,“或问:‘若是气质不善,可以变否?’曰:‘须是变化而反之’”。何谓“反之”?朱熹说:“反之者,修为以复其性,而至于圣人也。”

                            摘    要: 朱熹的“变化气质”就是指通过修身养性使人的后天气质之性恢复到全无不善的先天本然之性;使被后天气质所遮蔽的人心恢复到纯粹清明的义理之心,也即道心。这个过程被朱子诠释为“修为以复其性”。在朱熹的哲学里,“变化气质”既是作为修养的最终目标和结果而存在,更是作为修养过程而存在,其本质是一种通过“为学”以实现“为德”的君子修养论,主要途径即“格物”“主敬”与“力行”。

                            关键词: 朱熹; “变化气质”; 本体论; 价值论; 工夫论;

                            Abstract:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} Zhu Xi′s "change of disposition" means that through self-cultivation, the acquired quality of people can be restored to the innate disposition,a pure and clear state with sense of righteousness, that is, the heart of Tao. This process was interpreted by Zhu Zi as "cultivation to restore its nature". In Zhu Xi′s philosophy, "change of disposition" exists not only as the ultimate goal and result of self-cultivation, but also as the process of self-cultivation. Its essence is a theory of self-cultivation of gentlemen, which realizes "behaving by virtue" through "learning", with the main ways being "studying the objects", "honoring people" and "practicing personally".

                            Keyword: Zhu Xi; "change of disposition"; ontology; axiology; theory of effort;

                            “BIANHUAQIZHI”ZAIZHUXIZHEXUEZHONGYOUZHEZHONGYAOYIYI,TASHUO:“RENZHIWEIXUE,QUESHIYAOBIANHUAQIBING”[1]69,“HUOWEN:‘RUOSHIQIZHIBUSHAN,KEYIBIANFOU?’YUE:‘XUSHIBIANHUAERFANZHI’”[1]65。HEWEI“FANZHI”?ZHUXISHUO:“FANZHIZHE,XIUWEIYIFUQIXING,ERZHIYUSHENGRENYE。”[2]349YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHUXIRENWEI“BIANHUAQIZHI”SHIRUJIAXIUSHENYANGXINGYICHENGJIUJUNZI、SHENGRENPINGEDEBIRANTUJING。CHUCIZHIWAI,BIEWUTATU。ZAIZHUXIDEZHEXUELI,“BIANHUAQIZHI”JISHIZUOWEIXIUYANGDEZUIZHONGMUBIAOHEJIEGUOERCUNZAI,GENGSHIZUOWEIXIUYANGGUOCHENGERCUNZAI,YUZHUXIDEBENTILUN、JIAZHILUN、GONGFULUNDOUYOUZHEMIQIEGUANLIAN。

                            一、“变化气质”的必要性

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “RENZHISUOYISHENG,LIYUQIHEERYI。TIANLIGUHAOHAOBUQIONG,RANFEISHIQI,ZESUIYOULIERWUCHUCOUBO。GUBIERQIJIAOGAN,NINGJIESHENGJU,RANHOUSHILIYOUSUOYIFUZHE。”[1]65ZHUXIRENWEI,LISHIZAIQIZHONGDE,LILIQIBUDE,LUOYUXIANSHIZHONG,ZEWEISHIJIANWANSHIWANWUBAOKUORENZAINEIMOBUSHIBINGLIQIERSHENG。RENWUJISHENG,YOUBINGLIWEIXING,BINGQIWEIXING。“RENWUZHISHENG,TONGDETIANDIZHILIYIWEIXING,TONGDETIANDIZHIQIYIWEIXING。”[2]274ZAIZHEILI,LIBENSHIQUANWUBUSHAN,QIQUEZAIGUNLAIGUNQUZHIJIANSHENGCHUZHAZI,YOUQINGZHUOHUNMINGZHIFEN,XINGJISHILUOYURENSHENSHANGDELI,ZIRANBENLAIQUANWUBUSHAN,DANHUNZHUOBUMINGZHIQIQUEYIBINGSUIZHIBINGYURENSHENSHANG,ZHEBILEYUANBENBENWUBUSHANDELI,NEIMERENSHENSHANGSUOTIXIANCHULAIDEXING,BIANYOULESHANEZHONGZHONG,“TIANDIJIANZHISHIYIGEDAOLI。XINGBIANSHILI。RENZHISUOYIYOUSHANYOUBUSHAN,ZHIYUANQIZHIZHIBINGGEYOUQINGZHUO”[1]68。

                            而在传统儒学中,关于君子理想人格的标准,都以“德”为准绳,也就是仁。在儒家所要求的君子理想人格中,“德”为最基础也是最重要的一点。儒家所要求的君子为至善之人,现实中的人却有着种种不善,这种理想和现实的差距,就使得通过修养去恶为善成为了一件必要之事。在传统儒学里,这一过程称之为“复性”。《论语》有“克己复礼为仁”,通过“复礼”以实现“复性”,恢复性善;《孟子》讲“尧、舜,性者也;汤、武,反之也”,首次提出“性之反之”这一概念;《周易》亦有“复”卦,讲“以复天地之心”;韩愈则提出了“原性”“原道”的概念,进一步促进了这一思想的发展;直到李翱,则正式提出了“复性”这一说法,要求忘情灭息,本性清明,即“复其性”,他认为百姓与圣人一样,本性皆善,但圣人不失其本性,百姓却易失其本性,唯有“复性”,才能追随圣人的脚步,有成为圣人的可能;欧阳修后又讲“反本”,亦是一个道理。
                           

                          朱熹“变化气质”的内涵及其工夫论
                           

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “FUXING”FAZHANDAOZHUXIZHEILI,XISHOULE“QIZHI”DENGGAINIAN,YOUCHENGZHIWEI“BIANHUAQIZHI”。RENBENWUBUSHANDEXING,YOUYUZHUIRUXINGQIZHIZHONG,SHOUZHUOQIZHIZHEBIXUNRAN,CONGERSHENGCHUZHONGZHONGDEE,ZHEIZHONGXIANSHIDERENXINGYURUJIASUOYAOQIUDELIXIANGRENGEXIANGQUSHENYUAN,JIUSHIDE“FUXING”,YEJI“BIANHUAQIZHI”CHENGWEILEYIZHONGBIYAO。WEIYOUBIANHUAWOMENDEQIZHI,QUDIAOQIZHIDEZHEBI,CAINENGHUIFUQUANWUBUSHANDEBENRANZHIXING,CAIYOUSHIXIANRUJIACHENGSHENGCHENGXIANYAOQIUDEKENENG。NEIME,“FUXING”SHIRUHEFAZHANWEI“BIANHUAQIZHI”DE?ZAIZHUXIZHEILI,QINEIHANYOUYOUHEFENGFU?

                            二、“变化气质”的内涵

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZHUXI“BIANHUAQIZHI”DESIXIANGJICHENGLEQIANRENBUFENSIXIANG,YOUROUHELEZIJIXINDEGUANDIANDEYIXINGCHENG,SHIDEZHEIYISIXIANGHUANFALEXINDEHUOLI。

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                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “BIANHUAQIZHI”DEJUTINEIRONGCONGXIN、XINGLIANGGECENGMIANLAIJIANG。SHOUXIAN,CONGXINGSHANGLAIJIANG。“RENXINGSUITONG,BINGQIBUNENGWUPIANZHONG。YOUDEMUQIZHONGZHE,ZECEYINZHIXINCHANGDUO;……WEIYINYANGHEDE,WUXINGQUANBEI,RANHOUZHONGZHENGERWEISHENGRENYE”[1]74,RENBENWUXINGQUANBEI,QUEWEIQISUOZHEBI,BINGDEDEWUXINGHUODUOHUOSHAO,RURENDUOYISHAO,YOUROUGUADUAN,ZIRANYUYINGJIESHIWUSHIBUNENGBUPIANBUYI,SUOYILIUZHIYUE;“RANJIURENZHISUOBINGERYAN,YOUYOUHUNMINGQINGZHUOZHIYI。GUSHANGZHISHENGZHIZHIZI;……YOUQICIZHE,ZIBINGJIPIAN,YOUYOUSUOBI,XUSHITONGJIAGONGFU”[1]66,QIZHIQINGZHUOYISHIRENCAIZHIBUTONG,CAIZHIBUTONG,BURUOSHENGREN,WEISHINANMIANCHUCUO,SUOYISHENGCHULEE;“RANRENZHIQIBINGYOUPIAN,SUOJIANYIWANGWANGBUTONG。RUQIBINGGANGDIREN,ZEJIANGANGCHUDUO,ERCHUSHIBISHIZHITAIGANG;ROUDIRENZEJIANROUCHUDUO,ERCHUSHIBISHIZHITAIROU”[1]225,RENYINQISUOBINGHUOGANGHUOROU,GANGZHEMENG,ROUZHENUO,YUSHIZIBUNENGZHONG,SUOYIWEIE。YISHANGSANZHE,KEYIGAIKUOWEIDE、CAI、XINGGEQIXIANG(QINGZHONGHUANJIDENG),CISANZHEYINQIBINGZHEBIHUOYOUPIANQUAN,YIZHIYUWEISHIBUZHONGERLIUYUE。QICI,CONGXINSHANGLAIJIANG。ZUOWEIXINZHITIDEXINGSHOUQIZHEBIERLIUYUE,XINUAILEAIEJUDENGQINGFAZHIZIBUNENGZHONGJIE,YEJIUYUXINSHANGBIAOXIANCHUZHONGZHONGBUHELIDEQINGYU。SUOYI,CONG“XIN”SHANG“BIANHUAQIZHI”DEZHUYAONEIRONG,JIUSHIZHONGZHONGBUHELIDEQINGYU。

                            QUCHURENSHENSHANGYOUQIBINGSUODAILAIDEE,SHIRENFUGUIYUBENXINGDESHAN,NEIME,RENRENDOUJIANGYOUCHENGSHENGDEKENENG。DANXIANSHIZHONG,BINGFEIRENRENDOUKEYICHENGSHENG,“BIANHUAQIZHI”DEDUIXIANGYEBINGFEIWEISUOYOUREN。《LUNYU》YOU“WEISHANGZHIXIAYUBUYI”。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,RENFENWEISIDENG,“SHENGERZHIZHIZHE,SHANGYE;XUEERZHIZHIZHE,CIYE;KUNERXUEZHI,YOUQICIYE;KUNERBUXUE,MINSIWEIXIAYI”。SHENGERZHIZHIZHE,BUDAIXUEERHOUNENG,ZIBUYONGBIANHUAQIZHI;KUNERBUXUEZHE,XIAYU,ZIBUNENGBIANHUAQIZHI。XUYAOQIANGDIAODESHI,ZHEILIDEXIAYUYOULIANGGEHANYI:YISHI“ZIBAOZIQIZHE”,“RENXINGBENSHAN,YOUBUKEYIZHEHE?YUQIXINGZEJIESHANYE,YUQICAIZEYOUXIAYUZHIBUYI;……SHENGRENYIQIZIJUEYUSHAN,WEIZHIXIAYU,RANKAOQIGUIZECHENGYUYE”[2]164;ERSHI“JIYUZHE”,“RENZHIZIZHIYOUPIAN,ZEYOUFENGXIA。ZUOGONGFUCHU,GAIJIUPIANCHUZUOJIANGQU。RUOZIZHIPINGDI,ZERUSHUISIRAN,ZHONGJIZUOBUQI”[1]146。ZIBAOZIQIZHEHEJIYUZHIRENDOUBUNENG“BIANHUAQIZHI”。SUOYI,“BIANHUAQIZHI”DEDUIXIANG,ZHUYAOJIUSHIXUEERZHIZHIZHEHEKUNERXUEZHIZHE,JIZHONGREN。

                            三、“变化气质”的工夫论

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                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZHIHEXING,CONGLAIQUEYIBUKE,ZHIERBUXING,WUYIYUBUZHI,ZHIYOUZHIQIEXING,FANGNENGSHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”。ZAIZHUXIKANLAI,YI“LIXING”SHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”,YIGONGYOUSANDIANYAOQIU。QIYI,“XINGQISUOZHI”。ZHUXIDUI“LIXING”DEDINGYISHIXINGQISUOZHI,TASUOSHUODE“LIXING”,BUSHIYIWEIMANGMUDIQUXING,ERSHIXINGQISUOZHI,SUOXINGDEZHI,BIRANSHIYIZHIDEZHENGQUEDEYILI,ZHIYOUXINGZHIZHENGQUE,CAINENG“BIANHUAQIZHI”,MANGMUDEXINGMEIYOURENHEYIYI,SUOYI,BIRANYAOQIUXIANZHI,RANHOUXINGQISUOZHI。QIER,“ZHIERBIXING,XINGZHONGYUZHI”。JIZHISUOZHIZHENGQUE,BIYAOLIXING,“DANGWUZHIJI,BUQIUSUONANZHI;LIXINGSUOZHI,BUDANSUONANWEI”[2]87,“JUNZIYUNEYUYANERMINYUXING”,ZHIYOUSHISHIZIMIAN,BIXINGQISUOZHI,CAINENGSHI“BIANHUAQIZHI”BUZAISHIYIGEKONGTAN。QISAN,“ZHIXINGBINGJIN”。ZHUXIDEZHIYUXINGBINGFEISHIHUBUXIANGGANDELIANGZHE,YEBINGFEISHIJINGTAIDEZHIYUXING,TADEZHIYUXING,SHIYIGEJIAOXIANGHUYIDEGUOCHENG,ZHIWEIXINGZUOJICHU,XINGSHIYUANBENSUOZHIGENGJIASHENRUGUANGKUO,BINGFANGUOLAIZAICUJINXING,CONGERXINGCHENGLEYIGEZHI—XING—ZHI—XINGDEXUNHUANLIAN。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,SUOZHIZHILIYUQIONGYUSHIWANGJIZHIZOU,ZHIZHIZUIHOU,DADAORONGHUIGUANTONG,SHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”。

                            YISHANGSANZHE,ZAIZHUXIDEGONGFULUNTIXILIDOUSHIHUXIANGCUJINDEGUANXI,ZHIYOUSANGUANQIXIA,GEWU、CHIJING、LIXINGTONGSHIERWEIZHI,CAINENGZHENZHENGSHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZHUXI“BIANHUAQIZHI”DESIXIANG,ZHUYAOXISHOULECHUANTONGRUXUEYIJIZHANGZAI、ERCHENGDENGDESIXIANG,RENWEI“BIANHUAQIZHI”JIUSHITONGGUOWEIXUESHIRENBEIQIZHISUOZHEBIDEQIZHIZHIXINGHUIFUDAOQUANWUBUSHANDEBENRANZHIXING;TONGGUOWEIXUESHIRENBEIQIZHISUOZHEBIDEQIZHIZHIXINHUIFUDAOCHUNCUIQINGMINGDEBENRANZHIXIN。ZHEIYISIXIANGGUANCHUANZHUXISIXIANGTIXIDESHIZHONG,JIANGQIBENTILUNHEJIAZHILUNRONGHEZAIYIQI,SHIXIANLEZHUTIHEKETI、BENTIHEXIANSHIDETONGYI。ERYOUCITICHUDEGONGFULUN,GENGSHITIGONGLEYIZHENGTAOJUYOUPUBIANXINGHEKESHISHIXINGDEWEIDEZHIFANG,SHIDE“BIANHUAQIZHI”DEYISHIXIAN,YUCHUANTONGRUXUEZHONGDECAIJIANBEIDEJUNZILIXIANGRENGEBUMOUERHE。ZHUXI“BIANHUAQIZHI”SIXIANGBUGUANZAIDANGSHIHAISHIDUIDANGQIANDEDAODEJIAOYUDOUYOUZHEZHONGYAODEYIYI。

                            参考文献

                            [1] 黎靖德.朱子语类[M].北京:中华书局,1986.
                            [2] 朱熹.四书章句集注[M].北京:中华书局,2011.
                            [3] 张载.张载集[M].北京:中华书局,1978.
                            [4] 程颢,程颐.二程遗书[M].北京:中华书局,1981.
                            [5] 陈来.朱子哲学研究[M].北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2010.
                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   [6] 吴震.格物诚意不是两事:关于朱熹工夫论思想的若干问题[J].杭州师范大学学报(社会科学版),2014(6):23.

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