牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                        • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 仁、义、礼与“知”的关系研究

                          仁、义、礼与“知”的关系研究

                          时间:2020-04-01 11:42作者:臧宏
                          本文导读:这是一篇关于仁、义、礼与“知”的关系研究的文章,《论语》中有近40处涉及到“知”字,其中大多数出自孔子之口。“知”,当它不受干扰时,本身就是“智”,即“智慧”。“知”在孔子学说中,主要不是作动词,而是作名词,亦即智慧。

                            摘    要: “知”是贯穿于儒道佛学说中的核心观念,与“智”通用,若不受妄念干扰,便是“般若”智慧。“知”是生命本体的根本表现形式,故简称为“本知论”,即智慧学说。《论语》从“知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也”,即“能知”和“被知”的不可分割的关系、从”知之者,不如好之者,好之者,不如乐之者”的三种境界的关系、从“生而知之者,上也,学而知之者,次也……”的“生知”与“学知”的关系、从“知”与“仁”“义”“礼”诸观念的关系,对“本知论”作了深入浅出的阐述。在最具体的事物中“致良知”,观“天意”,是《论语》的根本特征,正是这一特征,决定它比佛道更能引导人们入中国生命观之门。

                            关键词: 牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}知; 生而知之; 仁; 义; 礼;

                            Abstract: “Knowledge”,which runs through the core concept of Confucianism,Taoism and Buddhism,is the same as“wisdom”. If not disturbed by delusion,it is“prajna”wisdom.“Knowledge”is the fundamental manifestation of life itself,so it is referred to as“the theory of knowledge”,that is,the theory of wisdom. Analects of Confucius makes a profound and simple exposition of“the theory of knowledge”from the perspectives of the following relationships:the inseparable relationship between“ability to know”and“being known”,three states of“kowning,preference and fondness”,the relationship between“being born wise”and“learning to know”,and the relationship between“knowledge”and“benevolence”,“righteousness”and“propriety”. Among the most concrete things,“to cause conscience”and“to observe the will of heaven”are the fundamental features of Analects of Confucius. It is this feature that determines that it can better guide people into the gate of Chinese outlook on life than Buddhism and Taoism.

                            Keyword: knowledge; born wise; benevolence; righteousness; propriety;

                            《LUNYU》ZHONGYOUJIN40CHUSHEJIDAO“ZHI”ZI,QIZHONGDADUOSHUCHUZIKONGZIZHIKOU。“ZHI”,DANGTABUSHOUGANRAOSHI,BENSHENJIUSHI“ZHI”,JI“ZHIHUI”。“ZHI”ZAIKONGZIXUESHUOZHONG,ZHUYAOBUSHIZUODONGCI,ERSHIZUOMINGCI,YIJIZHIHUI。SUOYI,BENWENZHICONGZHIHUIDECENGMIANSHANGJIANG“ZHI”,JIZHUYAOSHIJIUKONGZISUOSHUODEREN、YI、LI、ZHIDEXULIELAIJIANG“ZHI”。

                            一、“知”与“不知”

                            《LUNYU》ZHONGJIZHONGJIANG“ZHI”DEPIANZHANG,DANGTUI《WEIZHENG》PIANDEDI17ZHANG,QIYUANWENSHI:

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZIYUE:“YOU,HUINVZHIZHIHU!ZHIZHIWEIZHIZHI,BUZHIWEIBUZHI,SHIZHIYE。”

                            注家对这一章的解释,比较典型的,有这样几种:一是朱熹的解释。他说:“子路好勇,盖有强其所不知以为知者,故夫子告知曰:我教女以知之之道乎!但所知者则以为知,所不知者则以为不知。如此则虽或不能尽知,而无自欺之蔽,亦不害其为知矣。”[1]58意思是说,求知的原则应当是,知道就知道,不知道就不知道,不要强不知以为知。朱熹认为,这是针对子路而发的。理由是,子路好勇,容易犯强不知以为知的毛病。很显然,这理由是不能成立的。因为“好勇”与“强不知以为知”之间没有必然的联系。事实是,子路犯的并不是“强不知以为知”的毛病,而是如明人藕益法师说的:“子路向能知、所知上用心,意谓无所不知,方名为知;不是强不知以为知也。”[2]237这是对朱熹的直接的回应,告诉他:孔子这一章确如你所言,是针对子路而发的,但针对的不是你说的“强不知以为知”,而是他所要求的“全知”。读过《论语》的人都知道,子路确实是要求“全知”的人,这只要看一看他曾向孔子屡屡发问:什么是“死”,如何“事鬼神”等之类的问题,就会明白。
                           

                          仁、义、礼与“知”的关系研究
                           

                            ERSHILIZEHOUDEJIESHI。TASHUO:“ZHEILIQIANGDIAOQIUZHIDETAIDU,RENGRANSHISHIYONGLIXINGDELUOSHI……KONGZIHERUXUETEZHENGZHIYI,ZHENGZAIFOUDINGZIJISHITIANCAISHIJIAOZHU,CHENGRENYOUBUZHIDAOBUDONGDEDEDONGXI。ZHEILI,RENWEI‘BUZHI’YESHIYIZHONG‘ZHI’,SHUOMING‘ZHI’YONGYUANYOUXIAN,ZHENGRURENSHIYOUXIANDECUNZAIYIYANG。ZHIYOUBUDUANJILEI,CAINENGBUDUANXIANGNEIWUXIAN、YONGHENGQIANJIN。KONGZIZHISUOYIHANYANSISHENGGUISHEN、RENXINGTIANDAO,YIYICIGU。ZHEISIHUHENPINGCHANG,QISHIHENSHENKE。TAJIESHIRENBIXURENTONGZIJIDEYOUXIANXING,CAIKENENGCHAOTUO;RENSHIZIJI‘BUZHI’CAIKENENG‘ZHI’,ZHEICAISHIZHIZHE。”[3]66LISHIDEJIESHI,JIAOZHIQIANYIZHONGJIESHIDEYOUZHANGZHICHU,ZAIYUTAQIANGDIAO“ZHI”DEYOUXIANXING,QIANGDIAOYOUXIANXIANGWUXIANDECHAOYUE,BINGJIANG“SHIZHIYE”DE“ZHI”JIESHIWEI“ZHIHUI”DE“ZHI”,ZHEISHIHENYOUJIANDIDE,YEYUKONGZIDESIXIANGYOUQIHEZHICHU。YINWEIZAIKONGZINEILI,“MINGMINGDE”“ZHIYUZHISHAN”、DUI“XINGYUTIANDAO”DERENSHI、“XIAXUEERSHANGDA”,DENGDENG,DOUSHIJIANGDUI“ZHISHI”DECHAOYUE,JI“ZHIHUI”。ZHEIZHONG“ZHIHUI”,SHIDUI“YUZHOU—SHENGMING”XITONGZHENGTIBAWODE“DAJUEWU”,ERBUSHIDUIJUTISHIWUZUOZHUFENHAOXIDE“XIAOCONGMING”。DANSHI,BIXUZHICHU,LISHIDEGUANDIAN,YECUNZAIZHEYANZHONGDEBUZU,ZHEIJIUSHI,TAMEIYOUJIANG“BENTI”ZHI“ZHI”YUGETIZHI“ZHI”FENBIEKAILAI。TABUZHI,ZHIYOUGETIZHI“ZHI”CAISHIYOUXIANDE,CAIXUYAOXIANGWUXIANCHAOYUE,BENTIZHI“ZHI”ZESHIWUXIANDE、YONGHENGDE,YINWEITASHIZHENGTIDE、QUANTIDE、WUSHENGWUMIE、WUGOUWUJING、WUZENGWUJIANDE。DANGRAN,WUXIANYEBUKELIKAIYOUXIAN,TAYAOTONGGUOYOUXIANLAIBIAOXIAN。ZHENGQUEDEKANFA,YINGSHIYOUXIANHEWUXIANDEDUILITONGYI。LISHIDEDEQUEXIANJIUZAIYUTAGUOYUQIANGDIAO“ZHI”DE“YOUXIAN”,ERDUIWUXIANYOUSUOHUSHI。ZHEIGEWENTI,XIAMIANHAIYAOSHUODAO,ZAICIBUZUOXIJIE。

                            SANSHIDONGZIZHUDEJIESHI。TASHUO:“ZHEIDUANYULUDEHEXINDEJUZISHIZUIHOUYIJU:‘SHIZHIYE’。”YOUSHUO:“SHENMESHI‘ZHI’?ZHILEJIUSHIZHILE,ZHEISHI‘ZHI’;‘BUZHI’ERCHENGREN‘BUZHI’,YESHIYIZHONG‘ZHI’。”HAISHUO:“RENHERENDE‘ZHI’DOUSHIYOUXIANDE,QUANZHI‘YUZHOU—SHENGMING’XITONGDE‘ZHI’SHIBUKENENGCUNZAIDE,ZHILE‘ZHI’DEYOUXIANXING,JIUSHICHENGREN‘YUZHOU—SHENGMING’XITONGDEWUXIANXING,YOUXIANYUWUXIANDETONGYI,ZHIYUBUZHIDETONGYI,CHENGREN‘BUZHI’SHI‘ZHI’DEQIANTI,BIANSHIZHILE‘YUZHOU—SHENGMING’DE‘ZAI’,YEJIUSHIZHILE‘ZHISHAN’DEZAI。ZAIZHEISHI,JIZHIRENHE‘ZHI’,DOUSHIZHIYUBUZHIDETONGYI,BUCUNZAIJUEDUIDEZHIYUJUEDUIDEBUZHI,NIDE‘MINGDE’BIANYU‘ZHISHAN’TONGYILE。NIHUIFAXIAN,‘MINGDE’BUWAIYU‘ZHISHAN’,‘ZHISHAN’YEBUWAIYU‘MINGDE’,ZHISHANDEYUNDONGZHENGSHIMINGDEDEYUNDONG。ZHEIYANGNIJIUBUHUISUIYIDIJUJUESHENME,SUIYIDIPIANAISHENME,YEBUHUIJIANDANDIYISHIDAIJIAOSEDEYISHIZHUGUANHAOEQUPANDUANYIQIE,XINTAIBIANZIRANLIZHIQILAILE。”[4]59NADONGSHIZHEIGEJIESHIYUQIANMIANERZHONGJIESHIBIJIAO,NIJIUHUIFAXIANTASHIHOULAIJUSHANGDE。JIUSHISHUO,QIANZHESHUOLEDE,TADOUSHUOLE,QIANZHEMEISHUODE,TAYESHUOLE。BIRU,TASHUO“SHIZHIYE”SHIWEIBENZHANGDEHEXINJUZI,JIUSHIBIERENMEIYOUJIANGGUODE。SHISHIYEZHENGSHIRUCI:“ZHI”——RENZHIHUODONGDEBIAOMIANXIANXIANG,“SHIZHI”,“BUZHI”——SHENGMINGDEBENTIDE“NENGZHI”,YE“SHIZHI”,TONGGUO“ZHI”“NENGZHI”,DADAOLEDUISHENGMINGBENTIYUNDONGDEZHENXIANGDELEZHI,YINYUEDIZHAODAOLESHENGMINGBENTIYUNDONGHOUMIANDENEIZHIKANBUJIANDE“SHOU”,BIANSHI“ZHENZHI”,YEJIUSHIBUTONGYUXIAOCONGMINGDE“DAZHIHUI”。“SHIZHIYE”DE“SHI”,ZUO“ZHEI”JIE,“SHIZHI”JI“ZHEIZHI”,ZHEI“ZHI”,JISHIYOUXIANDE,YOUSHIWUXIANDE,SHIYOUXIANHEWUXIANDETONGYI。ZHEI“ZHI”SHIYIGEYOUYOUXIANBUDUANXIANGWUXIANCHAOYUEDEGUOCHENG。ZHEIGEGUOCHENGKEYIYIZHIXIANGNEI,YEKEYIYIZHIXIANGWAI,ZHIYAOSHIZHIDAOZHONGJI,DOUSHIKENENGSHIDESHENGMINGDEBENLAIMIANMUDE。GURENMEIYOUJINRENDEXINGYUN,YIWEIXIANGNEI;JINRENWANQUANYIKAOZIRANKEXUE、SHEHUIKEXUEDEYANJIUCHENGGUO,YIZHIXIANGWAI,ZHIDASHENGMINGDEBENLAIMIANMU。WENTISHIRENHESHIHOUDOUYINGGAIZHANGWOKONGZISHUODEZHEIYISIWEIYUANZE:“ZHIZHIWEIZHIZHI,BUZHIWEIBUZHI,SHIZHIYE。”

                            二、“生知”与“学知”

                            《LUNYU》ZHONGYOUSANCHUJIANG“ZHI”YU“XUE”LIANZAIYIQI。XIANKAN《JISHI》PIANDE“SHENGERZHIZHIZHE”ZHANG,QIYUANWENSHI:

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   KONGZIYUE:“SHENGERZHIZHIZHE,SHANGYE;XUEERZHIZHIZHE,CIYE;KUNERXUEZHI,YOUQICIYE;KUNERBUXUE,MINSIWEIXIAYI。”

                            “ZHI”YU“XUE”ZHEILIANGGEZI,SHIGUANJIAN,BAZHEILIANGGEZIDEBENYIGAOQINGCHULE,ZHENGZHANGDENEIHANYEJIUBAWOZHULE。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XIANKAN“XUE”ZI。ZHEILISHUODE“XUE”,JUEBUZHISHIDUOSHUZHUJIASUOSHUODE“XUEZHISHI”DE“XUE”,ERZHUYAOSHI《DAXUE》SUOSHUODE“DAXUEZHIDAO”DE“DAXUE”。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,《DAXUE》KAIPIANDIYIJUBIANSHI:“DAXUEZHIDAO,ZAIMINGMINGDE。”JISHI“ZAIMINGMINGDE”,NEIME,ZHEILIDE“XUE”,JIUZHINENGSHIDUI“MINGMINGDE”ERYAN。“MINGMINGDE”,SHISHIDONGJU,JISHI“MINGDE”“MING”。RUHESHI“MINGDE”“MING”?BUSHIYONG“LUOJILIXING”DEFANGFA,QUDINGYI、FENXISHENMESHI“MINGDE”,ERSHIYONG“SHIJIANLIXING”DEFANGFA,JIZAIZIJIDESHENGMINGHUODONGZHONGQUTIYAN、TIREN、TIHUISHENMESHI“MINGDE”。ZHEILIDE“XUE”,JIUSHIZHIZHEIZHONG“SHIJIANLIXING”HUODONG。KONGZIHAIZAI《WEIZHENG》PIANDEDISIZHANGZHONGSHUO:“WUSHIYOUWUERZHIYUXUE。”CI“XUE”DANGRANYESHI“MINGMINGDE”ZHI“XUE”。ZHEIGE“XUE”HAISHI“ZHITIANMING”ZHI“XUE”,YINWEIKONGZISHIWUSUILI“ZHI”YU“XUE”ZHIHOU,ZHIWUSHISUIBIAN“ZHITIANMING”LE(“WUSHIERZHITIANMING”)。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “XUE”ZINONGQINGCHULE,“ZHI”ZIYEJIUZIRANMINGBAI。JIRAN“XUE”SHI“MINGMINGDE”“ZHITIANMING”,NEIME,ZHEIGE“ZHI”,YEJIUSHI“ZHENZHIHUI”HE“DAJUEWU”。YINWEI“MINGMINGDE”DE“MINGDE”,JIUSHI“ZHI”,JIUSHIYIZHONGRENZHILI(BAOKUOGANZHILI、JUEZHILIHEWUZHILI),TASHI“DAO”“TIAN”“FO”DEGENBENBIAOXIANXINGSHI,BAWOLETA,JIUSHIBAWOLE“DAO”“TIAN”“FO”。HEWEI“ZHENZHIHUI”“DAJUEWU”?DUISHENGMINGBENTI、ZHENGTIDEBAWO,JIUSHI“ZHENZHIHUI”“DAJUEWU”。

                            DUIBENZHANGDEJIESHI,BIJIAODIANXINGDEYOUSANJIA。XIANKANZHUXIDEJIESHI。TAYINYANGSHIDEHUASHUO:“SHENGZHIXUEZHIYIZHIKUNXUE,SUIQIZHIBUTONG,RANZHIQIZHIZHIYIYE。GUJUNZIWEIXUEZHIWEIGUI。”[1]173ZHEILIDE“QIZHIBUTONG”DE“ZHI”,SHIZHIQIZHI,“QIZHIZHIYIYE”DE“ZHI”,SHIZHI“ZHISHI”。“WEIXUEZHIWEIGUI”DE“XUE”,SHI“XUEXI”ZHI“XUE”,TAKEYIBIANHUARENDEQIZHI。ZAIZHUXIKANLAI,CONG“QIZHI”SHANGSHUO,KEYIJIANGRENFENWEISIDENG,RENKEYIYONGXUEXIDEFANGFALAIBIANHUARENDEQIZHI,SUOYIYOUDAOZHIRENSHIHENZHONGSHIXUEXIDE。HENXIANRAN,ZHUXIDEKANFA,SHIBUZHENGQUEDE。YINWEITADEGUANDIANYUKONGZIDEBENYIXIANGQUSHENYUAN。

                            CIKANLIZEHOUDEJIESHI。YIKANQIYIWEN;“KONGZISHUO:‘SHENGLAIJIUYOUZHISHISHISHANGDENG,XUEXIERHOUYOUZHISHISHICIDENG,YUDAOKUNNANZAIQUXUE,ZAICIYIDENG,YUDAOKUNNANRENGRANBUXUE,ZHEIYANGDERENJIUZHENSHIXIADENGLE。’”[3]393ZHEIMINGXIANSHIJIANGKONGZISHUODE“XUE”JIESHIWEI“XUEXI”,JIANGQISHUODE“ZHI”JIESHIWEI“ZHISHI”,ERQIECONG“ZHISHI”DEJIAODUJIANGRENFENWEISIDENG。ZHEIGEKANFA,HEZHUXIYIYANG,TONGYANGSHIBUZHENGQUEDE。YINWEIQIANMIANSHUOGUO,KONGZISHUODE“XUE”,SHI“DAXUE”ZHI“XUE”,TASHUODE“ZHI”,SHI“MINGMINGDE”ZHI“MING”、“ZHITIANMING”ZHI“ZHI”。ERKANQI“JI”:“ZHUXIQIANGDIAOXUEXI,DANGRANSHIMEIYOUSHENME‘SHENGERZHIZHI’DE。KONGZIJIUFOURENZIJISHUYUZHEIYIDENG:‘WOFEISHENGERZHIZHIZHE,HAOGUMINYIQIUZHIZHEYE。’FOURENQUANZHIQUANNENG,‘TIANZONGZHISHENG’,ZHICHURENHERENRENHESHIWUDOUYOUQUESHI,ZHEISHIRUXUEJIBENJINGSHEN。”[3]393CINAIYONGKONGZIDEHUALAIFOUDINGKONGZIZIJISHUODE“SHENGERZHIZHE,SHANGYE”DEGUANDIAN。LIZEHOUDEZHEIYIZUOFA,MINGXIANBUTUO。TABUZHI,KONGZISHUO“WOFEISHENGERZHIZHIZHE”,ZHISHISHUOTAZIJIBUSHUYUZHEIYIDENG,BINGBUSHISHUOZHEIYIDENGJIUBUCUNZAI。YINGGAIZHIDAO,CONG“WOFEISHENGERZHIZHIZHE”ZHEIJUHUA,SHIJUEDUIDEBUCHU“BINGMEIYOUSHENME‘SHENGERZHIZHI’”ZHEIGEJIELUNDE。SHIJISHANG,“SHENGERZHIZHIZHE”HE“FEISHENGERZHIZHIZHE”,ERZHEBINGBUMAODUN。RENMENZHISUOYIJIANGQIDUILIQILAI,SHIYOUYUCHUZAIBUTONGDEWENHUABEIJINGKANWENTISUOZHI。

                            YINGDANGSHUO,QIJINDUIBENZHANGJIESHIDEZUIHAODE,HAISHIDONGZIZHU。KEYISHUO,TADEJIESHI,JUYOUFEITONGYIBANDESHENKEYIYI。ZHEIZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAISANGEFANGMIAN:DIYI,TASHI“XUE”WEI“MINGMINGDE”“ZHITIANMING”,SHI“ZHI”WEIBUSIDESHENGMINGBENTI,ZHEIBUJINYUKONGZIDEBENYIXIANGFUHE,ERQIEWEIWOMENPOJIELEZHANGQIYILAIYIZHICUNZAIDEYIGENANTI,JIJIANG“SHENGERZHIZHI”HE“FEISHENGERZHIZHI”DUILIQILAIDEGUANDIAN。ZHENGRUTASUOSHUODE:“‘XUE’ZHE‘MINGMINGDE’YE,BIDESHI‘MINGDE’FAZHANDAOYIDINGJIEDUANCAIHUICHUXIANDEXIANXIANG,SUOYIYIQIERENJIESHI‘XUEERZHIZHI’,MEIYOURENLEIZHENGTIDEJINBU,CHANSHENGBULERUDAOSHISANJIAWENHUA。‘XUE’ZHE‘MINGMINGDE’YE,YIQIERENDOUSHI‘SHENGERZHIZHI’。RUGUOMEIYOU‘YUZHOU—SHENGMING’XITONGBENJUDE‘MINGDE’,WOWUSUOWEIZHI,‘ZHI’DENENGLIZHINENGSHITIANJIDE,DANDAOLEYIDINGJIEDUAN,CAIHUICHUXIAN‘MINGMINGDE’。YINCI,RENHERENXIANG‘MINGMINGDE’,DOUBIXUBANONGSUOLEDERENLEIWENMINGLICHENG,XIANZUOYIGEJIANDANDEBUCHONG。ZHEIGEBUCHONGGUOCHENGDANGRANYOUKUAIMANZHIFEN,DANMEIYOUBENZHIDEQUBIE,ZUIHOUHAISHIYIGE‘XUEERZHIZHI’。”[4]245DIER,TAYONGBUTONGCENGCIDE“JUEWU”,LAIJIESHIBENZHANGZHONGDE“SHANGYE”“CIYE”“YOUQICIYE”“MINSIWEIXIAYI”。QINGKANTADEYUANHUA:“SHUBUZHI,RENLEIDE‘ZHI’,BINGBUJUEDUISHIROUTIGANGUANDECHANWU,ROUTIGANGUANYOUSHENGYOUSI,ERSHENGMINGZHI‘ZHI’SHIBUKENENGSIDE。JIRAN‘ZHI’BUKENENGSI,YEJIUWUSUOWEI‘SHENG’。ZHEIYANG,YOUMEIYOUZHEIGEROUTI,‘ZHI’DOUSHICUNZAIDE。XIANGDUIYUROUTIDESHENGMIE,‘ZHI’BENSHENDANGRANKEYISHI‘SHENGERZHIZHI,SHANGYE’。ER‘XUEERZHIZHI’QIAQIASHIYINWEIZHENZHENGDE‘ZHI’(ZHI),BEIROUTIGANGUANZHEYANLE,ZUDANGLE。WOYAOZHENZHI(ZHI),ZAIHOUTIANJIUBIXUXUEHUIBAITUODUIROUTIGANGUANWULIGONGNENGDEYILAI,SUOYIDIERDENGDESHI‘XUEERZHIZHI’,SHIJISHI‘XUEERZHIZHI’。KONGZISHIYOUWUERZHIYU‘XUE’,JIUSHIZHEIGEXUEERZHI‘ZHI’。SUOWEI‘KUNERXUEZHI’,JIUSHIDANGZIJIFAXIANMINGYUNZHIKONGBU,HUANJINGZHINANKAN,BUDEYIERZHUIWENSHENGMINGDEGENBENSHI,CAIZHIXIANXU‘MINGXIN’,ZHEIJIUSHI‘YOUQICILE’。XIANGXIANDAIRENYIYANG,KUNZAIZHEIYITAODONGWUGANGUANZHONG,BUZHIQIKU,FANYIWEILE,‘MINSIWEIXIAYE’,QISHIJIUSHIGANZUODONGWU。”[4]383ZHEIYANGDEJIESHI,BUJINJIAODUTESHU,ERQIEYIYISHIFENSHENKE。YINWEIZHEIYANGZUO,JISHIDUIYI“QIZHI”HUO“ZHISHI”LAIHUAFENRENDEDENGCIDEZHEIXIEZUOFADEPOCHU,YOUSHIDUIRUJIAZHIHUNDEYIZHONGJICHENGHEGAOYANG。YINWEI“JUEWU”,ZHIYOU“JUEWU”,CAISHIRUJIADEZHONGJIJIAZHIHEGUISU。DISAN,DONGSHIJIESHIDEZUISHENKEZHICHU,HAIZAIYUTAWEIWOMENJIESHILERENMENBUNENGLIJIE“SHENGERZHIZHI”DEZHENSHIYUANYIN。TAGAOSUWOMEN,XIFANGRENZHISUOYIFOUDING“SHENGERZHIZHI”DECUNZAI,ZHEISHIYUTAMENBASHENGMINGDEBENTIHESHENGMINGDEZAITIHUNWEIYITANMIQIEXIANGGUANDE,YESHIHETAMENRENWEISHENGMINGSHIYOUKAIDUANDEZHEIGEGUANDIANFENBUKAIDE,YIJUHUA,ZHEISHIYOUYUDONGXIFANGDESHENGMINGGUANDEGENBENBUTONGZAOCHENGDE。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   WEILEJIASHENDUI“SHENGERZHIZHI”ZHEIJUHUADELIJIE,HAIYOUYIDUANKONGZIDEYULUZHIDEZHUYI,ZHEIJIUSHI《SHUER》PIANDI20ZHANGSHUODE:ZIYUE:“WOFEISHENGERZHIZHIZHE,HAOGU,MINYIQIUZHIZHEYE。”“HAOGU”ERZI,SHIZHEIYIDUANYULUDEGUANJIAN。NONGQINGCHUKONGZI“HAO”DESHISHENME“GU”,“MINYIQIUZHIZHE”YOUSHIZHIHEERYANDE,TASUOSHUODE“WOFEISHENGERZHIZHIZHE”DEZHENSHIYIYI,JIUHUIZHAORANRUOJIE。CONGKONGZISHAN《SHU》、BIAN《SHI》、XIU《CHUNQIU》,KEYIKANCHUTABUSHIKANZHONG“GU”RENDEYIQIEDE。CONGKONGZIDU《ZHOUYI》ER“WEIBIANSANJUE”,YOUKEYIKANCHUTAKANZHONGDESHI《ZHOUYI》CHUANDAXIALAIDE“DAO”。《ZHOUYI》SHIZHONGGUOWENHUAYIZIJIDEZUICHUXINGTAIQUBIEYUYIQIEQITAMINZUWENHUAERCHAOYUEGUISHENTUTENGWENHUADEJIEZUO。TADE“TIANMINGGUAN”,JIYUWUSHUTUTENGDE“TIANMINGGUAN”YOUBIE,YOUBUTONGYUJINRENDESUOWEIZIRANKEXUEDE“TIANMINGGUAN”。KONGZI“ZHITIANMING”DESIXIANG,YESHIYI《ZHOUYI》WEIFANBEN,BINGYOULEZHONGDAFAHUI。ZHENGSHIJIYUCI,KONGZIBIANSHUOCHULELINGWAIYIDUANHUA,JI《SHUER》PIANSHOUZHANGSHUODE“SHUERBUZUO,XINERHAOGU,QIEBIYUWOLAOPENG”。CONGSHANGMIANJIANGDEKONGZIYU《ZHOUYI》DEMIQIEGUANXI,WOMENWANQUANKEYIRENDING,KONGZISHUOZIJI“SHUERBUZUO”DEHUA,SHIDUDAODE,JINGPIDE。YINWEI“TIAN”“MING”“LI”“REN”ZHEIXIEGUANNIAN,JUEBUSHIXIFANGZHEXUESUOWEIDELUOJIFANCHOU,TAMENSHISHIJIANLIXINGGUANNIAN,SHIWUFADINGYIHEGAIKUODE,YIGERENYIGE“TIAN”,YIGERENYIGE“MING”。“LI”YOUBENTIZHI“LI”HELIYIZHI“LI”ZHIFEN。RUGUOCONGBENTIZHI“LI”SHANGSHUO,“JIRUZAI”,YEKEYISHUOSHIYIGERENYIGE“LI”。ZAICONGKONGZINEIZAIJINGSHENJIANG,TAYONGYUANBUXIANGYIJIXINTONGYIRENXIN、GUIFANRENXIN,SUOYI“SHUERBUZUO”。YOURENSHUOKONGZIYOUYITAOLUNLIDAODETIXI。ZHEIBUDUI。ZHEISHIHOURENDUZHUANDE,YUKONGZIWUGUAN。KONGZIRUCIDIKANZHONG《ZHOUYI》,XIANGXINTACHUANDAXIALAIDE“DAO”——“MINGMINGDE”,BINGZAIZIJIDEXINZHONGANANDIZHUIMUZHELAOPENG。ZHEIDOUSHIWEILESHUOMING“XUE”DEZHONGYAOXING,WEILESHUOMING“XUEERZHIZHI”DEZHONGYAOXING。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,ZHIYOUQIANGDIAO“XUEERZHIZHI”,CAIBUHUISHI“SHENGERZHIZHI”LIUYUKONGTAN,DAOZHISHENMIHUA,CAIHUISHINEIXIE“KUNERBUXUE”、GANXINZUODONGWUDERENYOUSUOXINGWU,CAIHUISHIGENGDUODERENRENSHIDAO,NEIXIEBA“SHENGERZHIZHI”YU“XUEERZHIZHI”JUEDUIDUILIQILAIDEGUANDIAN,SHICUOWUDE。

                            三、“知之”“好之”与“乐之”

                            JIZHONGJIANGZHEIGEWENTIDE,SHI《YONGYE》PIANDI20ZHANG,QIYUANWENSHI:

                            ZIYUE:“ZHIZHIZHEBURUHAOZHIZHE,HAOZHIZHEBURULEZHIZHE。”

                            JINGGUOBIJIAO,DUIZHEIYIZHANGJIESHIDEBIJIAOHAODE,TONGQIANYIZHANGYIYANG,RENGSHIZHUXI、LIZEHOUHEDONGZIZHUSANJIA。XIANKANZHUXIDEJIESHI。《JIZHU》:“○YINSHIYUE:‘ZHIZHIZHE,ZHIYOUCIDAOYE。HAOZHIZHE,HAOERWEIDEYE。LEZHIZHE,YOUSUODEERLEZHIYE。○ZHANGJINGFUYUE:‘PIZHIWUGU,ZHIZHEZHIQIKESHIZHEYE,HAOZHESHIERCHANGZHIZHEYE,LEZHECHANGZHIERBAOZHEYE。’ZHIERBUNENGHAO,ZESHIZHIZHIWEIZHIYE;HAOZHIERWEIJIYULE,ZESHIHAOZHIWEIZHIYE。CIGUZHIXUEZHE,SUOYIZIQIANGERBUXIZHEYU?’”[1]89ZHEIGEJIESHI,ZUITUCHUDETEDIAN,SHITAMINGQUEDIZHICHULESIGEDAICI“ZHI”DESUOZHI,SHIKONGZITICHANGDE“DAO”。ZHEIGEJIESHIDELINGYIGETEDIAN,SHITAWEIWOMENZHICHULEBAWO“DAO”DESANZHONGJINGJIE,JI“ZHI”,LEJIE;“HAO”,AIHAO;“LE”,SHISHIZHINEIXIEZAI“DAO”ZHONGDEDAOLEZHENZHENGHUANLEDEREN。TABA“LEDAO”KANCHENGSHIZUIGAOJINGJIE。ZHEIGEJIESHIDEZAIYIGETEDIAN,SHIQIANGDIAOYAOYI“ZIQIANGBUXI”JINGSHENQUBAWO“DAO”,SHIJISHANGSHIXIANGWOMENQIANGDIAOGONGFUDUIYUBENTIDEZHONGYAOXING。《YI》YUE:“TIANXINGJIAN,JUNZIYIZIQIANGBUXI”。CONGZHUXIDUI“ZIQIANGBUXI”DEQIANGDIAO,KEYIKANCHU,TASUOSHUODESIGE“ZHI”SUOZHIDAIDE“DAO”,JIUSHI“TIANXINGJIAN”,JI“TIANDAO”。ZAIZHUXIKANLAI,ZHIYAO“ZIQIANGBUXI”DIZHUIQIU“TIANDAO”,XIANGZHUANGZISHUODE“ZHONGQITIANNIANERBUZHONGDAOYAO”,JIUKEYIYU“TIANDAO”HEYI,SHIXIAN“DAJUEWU”,CONGERCHANSHENGWUQIONGDENEIXINDEXIYUE。ZHENGSHIJIYUSHANGMIANSUOSHUO,ZHUXIDEJIESHI,BIANWEIQIHOUMIANDEDUOSHUZHUJIASUOTUICHONG。

                            CIKANLIZEHOUDEJIESHI。TASHUO:“ZHUZHUSHENHAO。‘XINGYUSHI,LIYULI,CHENGYULE’YU‘ZHIZHI,HAOZHI,LEZHI’KEYIZUOWEIJIAOXIANGYINGDUIDESANCENGCI。ZHEICENGCIDOUSHIJIUXINLIZHUANGTAIERYAN,DOUZAIZHIXIANGSUOWEI‘LE’——JISHIYINLE,YOUSHIKUAILEDEZUIGAOCENGCI、ZUIGAOJINGJIE。ZHEIYEJIUSHISUOWEI‘TIANDIJINGJIE’,JIWOCHENGZHIWEI‘YUESHEN’DESHENMEIJINGJIE,CIJINGJIEYUZONGJIAOXIANGGUAN。YINSHANGDICUNZAIBINGFEIRENSHILUNWENTI,YIBUZHISHILUNLIXUEWENTI,GUIGENJIUDI,YINGWEIQINGGANXINGDEMEIXUEWENTI。ZHUOZHEYIQIANCENGTICHU‘SHENMEIDEXINGERSHANGXUE’‘SHENMEIDESHENXUE’,JUNCIZHIWEI。MENGZISUOSHUO‘SHANGXIAYUTIANDITONGLIU’,ZHUANGZISUOSHUODE‘WULEZHILE,SHIWEITIANLE’,SHIYE。ZHEIYEJIUSHIQIANMIANZAISANJIANGDAODERUXUEDEZONGJIAOXINGZHISUOZAI,RUJIASUOSHUO‘GUZHIXUEZHEWEIJI’,YICIZHIWEI。TASHIMOUZHONGTIYANXING、QINGGANXING,ERBUSHISIBIANXING、ZHISHIXINGHUOYIZHIXING(ZHIZHI、HAOZHI),SUOYIFEIFENXIYUYAN、GAINIAN,LUNZHENGFANCHOU、YUANLISUONENGHUODE。CI‘QING’CI‘LE’YOUFEIDICENGCI(RUkierkegaardSUORENWEI)SHENMEIGANJUE,ERSHIRONGLIZHI、YIZHIYUQIZHONGDEBENTIGANWU。CIGANWUZHISUOYIWEI‘LE’,ZEZHONGHUAWENHUAZHITEZHENG。RENSHENGJIANNAN,YOUWUWAILI(SHANGDI)YIKAO,CHUNLAIZISHENNULI,YICANZAOHUA,HETIANREN,YOUKAOZISHENSHULIQILEGUANZHUYI,LAIJIANNANFENDOU、YANXUSHENGCUN。XIANDAIXUERENCHANGPIPINGZHONGGUOCHUANTONGBUJIXIFANGBEIGUANZHUYIZHISHENKE,SHUBUZHIXIFANGCHUANTONGYOUQUANZHIQUANNENGZHISHANGDIZUOBEIJING,RENSUIMIAOXIAODANYOUYIKAO;ZHONGGUOJIWUCIBEIJING,ZHIHAOFENLIXIANGQIAN,ZIWOKENDING,SIHUJIDUKUAZHANGZHI‘YUTIANDICAN’,SHIZEYIWUYIBANG,BEIKUJIANXIN,GENGDAYOUGUOYUYOUYIBANGZHE。ZHONGGUOSIXIANGYINGCONGCICHUZHEYANRUSHOU,CAIZHI‘LEGANWENHUAZHIQIANGYANHUANXIAO、BAIBEIBEIQINGZHISHENKESUOZAI。’”[3]158-159LIZEHOUSUIRANKENDINGZHUXIDUIBENZHANGDEJIESHI,SHUO“ZHUZHUSHENHAO”。DANTADEJIESHI,BINGFEIZHONGFUZHUXIDEGUANDIAN,ERSHIYOUTATEYOUDESHENKEZHICHUDE。RUGUOYONGYIJUHUALAIGAIKUO,QISHENKEZHICHUJIUZAIYU,TADUIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUAZUOLEQIANGUDINGPING。ZHEISHIHENSHAOYOURENZUODAODE,YESHIHENSHAOYOURENLEZHIDE。RUGUOFENKAILAISHUO,NEIJIUSHI:DIYI,TASUIRANHEZHUXIYIYANG,CHENG“ZHIZHI”“HAOZHI”“LEZHI”,WEIBAWO“DAO”DE“SANJINGJIE”,DANTAGENGWEIQIANGDIAO“LEZHI”,RENWEI“LE”DEJINGJIE,SHI“XINLIZHUANGTAI”ZHONG“ZUIGAOCENGCI、ZUIGAOJINGJIE”,SHIFENGYOULANSUOWEIDE“TIANDIJINGJIE”,YIJITASUOSHUODE“YUESHEN”DESHENMEIJINGJIE。DIER,TADUI“LEZHI”JINGJIEDENEIHANZUOLEJINYIBUDEJIESHI,ZHICHU“CIJINGJIEYUZONGJIAOXIANGGUAN”。ZAIXIFANG,“YINSHANGDICUNZAIBINGFEIRENSHILUNWENTI,YIBUZHISHILUNLIXUEWENTI,GUIGENJIUDI,YINGWEIQINGGANXINGDEMEIXUEWENTI”。ZAIZHONGGUO,MENGZISHUODE“SHANGXIAYUTIANDITONGLIU”,ZHUANGZISHUODE“WULEZHILE,SHIWEITIANLE”,KONGZISHUODE“GUZHIXUEZHEWEIJI”,DOUSHIJIANGDERUXUEDEZONGJIAOXINGZHISUOZAI。YAOYANZHI,TASHIMOUZHONGTIYANXING、QINGGANXING,ERBUSHISIBIANXING、ZHISHIXINGHUOYIZHIXING(ZHIZHI、HAOZHI),SUOYIFEIFENXIYUYAN、GAINIAN,LUNZHENG、FANCHOUYUANLISUONENGHUODE。YUCI,WOMENKANDAOLEZHONGGUORENDUI“LEZHI”JINGJIEDEBAWO,HEXIFANGRENXIANGBI,YOUZHETIANRANDEYOUYUEXING,YINWEI“LEZHI”JINGJIEDEZHENGTIXING,BIXUYONGZHENGTIDESHIJIANLIXINGQUBAWO,ERXIFANGRENDEZHUKEERFENDELUOJILIXING,DUITAZESHIWUNENGWEILIDE。DISAN,TAWEIWOMENJIESHICHUZHONGXIQINGGANSHENMEIJINGJIEZHISUOYIBUTONGDEZHENSHIYUANYIN。LISHIRENWEI,ZHONGGUOHEXIFANGYOUZHEBUTONGDEQINGGANSHENMEIJINGJIE:XIFANGSHIBEIGUANZHUYIDE,ERZHONGGUOZESHILEGUANZHUYIDE,TACHENGZHONGGUOWENHUAWEI“LEGANWENHUA”。TABINGZHICHU,CHANSHENGZHEIZHONGQUBIEDEGENBENYUANYIN,ZAIYUSHIFOUDUI“SHEN”DEYILAI、DUISHANGDIDEYILAI。DUI“SHEN”HE“SHANGDI”DEYILAI,JIUSHIZHUZHANGXINYUSHENERFEN,SHIZHISHIDUIYUZHUKEERFENSIWEIFANGSHIDEYILAI。YOUYUXIFANGHENCHICAICONGYUANSHIDEWUSHUTUTENGSHIDAIDEYISHENWEIBENDESHENGMINGGUANBAITUOCHULAI,ZHIJINHAIMEIYOUBAITUODUISHANGDIDEYILAI,TAJIUBUKENENGCHANSHENGRONGLIZHI、YIZHIYUQIYISHENDEGANWU,MEIYOUZHEIZHONGGANWU,YEJIUBUKENENGCHANSHENGNEIXINDEXIYUE。ERZHEI,ZHENGSHIZHONGHUAWENHUADEJIBENTEZHENG。YINWEIZHONGHUAMINZUSHIZUIZAOYOUWUSHUTUTENGDESHENBENSHENGMINGGUANJINRUYIRENWEIBENDESHENGMINGGUANDEMINZU,YESHIMEIYOUXINGCHENGYIGEYISHENZUNCHONGDEZONGJIAODEMINZU。ZHONGGUORENDEYIRENWEIBENDESHENGMINGGUAN,BUSHIYIRENDEROUTIWEIBEN,ERSHIYIRENDEROUTIWEIZAITIDESHENGMINGBENTI,JI“ZHI”WEIBEN,QIZUIZHONGMUDESHI“MINGMINGDE”“ZHITIANMING”,JIHUODEYU“DAO”HEYIDE“DAJUEWU”“DAZHIHUI”。ZHIYOUHUODEZHEIZHONG“DAJUEWU”“DAZHIHUI”DEREN,CAINENGZAIRENHEQINGKUANGXIADOUBUGAIQI“LE”。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZONGZHI,LISHIDEZHEIYIJIESHI,SHITIANCAIDE,YESHIZHENGQUEDE。SHUOTASHI“TIANCAI”DE,SHIYINWEITADEJIESHISHICHAOQUNDE,BUDUOJIANDE;SHUOTASHIZHENGQUEDE,SHIYINWEITADEJIESHISHIYUKONGZIDEBENYIXIANGFUHEDE。“LE”NAIKONGXUEZHIYAOZHI。ZHIYAODAJIAKANDAOZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGLVLVJIANGDAO“LE”ZI,JIUHUIXIANGXINWOMENDEZHEIYIPINGJIASHIYOUCHONGFENGENJUDE。DANSHI,YEBIXUZHICHU,LISHIDUIBENZHANGDEJIESHI,YEYOUQIBUZUZHICHU。NEIJIUSHI,TAMEIYOUJIWOMENZHICHURUHEDADAOQINGGANSHENMEIJINGJIEDEWENTI,JIMEIYOUJIANGZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUADEKECAOZUOCHU。SHUODEJUTIDIAN,TABUZHIZAIJUTISHIJIANZHONGDE“ZHILIANGZHI”“ZHITIANMING”,ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGKECAOZUOCHU。ZHENGYINWEITABUDONGDEZHEIYIDIAN,SUOYIXIANZAIDERENJISHINENGTINGMINGBAITADEJIESHI,YEHUIGANDAOSHIFENMANGRAN。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIKANDONGZIZHUDEJIESHI。TASHUO:“ZHEISIGE‘ZHI’BIANSHI‘MINGMINGDE’,KONGZIJIANGDESHI‘MINGMINGDE’DESANGEJINGJIE……‘MINGDE’WUXINGWUXIANG,SHIYAOYIWANWUWANSHIZHIXIANGERXIANSHIZIJI,YIBANRENJIRONGYIBEIWANSHIWANWUZHIXIANGSUOMI,ERWANGLEZIJISHENGMINGDEZHENSHICUNZAI。ZHENGRUYIGERENKANHUA,ZHIZHONGSHIHUAMIANZHIWU,ERHULVELEZHENGTIJIEGOU,YOUQISHIWANGDIAORENHEHUADOUBUKEHUOQUEDE‘DISE’。‘MINGMINGDE’BIXUYOUYIDINGDEFANSINENGLI。ZHEIDUANHUASHIHE‘RENZHISHENGYEZHI’XIANGHUYINGDE。CONG‘RENZHISHENGYEZHI’YINGERBANDEKUAILE,DAOBEIWANXIANGSUOMIHUO,ZAIDAOLEJIE‘MINGDE’DECUNZAI,AIHAO‘MINGMINGDE’,ZAIDAOCONG‘MINGMINGDE’ZHONGDEDAOKUAILE,ZHENGHAOSHIYIGESHANGSHENGDELUOXUAN。NIDAOLECISHI,BUSHIDEDAOLERUYINGERYIBANDETIANZHENDEKUAILEMA?YINGERZHUANGTAIZHISHI‘MINGDE’BENNENGDEZUOYONG。‘MINGDE’,ZHIYOUJINRU‘MINGMINGDE’,BINGCONGZHONGDEDAOLEQU,YIZHIWANGLE‘MINGMINGDE’,NEICAISHIZHENDEHESHENGMINGBENLAIMIANMUTONGTILE。BUJINGGUOWENMINGDEMONAN,SHIBUKENENGZHENZHENGDADAO‘MINGMINGDE’DE。FOXUEZHONGJIRENMENJIESHAOWUSHUZHONGXIULIANFANGFA,QISHINEIDOUSHIWENMINGDEMONAN,YOUQISHIFOXUEZHONGDE‘LVXUE’,SHIJIACHENGZHIWEI‘JIESHIWUSHANGPUTIBEN’,‘JIE’JIUSHIYIZHONG‘WENMINGMONAN’。XUDUORENBUDONGQIMUDESHI‘PUTI’,JIJUEWU,JI‘MINGMINGDE’,ZHENDESISHOUYISHENGDE‘JIE’,NEIJIUYONGYUANYEZOUBUCHU‘WENMINGDEMONAN’,YEYONGYUANZAI‘DAO’ZHIWAI。ZHEIYEJIUSHISHUO,YIQIEDOUBUNENGMIXIN,BAOKUO‘DAO’BENSHEN。”[4]118SHAOJIABIJIAO,NIJIUHUIFAXIAN,DONGSHIDEJIESHIHEQIANLIANGJIAXIANGBI,YOUZHEMINGXIANDETEDIAN,NEIJIUSHITASHUODE:“ZHEISIGE‘ZHI’BIANSHI‘MINGMINGDE’,KONGZIJIANGDESHI‘MINGMINGDE’DESANGEJINGJIE。”RENWEISIGE“ZHI”SHIZHIDAI“MINGMINGDE”DE,ZHEIJIUBIQIANLIANGJIAQIANJINLEYIBU。YINWEILIZEHOUMEIYOUMINGQUESHUOCHUZHEIYIDIAN,ZHUXISUIRANJIANGLE“ZHI”SHIZHIDAI“DAO”DE,DANBIJINGBURUSHUOSHIZHIDAI“MINGMINGDE”DEHAO,YAOZHIDAO,“DAO”YU“MINGDE”JI“ZHI”TEBIESHI“MINGMINGDE”JI“ZHIZHI”,SHIYOUQUBIEDE,QIANZHESHISHENGMINGDEZONGYUAN,HOUZHEZESHIQIANZHEDEGENBENBIAOXIANXINGSHI,ERZHESHIBUNENGHUNTONGDE。BABENZHANGSHUOCHENGSHI“MINGMINGDE”DE“SANJINGJIE”,JIANG“LEZHI”KANCHENGSHIZUIGAOJINGJIE,ZHEICONGSHIZHISHANGSHUO,KEYISHUOSHISANJIADEGONGSHI。DANSHI,BA“ZHIZHI”“HAOZHI”“LEZHI”,DANGCHENGSHIDADAO“MINGMINGDE”GUOCHENGZHONGDE“WENMINGDEMONAN”,ZHEIQUESHIZHUXIHELIZEHOUDOUMEIYOUJIANGGUODE。ERDONGSHIBUDANJIANGLE,HAIZUOLEFANFUDELUNSHU,RENWEI“YIQIEDOUBUNENGMIXIN,BAOKUO‘DAO’BENSHEN”。TAQIANGDIAO,“YINGERZHUANGTAIZHISHI‘MINGDE’BENNENGDEZUOYONG。‘MINGDE’ZHIYOUJINRU‘MINGMINGDE’,BINGCONGZHONGDEDAOLEQU,YIZHIWANGLE‘MINGMINGDE’,NEICAISHIZHENDEHESHENGMINGBENLAIMIANMUTONGTILE。”QINGZHUYI:ZHEILISHUODE“WANGLE‘MINGMINGDE’”,JIUSHISHUODEBUKEMIXIN“DAO”。YINWEIRUGUONIANNIANBUWANG“MINGMINGDE”,JIBUWANGYIJING“JUEWU”LEDE“DAO”,RENWEI“DAO”SHI“XIN”WAIDEJUEDUI,NEIJIUFANLEZHUKEERFENDECUOWU。ERZHEI,JIUKAISHIYU“DAO”WUYUANLE;SHEIDOUZHIDAO,ZHUKEERFENDESIWEIFANGSHI,DUIYU“DAO”DEBAWOSHIWUNENGWEILIDE。YAOYANZHI,TONGGUOJIANG“WENMINGDEMONAN”LAIJIANGZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUADEKECAOZUOCHU,ZHEISUISHILAIZIWANGYANGMINGDE“SHISHANGMOLIAN”,DANJINGGUODONGSHIDEQIANGDIAO,BUJINMIBULEZHU、LIDEBUZU,ERQIEDUIJINRENRUHE“ZHILIANGZHI”,YEJUYOUZHONGYAODEQIDIYIYI。

                            四、“知”与“仁”

                            《LUNYU》ZHONGBA“ZHI”YU“REN”LIANZAIYIQIJIANGDE,YOUXUDUOZHANG,ZHEILIZHIXUANZEQIZHONGYIZHANGLAIJIANG。QINGKAN《GONGYEZHANG》PIANDI8ZHANGDEYUANWEN:

                            MENGWUBOWENZILURENHU?ZIYUE:“BUZHIYE。”YOUWEN。ZIYUE:“YOUYE,QIANCHENGZHIGUO,KESHIZHIQIFUYE,BUZHIQIRENYE。”“QIUYEHERU?”ZIYUE:“QIUYE,QIANSHIZHIYI,BAICHENGZHIJIA,KESHIWEIZHIZAIYE,BUZHIQIRENYE。”“CHIYEHERU?”ZIYUE:“CHIYE,SHUDAILIYUCHAO,KESHIYUBINKEYANYE,BUZHIQIRENYE。”

                            BENZHANGDEZHUZHI,SHIJIANGKONGZIDUIQIXUESHENGZILU、RANYOUHEGONGXICHIDEPINGJIA。QIHEXINJIUSHIKONGZISHUODE“BUZHIQIRENYE”ZHEIJUHUA。DUIZHEIJUHUA,ZHUJIAMENDADOUYOUSUOJIESHI,QIZHONGBIJIAOHAODE,YOURUXIAZHUJIA:

                            【JIJIE】“KONGYUE:‘RENZHEZHIDA,BUKEQUANMING。’”[5]302

                            【TANGYIQIANGUZHU】HUANG《SHU》YINFANNINGYUN:“RENDAOHONGYUAN,ZHONGYOUWEINENGYOUZHI。YOUBUYUZHIYANWUREN,FEIJIANGYOUZHIJIAO,GUTUOYUNBUZHIYE。”[5]302

                            【JIZHU】“ZILUZHIYUREN,GAIRIYUEZHIYANZHE,HUOZAIHUOWANG,BUNENGBIQIYOUWU,GUYIBUZHIGAOZHI。”[5]302

                            OUYI《SISHUOUYIJIE》:“ZIGONGWENYUE:‘CIYEHERU?’ZIYUE:‘NVQIYE。’YUE:‘HEQIYE?’YUE:‘HULIANYE。’ZIGONGYUZILU、RANQIU、GONGXIHUASANZI,JIEHULIANYE,FEIBUQIZHIJUNZI。QIZHE,NENGYOUSUOPIAN,LIANGYOUSUOXIAN。WUPIANWUXIAN,SIRENYI。”[2]42

                            KANGYOUWEI《LUNYUZHU》:“SANZIZHIYUREN,GAIYISHENSHEN,DANRENDAOSHENDA,KONGZIYOUYANQIGAN。YIXIZHIWEI,JIYIFEIREN,KONGBUYANSANZIFEIREN,ERDANYANBUZHI,GAIXUQISHENXINZHE,ERXUNYANQIWEICHUNZHIZHEYU?”[6]59

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   LIZEHOU《LUNYUJINDU》:“KONGZIDAHUABIAOMINGQIANGDIAO‘REN’BINGFEIMOUXIECAINENGBENLING,QIANGDIAOJIANG‘REN’YUCAINENG、BENLINGQUBIEKAILAI,YUCIKEKUI‘REN’ZUOWEIXINLIBENTIDEZHENYI。”[3]127-128

                            DONGZIZHU《LUNYUZHENZHIHUI》:“KONGZIDE‘REN’XUESIXIANG,GUOWANGXUDUODASHIJIANGDESHIFENMINGBAI,‘REN’SHI‘TI’SHANGDESHI,KEYI‘YONG’,YEJIKEYIZAISHIJIANZHONGQUTIHUI、TIREN,YEZHIYOUZAI‘YONG’SHANGCAINENGSHUODEQINGCHU。DAN‘REN’BENSHENZHINENGSHI‘TI’,BUNENGZHIJIEJIESHUO。ZHENGRU‘DIAN’YU‘DIANQI’、‘DIANBIAO’DEGUANXIYIYANG。WOMENJINTIANJIANDAOYIQIELUN‘DIAN’DELUNSHU,JIHUDOUSHI‘YONG’SHANGQILUOJI,CONGERTUIDAO‘TI’SHANGDE。ZHIJIELEDANGZHIJIANG‘DIAN’,BUCONGDONGNENG、GUANGNENG、RENENG、WEINENGGEFANGMIANTUILUNGUOQU,JIHUMEIYOUBANFAJIANG。QISHIZHEIJIUSHI《GONGZHIZHANG》ZHONG,KONGZIYIZAIHUIBIPINGJIADIZISHIFOUDADAOLE‘REN’DEJINGJIEDEYUANYIN……YOUYUZHEIJIGERENZHENDEKENENGHAIMEIYOUWANQUANDADAO‘REN’DEJINGJIE,GENGZHONGYAODESHI,JIBIANTAMENDENENGLIXINGWEIYIJINGSHISHUYU‘REN’DEFANWEI。ZUOWEIKONGZIYEBUNENGWANGLUN。YINWEIZHEISHI‘SHIJIANLIXING’。MEIGERENYUMEIGERENDOUYOUBUTONGDESHIJIAN,NEIMEMEIGERENYUMEIGERENDE‘REN’DEJINGJIESHIBUKENENGYIYANGDE。SHEIZHENDEDADAO,DADAOSHENMESHUIPING,ZHIYOUZIJIZHIDAO,QITARENZUIDUOSHITUILICAIXIANG。”[7]126

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SHANGSHUGEJIADEJIESHI,GUINAQILAI,DAZHIYOUSIZHONG:YISHI“REN”SHI“ZHIDA”“GAOYUAN”DEBENTI,BUKEJIESHUO,ERKONGZIDEZHEISANWEIXUESHENGYOUWEINENGDADAO,TAMENDOUSHI“HULIAN”ZHILEIDE“QI”,SHIYOUPIAN、YOUXIANDE,“REN”ZESHIWUPIAN、WUXIANDE,SUOYIKONGZISHUO“BUZHIQIREN”。

                            ERSHIKONGZIDEZHEISANWEIXUESHENGSUIYIDADAO“REN”DEJINGJIE,YOUDEKEYIYITIANBUWEI“REN”,YOUDEKEYIYIYUEBUWEI“REN”,DANZAINAYITIAN、NAYIYUEBUWEI“REN”,ZHEISHIBUDINGDE,SHUOBUZHUNDE,SUOYIKONGZIYI“BUZHIYE”GAOZHI。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SANSHIKONGZIDEZHEISANWEIXUESHENGDE“REN”DEJINGJIEYIJINGHENGAOLE,YONGKANGYOUWEIDEHUASHUO:“SANZIZHIYUREN,GAIYISHENSHEN。”DAN“REN”DEJINGJIESHIWUXIANDE,LIANKONGZIDOUBUGANCHENGXUZIJIWEI“REN”。YINWEI“REN”SHIBUKE“WEI”DE,“YIXIZHIWEI,JIYIFEIREN”。RUGUOQINGXUSANWEIXUESHENGWEI“REN”,ZHEIJIUDENGYUGULITAMENQU“WEIREN”,SHIQICHENGWEIBU“REN”DEREN。SUOYI,KONGZIZHINENGSHUO“BUZHIQIRENYE”。

                            SISHIQIANGDIAOKONGZISHUODE“BUZHI”“BUZHIQIREN”,SHIJIU“REN”ZHI“TI”SHUODE。ZHEIYIDIAN,LIZEHOUYIJINGCHUJIDAOLE。TASUOSHUODE“RENZUOWEIXINLIBENTIDEZHENYI”,JIUZAIYUTASHIBU“KEQUANMINGDE”,BUKEJIESHUODE。KONGZISHUO“BUZHI”“BUZHIQIREN”DEYUANYIN,JIUZAIYUCI。ZAILIZEHOUKANLAI,KONGZIZAIBENZHANGBUZHIJIEJIANGTADESANWEIXUESHENGSHIBUSHIDADAO“REN”,ERSHIDAJIANGTAMENDEZHIGUODECAINENG、BENLING,QIYONGYIZAIYUQIANGDIAO“REN”YUCAINENG、BENLINGDEQUBIE。“REN”SHIBUKEZHIJIESHUODE,CAINENG、BENLINGSHIKEZHIJIESHUODE。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   LIZEHOUDEJIESHI,JIAOZHIQIANRENYIGENGJIEJINYUKONGZIDEYUANYI,DANYUDONGZIZHUXIANGBI,QUEYOULIANGDIANMINGXIANDEBUZU:DIYI,TAMEIYOUDIANMING“REN”YOU“TI”“YONG”ZHIFEN。ERDONGZIZHUBUDANZUOLEQUFEN,ERQIEQUANMIANDIJIANGLEERZHEDEGUANXI。TAYIFANGMIANSHUO“REN”SHI“TI”SHANGDESHI,“REN”BENSHENZHINENGSHI“TI”,BUNENGZHIJIEJIESHUO,ZHEISHIKONGZIYIZAIJIANG“BUZHIQIREN”DEYIGEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,TAYOUSHUO:“YEZHIYOUZAI‘YONG’SHANGCAINENGSHUODEQINGCHU”,RUOZHIJIEJIANG“REN”ZHI“TI”,JIHUMEIYOUBANFAJIANG。ZHEIHOUYIDIAN,JI“TI”YU“YONG”DELIANXI,QIAQIASHILIZEHOUSUOMEIYOUKANDAODE。DIER,YESHIZHUYAODEYIDIAN,LIZEHOUMEIYOUZHENZHENGDIDONGDEZHONGGUOXINXUEDE“SHIJIANLIXING”DETEDIAN。SHIJIANLIXING,BUTONGYULUOJILIXING,JIUZAIYUTADEBUKEFUZHIXING。YINWEIMEIYIGERENDESHIJIANSHIBUYIYANGDE,YINERMEIYIGERENSUOTIYANDAODE“REN”DEJINGJIEYESHIYIGERENYIGEYANG。SHEIZHENDEDADAO,DADAOSHENMESHUIPING,ZHIYOUZIJIZHIDAO。ZHEICAISHIKONGZIYIZAIHUIBIPINGJIADIZISHIFOUDADAO“REN”DEJINGJIEDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。ERZHEI,ZHENGSHIDONGZIZHUDUIBENZHANGJIESHIDEZUIWEIGAOMINGDEYIDIAN。

                            ZONGGUANSHANGSHUDESIZHONGJIESHI,WOMENZAIYICIDIKANDAOLEKONGZIDEWEIDA。TAYIZAIJIANCHIDISHUO:“BUZHIYE”“BUZHIQIRENYE”。ZHEIBUSHITADEQIANXU,YEBUSHITADUISANWEIDIZIDEQINGSHI,ERSHIDUI“DAO”HUO“REN”DEZHENYIDEYIZHONGQIESHIDEBAWO。BIXUMINGQUE,TASUOSHUODE“BUZHIYE”“BUZHIQIRENYE”DE“BUZHI”,SHIHETASUOSHUODE“ZHIZHIWEIZHIZHI,BUZHIWEIBUZHI,SHIZHIYE”ZHONGDE“BUZHI”,SHIYIGEYISI。DOUBUSHIZUODONGCI,JIZUOBUZHIDAO、BUMINGBAIJIE,ERSHIZUOMINGCI,JIZUOBUKENDINGYEBUFOUDINGJIE。YINWEIRUQIANSUOSHUO,“REN”SHIYOU“TI”“YONG”ZHIFENDE。JIU“TI”ERYAN,TASHIBUDONGDE、WUXIANDE、BUKEFENDE、BUKEZHI、BUKEYANSHUO、BUKEKENDINGDE;JIU“YONG”ERYAN,TAYOUSHIZHUXINGWUCHANGDE、YOUXIANDE、KEFENDE、KEZHI、KEYANSHUO、KEKENDINGDE。QIANMIANDESIZHONGJIESHI,KEYIGUIJIEWEIYIZHONGJIESHI,DOUSHIJIANGRENDE“TI”“YONG”GUANXI。ZHEIZHONGGUANXISHIBUKEFENGEDE,SUOYIDUIZHIZHINENGCAIQUJIBUKENDINGYOUBUFOUDINGDEFANGFA。ZHEIZHONGFANGFA,YONGWANGYANGMINGDEHUASHUO,JIUSHI“WUZHUWUWANG”。

                            五、“知”与“义”

                            《LUNYU》ZHONGZHIJIEJIANG“ZHI”YU“YI”ZHIJIANGUANXIDEYULU,YOU《YONGYE》PIANDEDI22ZHANG。QIYUANWENSHI:

                            FANCHIWENZHI。ZIYUE:“WUMINZHIYI,JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI,KEWEIZHIYI。”

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZHEILIDEGUANJIAN,SHIYAONONGQINGCHU“WUMINZHIYI”DE“YI”HE“JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI”DE“GUISHEN”DEZHENSHIHANYISHISHENME。BAZHEINONGQINGCHULE,“KEWEIZHIYI”DE“ZHI”DEBENYIYEJIUZIRANMINGBAILE。

                            DUI“WUMINZHIYI”ZHEIJUHUA,ZHUJIADEJIESHIBUYI。BIJIAOJIEJINKONGZIBENYIDE,YOUQIANMU、LIZEHOUDEJIESHI。QIANJIANGCIJUYIWEI:“ZHIGUANRENSHISUOYI。”LIZEYIWEI:“JINLIZUODUIRENMINSHIYIHELIDESHIQING。”TAMENDOUBA“YI”JIESHIWEI“YI”,ZHEISHIDUIDE,SHIHEHUZHUXI“XINZHISUOZHI,SHIZHISUOYI”ZHEIYIDUIMENGZIDE“YI”SUOZUODEJIESHIDE。DANSHI,TAMENDEJIESHI,YUANBURUDONGZIZHUDEJIESHIGENGWEIMINGKUAI、ZHIJIE、CHEDI。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   《MENGZIJIANLIANGHUIWANGSHANG》SHUO:“MENGZIJIANLIANGHUIWANG,WANGYUE:‘YU!BUYUANQIANLIERLAI,YIJIANGYOUYILIWUGUOHU?’MENGZIDUIYUE:‘WANGHEBIYUELI?YIYOURENYIERYIYI。’”ZHUXIDUIMENGZISHUODE“RENYI”,ZUOLEZHEIYANGDEZHUSHI:“RENZHE,XINZHIDE,AIZHILI;YIZHE,XINZHIZHI,SHIZHIYIYE。”DONGZIZHUFEICHANGTUIZHONGZHUXIDUI“YI”SUOZUODEJIEDING,RENWEI“YI”JI“YI“,JIUSHI“LIANGZHI”。TASHUO:ZHUXISHUODE“XINZHIZHI”DE“ZHI”,“JIUSHIKONGZHIZHANGWOZHEIGESHIQING‘YI’,SHIZHI‘YI’,JI‘ZHENGHESHI’。ZAIZHEIGESHIQINGSHANGZUIHESHIDEZUOFAJIUSHIZHEIYANG。JIZHU,‘LIANGZHI’TAZUIDADETEDIANSHI,ZHEIJIANSHIQINGZAIZHEIGE‘DANGXIA’ZHINENGZHEIYANGZUO,BUNENGYOUBIEDEZUOFA,JUEDUIMEIYOUDIERGEXUANZE,JIUSHI‘ZHENGGANGHAO,WUERZE’,ZHEIJIUSHILIANGZHI。ZAIZHEILIBUCUNZAIDIERGEXUANZE,JUEDUISHIWEIYIDEXUANZE,SUOYIJIAO‘SHIZHIYI’,ZHEIGE‘YI’JIUSHI‘ZUIHESHI’。ZHEIGEDONGXIJUEDUIBUSHIKAONIXIANGJIUNENGXIANGDECHULAIDE,KAONITUILIJIUNENGTUIDECHULAIDE。RENHE‘DANGXIA’DOUSHIYUZHOUSHENGMINGXITONGDEQUANXI,DOUSHIYUZHOUSHENGMINGXITONGDUINIDE‘YI’。RENLEIKELIANDEGAINIANTUILI,ZENMENENGWANBEIDIXUNZHAODAOMEIGEDANGXIA‘BIYOUSHIFA’DE‘ZHENGGANGHAO,WUERZE’?”[8]

                            DONGZIZHUJINYIBURENDING“YI”JI“YI”DEFUZAXINGTAISHI“ZHILIANGZHI”。TASHUO:“‘YI’DEBENYISHI‘YI’。”“LENGBIYI、JIBISHI、REBIYIN……ZHEIBIANSHIZUIJIANDANDE‘YI’。‘YI’DEFUZAXINGTAIJIUSHI‘ZHILIANGZHI’。GENGJINYIBU,BIANSHI‘TIANZHILISHUZAIERGONG’,WOYIZHEIXINZHONGDE‘LISHU’ZHI‘SHI’,PANDUAN‘YI’YU‘BUYI’,ZHEISHIZUIGAOJIDE‘ZHILIANGZHI’。”[9]

                            DONGZIZHUGENGJINYIBURENDING“YI”SHI“LIANGZHI”HUODEHOUDEJUEXIN,SHI“SHI”ZHONGZHI“JUEWU”。TASHUO:“‘YI’SHIZIJIDANGXIADERENZHIPANDUAN,DANWEIBIHEYUWOTOUNAOZHONGGUYOUDE‘MEIZHIWEIMEI’、‘ZHIJIANLIZHI’DEGUANNIAN。ZENMEBAN?‘YIWUFANGU’。ZHENGSHIYOUYUCI,SUOYI‘YI’(YIDEFANTI)ZIDEXIAMIANDE‘WO’……JIHUAIGEDAIDANZHI‘WO’。‘YANG’ZESHIJITIAN,JIWENTIANYI、DAOYI、FOYIRUHE。‘YI’ZE‘BIXING’,SHESHENWANGWOYEBIXING。BU‘YI’ZEBU‘XING’,BUGUANDUOMEDADEYOUHUO,YEBU‘XING’。‘YI’,‘YI’YE。YIZHONGKEYIYOULI,YEKENENGWULI,ZHONGSHIDALIYUWO。YINWEI‘TIAN’、‘DAO’、‘FO’BUKENENGBULIYU‘WO’DEDAJIETUO。YINWEITIAN、FO、DAOYONGHENGDEMUDEZHIYOUYIGE:BUBUYINWODAJIETUO、DAJUEWU。‘BUYIERFUQIEGUI,YUWORUFUYUN’。ZANSHIDE、QIANBODE,WUGUANYUWOTONGTIANDAFOZHE,BUGUANSHENME‘LI’,WOYEJIANJUEBUQU。YIZHE,YIZHE,‘LIANGZHI’HUODEHOUDEJUEXIN。RENGRANSHIYIGEWUZHUZAI,YIQIEJIEWOXINDE‘JUEWU’。‘JUEWU’YONGYUANBUSHIKONGDAOLIDEJUEWU,YONGYUANSHIZAI‘SHI’ZHONGZHI‘JUE’,ZHEIBIANSHI‘ZHILIANGZHI’,YIDANZHILIANGZHI,KENDINGSHI‘YIWUFANGU’。”[9]

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YIJUDONGZIZHUDESHANGSHUKANFA,KONGZISHUODE“WUMINZHIYI”,“KEWEIZHIYI”DEHUA,BIANRONGYILIJIELE。“WUMINZHIYI”DE“YI”,JISHI“LIANGZHI”,JISHI“ZHILIANGZHI”,JISHI“ZHILIANGZHI”HUODEHOUDEJUEXIN,SHIYIZHONG“SHI”ZHONGDE“JUEWU”,NEIME,CHENGTAWEIBUTONGYU“SHIZHIBIANCONG”DE“ZHENZHIHUI”,JIUSHISHUNLICHENGZHANGDELE。YINWEI“LIANGZHI”JIUSHI“ZHIHUI”,ERSHI“JIXIN”HEYU“TIANXIN”“DAOXIN”HE“FOXIN”DE“ZHILIANGZHI”,ZESHIMINGFUQISHIDE“DAJUEWU”“DAZHIHUI”。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   DUIBENZHANGDIERJU“JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI,KEWEIZHIYI”DEJIESHI,YEYOUJIJIAZHIDEZHUYI。YISHICHENGZI。ZHUXIZAI《LUNYUJIZHU》ZHONGSHUO:“CHENGZIYUE:‘RENDUOXINGUISHEN,HUOYE。ERBUXINZHE,YOUBUNENGJING。NENGJINGNENGYUAN,KEWEIZHIYI。’”ERSHIKANGYOUWEI。TAZAI《LUNYUZHU》ZHONGSHUO:“ZHONGGUOZHIBUWEIYINDU,BUYUESHIGUIERZHUANYANRENDAO,JIEKONGZIZHIDAGONGYE。RANGAOTANBUMIXINGUISHENZHE,JIFUQIYIQIE,ZEYUMINWUSUODANERZONGE,KONGZIYOUBUYUWEIZHI,RENGCUNSHENDAOZHIJIAO,YIWEIMINXIN,DANJINGERYUANZHI。BAOXIANYUE:‘JINGGUISHENERBUDU’SHIYE。”SANSHILIZEHOU。TAZAI《LUNYUJINDU》ZHONGSHUO:“‘JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI,KEWEIZHIYI。’QIANMIANYIJIANG,ZHEIZHONGBUKENDING、BUFOUDING,SHENZHIBUQUXUNWEN、HUAIYIHESIKAODETAIDU,SHIZHONGGUODEDIANXINGZHIHUI。YINWEIRENHEXUNQIU、HUAIYIHESIKAO,DOUYOUXUYAOYUNYONGLIXINGSIBIAN,ERYONGSIBIANLIXINGSHIBUKENENGZHENGSHIHUOZHENGWEISHANGDIGUISHENDECUNZAIDE。ZHEIZHIJINRENGSHUZHENLI。JIRANRUCI,YOUHEBIMANGMUXINCONGSHANGDIGUISHENHUOZHEYIJUKEXUEERLIJIAPAICHI?XUNZISHUO;‘XINGZHUIMUMING,GUORENJIEKONG,YUESHIHEYE?YUEWUHEYE,SHITIANDIZHIBIAN,YINYANGZHIHUA,WUZHIHANZHIZHEYE。GUAIZHI,KEYE,ERWEIZHI,FEIYE。’(《TIANLUN》)‘WUZHIHANZHI’,SHAOJIANDUOGUAI,ZISHUDANGRAN,DANBUBIQUWEIJUTAMENERFANGAIRENSHI。XIANDAIXUERENDOUDAJIANGXUNZISHIWUSHENLUN,QISHINAISHIYONGLIXINGDEFANLI,YUWEIWUWEIXINWUGUAN。YIJIANRUXUEZHIZHI、ZHI,FEIZHILIJIE、RENSHI,ERNAIXINGWEI、TAIDU、JINGJIE。ZHEIJUHUADAGAIYINWEIZHIZHENGZHECHANGBUGURENMINSIHUOERMIXINYUZHIGUISHEN,YIYINRENSHANGGUIZHIYISU?WENDAJUNJIUZHIZHENGERYAN。”

                            SHANGSHUSANZHEDEGONGTONGDIANSHIDOUZANCHENGKONGZIDEGUANDIAN,QIANGDIAO“NENGJINGNENGYUAN”,CAISHIZHIHUI。TEBIESHILIZEHOU,TABABUKENDING、BUFOUDINGDETAIDU,SHUOCHENG“SHIZHONGGUODEDIANXINGZHIHUI”。DANSHI,TAMENYEYOUYIGEGONGTONGDEBUZUZHICHU,JIUSHIBUNENGXIANGKONGZINEIYANG,KANYIQIEWENTI,DOUYAOJUJIAOYU“MINGMINGDE”。HETAMENXIANGBI,ZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,DONGZIZHUJIUXIANDEGAOMINGDUOLE。QIEKANTADUILIZEHOUSHANGSHUJIESHIDEPINGYU:“QISHI,HEZHISHIGUISHEN,SHIJIANYIQIEXIANGJIERAN。YIQIEXIANGDOUYOUJIDADEOURANXING,JISHIBUNENGSHUOQUANSHIOURAN,QIBIRANXINGYESHISHUOBUQINGDE,QIJINWEIZHISHEINENGBALIZIJIEDEYUNDONGYUWUZHIDEYUNDONGGUANXIQUANSHUOQING?LIZIJIEBENSHENYEHUANGXIHUXI。QISHILIXIANSHENGZAILUNSHUZHEIZHONGTANXUNDEBUKENENGSHI,BUGUANGYAOKANDAOZHEISHIZHONGGUORENDEJIZHI,GENGZHONGYAODEKONGZISHIJUJIAOYU‘MINGMINGDE’DE。YIQIEWAIXIANGBAOKUOGUISHENWAIXIANG,JIEZHISHIWEI‘WO’,WEIWODE‘MINGMINGDE’ERCUNZAIDE。BUNENGFOURENTA,YEBUYAOTAIKEYIDIQUZHUIZONGTA。TA——GUISHENHE‘WO’SUOZHIDEYIQIEXIANGYIYANG,DOUZHIWEITIXINGWORENDERUXIANEIRONG:DIYI,MINGMINGDE,JIWONENGZHIZHIXINDEYUNDONGTEDIANSHISHENME?DIER,WODESUMINGXIANZAIZENYANGZUOYOULEWODE‘MINGDE’?ZHILECIGUIJI,JIUSHIBAITUOLESUMING。DISAN,‘TIANMING’LINGYIQIEZHONGSHENGDEYI‘MINGMINGDE’DEGUIJISHISHENME?ZHENGYINWEIZHEIYANG,KONGZICAIBUBAGUISHENFANGZAIXINSHANG,SUOYICAIYOU‘ZIBUYUGUAI、LI、LUAN、SHEN’。‘JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI。’YIXIANG、XIANGXIANG、YANXIANG、SHIXIANG、SHENXIANGDOUSHI‘XIANG’,SHI‘XIANG’JIUBUYAOJIUCHAN,YEBUNENGPAICHI,YUANKELEBUKETAO。”(《LUNYUZHENZHIHUI》)SHAOZUOBIJIAO,BIANKEKANCHU,DONGBICHENG、LI、KANGDEGAOMINGZHICHUJIUZAIYU,BUYAOBAZHEYANDIANFANGZAIYIQIE“XIANG”(GUISHENYESHIYIZHONGXIANG)SHANG,ERSHIYAOFANGZAI“MINGMINGDE”JIDUISHENGMINGBENTIDE“JUEWU”SHANG。YINWEIYIQIE“XIANG”,ZHISHISHENGMINGBENTI“JUEWU”LUTUZHONGDEYIXIELUBIAO,ERBUSHIGENBENDEMUDE,GENBENDEMUDE,SHISHI“MINGDE”“MING”,SHI“AMITUO”CHENGWEI“AMITUOFO”。SHENMESHI“ZHIHUI”?“JUEWU”,TEBIESHI“ZHONGJIJUEWU”,JIJIXINYUDAOXIN、TIANXIN、FOXINDEHEYI,CAISHIZHENZHIHUI、DAZHIHUI。ERZHEI,QIAQIASHICHENGZI、KANGYOUWEINAIZHILIZEHOUMEIYOUWEIWOMENMINGQUEZHICHUDE,ZHEIYEZHENGSHITAMENDEFUQIANZHICHU。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   RUGUONIDULEDONGZIZHUZAILINGYICHUDUI“GUISHEN”DEJIESHI,NIJIUHUISHENSHENGANDAO,TADUI“ZHI”DELIJIESHIDUOMEDESHENKE。QINGKANTAZAI《LUNYUZHENGCAI》DE“QIANYAN”ZHONGSHUODEYIDUANHUA:“DONGFANGWENHUAYONGYUANJI‘BUZHI’LIUYOUDIWEI。KONGZI‘JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI’BINGFEISHIXIANGXINGUISHENDESHIYOUXING,ERSHIJI‘BUZHI’LIULEYIGEDIWEI,DUIYU‘BUZHI’GUANYIGE‘GUISHEN’DEMINGZI,YOUHEBUKE?‘ZIBUYUSHENGLILUANSHEN’YESHUOMINGLEKONGZIZHONGYUZIJIDEXUESHUO。‘GUAILILUANSHEN’ZHEIXIECIJIRANCHUANZHISHENYUAN,BUBIMAORANFOUDING,DANTASHI‘WEIZHI’,GENGBUKEKENDING,ZANQIECUNYIYEMEIYOUSHENMEHUAICHU。”ZHEIDUANHUA,BAOHANSANCENGYISI:YISHISHUO,“JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI”ZHEIJUHUA,“BINGFEISHIXIANGXINGUISHENDESHIYOUXING”。ZHEIGEKANFA,SHIBUTONGYUDUOSHUZHUJIADE。WOSHENBIAOZANCHENG。YINWEIKONGZI“JING”ER“YUANZHI”DE“GUISHEN”,YIBUSHIWUSHUTUTENGSHIDAIYUANSHIZONGJIAOZHONGNEIZHONGZHIPEIYIQIEDE“XINWAI”ZHI“GUISHEN”,ERSHIZIJIDE“ZUZONGSHEN”,ZHEIZHONG“SHEN”,QISHIJIUSHIREN。ERSHISHUO“JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI”DE“GUISHEN”,SHIYIGEJIAMING,SHIYONGLAIDAIBIAO“BUZHI”DE。JI“BUZHI”GUANSHANGGE“GUISHEN”DEMINGZI,YOUYAORENMENQUJINGWEITA,ZHEIJIUBA“BUZHI”DEDIWEITUCHULE。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,“GUISHEN”HE“TIANMING”YIYANG,DOUJUYOU“BUZHI”DETEXING,DOUYAODUIQIYOUJINGWEIZHIXIN。SANSHISHUO,YEBUKEBA“BUZHI”TUIXIANGJIDUAN,SHUO“BUZHI”JIUSHI“ZHENZHI”。YINGDANGSHUO,ZHEISHIBUNANLIJIEDE。JIRANSHI“BUZHI”,HUO“WEIZHI”,NEIJIUBUNENGDUIZHIZUOWANQUANDEKENDING,ZHINENGSHI“ERYUANZHI”,JI“CUNERWULUN”。FOUZE,JIUHUIXIANRUSHENMIZHUYI。DUICI,DONGZIZHUYOUQINGXINGDERENSHI,TAZHICHU;“YEXUSHIYOUYUGUDIANZUOJIAJI‘BUZHI’LIUXIALEDIWEI,HOUSHIDERU、DAO、SHISANJIAYIZHIMEINENGCHEDIYUZONGJIAOSHENMIZHUYIYIDAOLIANGDUAN,YOUDESHENZHIYOUYUEYANYUELIEDEQUSHI。……RUGUOXIANGGAIKUOYIXIA,WOYIWEIKELIYONG‘SANSHENHUA’ZHEIGEGAINIAN,SHUOMING‘DONGFANGWENHUA’DEXIANZHUANG。YIYUE:ZONGJIAOSHENXUEHUA。ZHEIZAIRUJIADEZAOQI,DONGZHONGSHUSHIGEDIANXING。……ERYUE:SHENSHENGDAODEHUA。ZUIDIANXINGDESHIZHUXIDE‘LIXUE’。……SANYUE:SHENMIGONGNENGHUA。ZHEIGEQINGXIANGZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIDAO、SHILIANGJIA。”ZONGGUANZHEISANCENGYISI,NIBIANZHIDAODONGZIZHUSUOLIJIEDE“ZHI”DEZHENSHIHANYILE。TASUOLIJIEDE“ZHI”,JIUSHI“ZHIZHIWEIZHIZHI,BUZHIWEIBUZHI,SHIZHIYE”ZHEIDUANHUAZHONGDE“SHIZHIYE”SANGEZI。ZAITAKANLAI,“ZHIZHIWEIZHIZHI”,JIYIZHIHUOBEIZHI,SHIYIZHONG“ZHI”,“BUZHIWEIBUZHI”,JI“WEIZHI”HUONENGZHI,YESHIYIZHONG“ZHI”,ERQIESHIGENGWEIZHONGYAODE“ZHI”,DANSHILIANGZHEFENKAILAISHUO,DOUBUSHI“ZHENZHI”,ZHIYOUJIANGERZHETONGYIQILAICAISHIZHENZHI、ZHENZHIHUI。ZHEIZAIQIANMIANYIYOUXIJIE,ZAICIBUZAIDUOSHUO。

                            六、“知”与“礼”

                            QINGKAN《XUEER》PIANDI12ZHANG:

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YOUZIYUE:“LIZHIYONG,HEWEIGUI。XIANWANGZHIDAO,SIWEIMEI;XIAODAYOUZHI,YOUSUOBUXING。ZHIHEERHE,BUYILIJIEZHI,YIBUKEXINGYE。”

                            ZHEIDUANHUACHUZIKONGZIXUESHENGYOUZIZHIKOU。YOUZI,XINGYOU,MINGRUO。YOUXIEZHENGJIANSUIYUQISHIXIANGZUO,DANZAI“REN”XUESIXIANGSHANGQUEYUZHIYIZHI,GUCAIYONGZHI。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   BENZHANGDEZHUZHISHIJIANGBENTIZHI“LI”YULIYIZHI“LI”DEGUANXI。《ZUOCHUAN·ZHAOGONGERSHIWUNIAN》JIZAIZICHANDEHUA:“FULI,TIANZHIJINGYE,DIZHIYIYE,MINZHIXINGYE。”ZHEIDUANHUAQIANGDIAOLELIANGDIAN:YISHI“TIAN”YU“REN”SHIYITIDE;ERSHI“LI”BUZHISHIRENDEDAHEXIE,GENGZHONGYAODESHIYUZHOUTIANDIDEDAHEXIE。BENZHANGDE“LIZHIYONG,HEWEIGUI”ZHEIYIJU,YESHISHUOMING“LI”FENLIANGCENG:YICENGSHIBENTIZHILI(“LI”),JI“YUZHOU—SHENGMING‘YUNDONGDE’TIAOLI”;YICENGSHIZAISHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGXINGCHENGDELIYI,JIJUTIDEDAODEGUIFANZHI“LI”。“HEWEIGUI”SANZI,GAIKUOLEZHEILIANGZHONG“LI”DEYAODIAN,BINGZHICHUBENTIZHI“LI”YULIYIZHI“LI”DEJIEHEZUIWEIZHONGYAO。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   BENZHANGDEFENDUAN,ZHUJIAMENBUJINYIZHI。YIBANDEFENFASHI,DIYIDUANSHI“LIZHIYONG,HEWEIGUI”。DIERDUANSHI“XIANWANGZHIDAO,SIWEIMEI;XIAODAYOUZHI,YOUSUOBUXING”。YUXIADEHUAWEIDISANDUAN。ERYANGBOJUNZEYUZHONGBUTONG,TABADIERDUAN,DUANZAI“XIAODAYOUZHI”,JIANG“YOUSUOBUXING”YIDAOXIAMIAN,ZUOWEIDISANDUANDESHOUJU。LIZHUOWUDE《SISHUPING》YESHIZHEIYANGDEFENFA。WORENWEIZHEIZHONGDUANFA,YUYOUZIDEBENYIBUHE。YOUZIDEDIERDUANHUA:“XIANWANGZHIDAO,SIWEIMEI;XIAODAYOUZHI,YOUSUOBUXING。”SHIDUIBENZHANGSHOUDUAN“LIZHIYONG,HEWEIGUI”DEJUTIJIESHI,YEJIUSHIDUILIYIZHI“LI”DEJUXIANXINGDEJIESHI。ANDEYIDE《LUNYUJIEDU》,JIANG“SIWEIMEI”DE“SI”,ZHUSHIWEI:“‘XIYE’,YU《SHIJING》DE‘FUYISIZHI’‘SI’YIXIANGTONG。”BINGJIANGCIDUANJINYIWEI:“XIANWANGZHIZHIDAO,YI‘LI’DEQUFENWEIZUIMEIHAO。DANWULUNDASHIXIAOSHI,DOUANLIZHILAIBAN,ZEHENNANXINGDETONG。”[10]16WORENWEIANDEZHUSHIBIJIAOHAO,HAOJIUHAOZAITAJIKANDAOLEXIANWANGLIZHIDEZHANGCHU,YOUKANDAOLEXIANWANGLIZHIDEBUZU,ZHEIBUZU,JIUZAIYUTAZHISHIYI“FENBIE”WEIMEIHAO,ERHUSHILE“LI”DEBENTIDEZHENGTIDEYIMIAN,BUKEFENGEDEYIMIAN。ZHEIJIURONGYIXIANRUPIANMIANXING,ANPIANMIANDEGUANNIANQUBANYIQIESHI,DANGRANHENNANXINGDETONG。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   BENZHANGDEZUIHOUYIDUAN:“ZHIHEERHE,BUYILIJIEZHI,YIBUKEXINGYE。”YESHIDUI“LIZHIYONG,HEWEIGUI”DEJUTIJIESHI,SHIDUIRENMENDUI“HE”DEPIANMIANXINGRENSHIDEYIZHONGJIESHI。“LIZHIYONG”,YOUER:YISHI“FEN”,YISHI“HE”。LIYIZHI“LI”QIFENBIEZUOYONG;BENTIZHI“LI”QIHEYIZUOYONG。“HE”ZHISUOYI“WEIGUI”,SHIYINWEITABA“LI”DEZHEILIANGZHONGZUOYONGJIEHELEQILAI。SHENMESHI“HE”?“HE”JIUSHI“YOUCHABIEDETONGYI”。RUGUO“ZHIHEERHE”,JIUSHISHUO,NISUICISHICIKEZHONGYIJINGTIRENLE“TIANXIN”“TIANDE”,HELE“TIANXIN”“TIANDE”,DANMEIYOUYIDINGWAIZAILIYIXINGSHIYUYIQUBIE,YESHIBUXINGDE。YINWEIZUOWEIWUXINGWUXIANGWUFENBIEDEZHENGTIDE“TIANXIN”“TIANDE”,MEIYOUYIFENBIEWEITEDIANDELIYIDEZHENGLI、DIAOJIE,SHIBUKESIYIDE、BUKELIJIEDE。KEJIAN,DUI“HE”YEBUKEZUOPIANMIANDELIJIE,BUKEWEILE“HE”ER“HE”,BUKEWANGJI“HE”ZHONGZHI“FEN”。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   HAISHIMINGRENOUYI《SISHUOUYIJIE》SHUODEHAO:“‘HE’ZHEPINGDENGGUANYE,‘LI’ZHECHABIEGUANYE;YUPINGDENGZHICHABIE,YUCHABIEZHIPINGDENG,ZEZHONGDAOYUANGUANYE。RUOPIANYUCHABIEHUOPIANYUPINGDENG,ERYUYIQIANGLIXINGZHI,QIWEIHUOYUTIANXIA,BUKESHENGYANYI!”[2]225

                            七、结语

                            CONGYISHANGDUI《LUNYU》ZHONGJIANG“ZHI”DEZHUYAOPIANZHANGDEJIESHIZHONG,WOMENKEYIDECHUYIGEDAIYOUGENBENXINGDEJIELUN,NEIJIUSHI:《LUNYU》SHIBENZHILUN,KONGZISHIBENZHILUNZHE。ZHEIYIDIAN,ZHIYAODUISHANGSHUGUANYU“ZHI”ZIDEJIESHI,SHAOZUOSHULI,BIANHUIKANDESHIFENMINGBAI。DAJIAYIJINGZHIDAOBENWENQIANLIUGEBUFENDENEIRONG,QIQIANSANGEBUFEN,SHIZHUANMENJIANG“ZHI”DE,HOUSANGEBUFENSHIFENBIEJIANG“ZHI”YU“REN”、“ZHI”YU“YI”HE“ZHI”YU“LI”DEGUANXIDE。ZHEILIUGEBUFENDEBIAOSHU,SUIRANGEYOUZIJIDECEZHONGZHIDIAN,DANJIUQIGENBENMUDEERYAN,QUESHIWANQUANYIZHIDE,JIDOUSHIWEILEZHUIXUNSHENGMINGDEBENLAIMIANMU——SHENGMINGDEBENYUAN“DAO”JIQIGENBENBIAOXIANXINGSHI“ZHI”DE。

                            WOMENZHELIDITANTAO《LUNYU》SHI“BENZHILUN”、KONGZISHI“BENZHILUNZHE”,SHIYINWEIZHEIGEWENTI,DUIYUWOMENYANJIU《LUNYU》、YANJIURU、DAO、SHISANJIACHUANTONGWENHUANAIZHIWEIYINLINGCHUANGZAOWEILAIDERENLEIDEXINWENMING,DOUJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAOYIYI。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   JIRAN《LUNYU》SHI“BENZHILUN’,SHIJIANG“BANRUO”ZHIHUIDESHU,NEIJIUBUNENGXIANGYIXIEZHUJIANEIYANG,SHUO《LUNYU》SHIZHUANMENJIANGRENJIAN“DAODE”DE,SHIZHUANMENJIANGZHENGZHIZHEXUEDE。TONGYANGDE,JIRAN《LUNYU》SHI“BENZHILUN”,SHIJIANG“BANRUO”ZHIHUIDESHU,NEITAJIANGDE“TIAN”(“TIANMING”“TIANDAO”“TIANDE”),JIUHEDAOJIAJIANGDE“DAO”,SHIJIAJIANGDE“FO”YIYANG,DOUSHITANSUO“YUZHOU—SHENGMING”XITONGZHENGTIYUNDONGDEGUILVDE,DUIZHEIZHONGGUILVDEZHENGTIDEBAWO,JIUSHIZHENZHIHUI、DAJUEWU。WOMENSHUORU、DAO、SHISANJIABENZHISHANGSHIYIJIA,QIGENJUJIUZAIZHEILI。

                            HAIYAOKANDAO,ZHONGGUODERUXUESHIJINTIANRENLEIXIANGYAOLEJIEXIANDAIWENMINGZHENZHENGSHIWUZHICHUDEZUIHAOCANZHAOXI。JIURENLEIDEZHENGTI、SHENGMINGDEZHENGTILAISHUO,“CHENGFO”SHIBIRANDE,“MINGMINGDE”YESHIBIRANDE,DANSHENGMINGZHONGSHIYAOZAIZHEIGEDIQIUSHANGYIBUBUZOUGUO。ZHEIXIEBUZIRUHEMAI?ZHEIXIELURUHEZOU?WOYIWEICONGRUJIASIXIANGTIXIRUMEN,KEYISHUOSHIYITIAOZHENGLU。RUJIASIXIANGSHIRENLEIKUITANSHENGMINGZHENZHENGMIMIDEDENGTANGDIYIBU,ZHENZHENGZOUHAOLEZHEIYIBUDEREN,XIAMIANCAIKENENGZHENZHENGJINRUDUIDAOJIA、FOJIAWENHUADERENSHI。ZHEISHISHUO,RU、DAO、FOSANJIADOUSHI“BENZHILUN”,DOUSHIRULEHUAJINGDE,DANBIJIAOQILAI,ZAIYINRENRUMENZHEIYIDIANSHANG,CHUXUEZHEHUIGANDAORUJIAGENGWEIQINQIEXIE。

                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZUIHOU,YAOTEBIEDIKANDAO,ZHENGSHIKONGZIWEIZHONGGUOWENHUADEDIYUN,JIJINRIZHONGGUORENPUBIANDESHENCENGWENHUAJIEGOU,WEIYINLINGCHUANGZAOWEILAIDERENLEIXINWENMINGDAXIALEZHASHIDEJICHU。ZHEIZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAI:DIYI,ZAIZIRANKEXUEZUIFADADEXIFANGBINGMEIYOUWANQUANZUODAOCHEDIFOUDINGYISHENJIAODECUNZAI,ERJINTIANDEZHONGGUOWENHUAQUEZHENZHENGDIZUODAOLE。DIER,JINTIANDESHIJIEDAOCHUHANMINZHU、ZIYOU、PINGDENG,ERQIEBEIJUEDADUOSHURENFENGWEIPUSHIJIAZHI。QISHIZAIDANGDAI,ZHEIYANGDEHUHAN,ZAIBENZHISHANGZHISHIYIZHONGDONGWUXINGDEYAOQIUGONGPINGFENZANGDEYISHIZAIZUOGUAI。TAMENBUZHI,MINZHUSHICONG“ZHONGSHENGPINGDENG”YANBIANGUOLAIDEYIGESHEHUIKOUHAO。KANYIXIAJINTIANDEQUANRENLEI,QINEIXINSHIJIEZHENZHENGCHONGMANZIZHUGUANNIANDE,YOUNAGEMINZUNENGYUZHONGGUORENXIANGBI?DISAN,ZHONGHUAMINZU,ZHEIGECIJUSHUOSHILIANGQICHAOSHOUXIANFAMINGDE,ZHEIGECISHIZAISHIHAO。RENMENKEYIZAIQUANSHIJIEDESUOYOUMINZUZHONGKAOCHAYIXIA,NENGYOUNAGEMINZU,XIANGJINTIANDEZHONGHUAMINZU?ZHONGGUOBEIFANGDUOSHIMENGGURENZHONG,NANFANGDUOSHIMALAIRENZHONG。ZHEIZHONGDUOZHONGZUDEWENHUA,QIAQIAYOUSHIGONGJUYUYIGEMINZUWENHUADEZHENGTIZHONG。ZHEIGEMINZUDEWENHUATAIYOU“SHUIMUWENHUA”DETEZHENG。ZUIHOU,YESHIZHONGGUOJINRINENGGOUJUEQIDEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEYUANYIN,SHIZHEIGEMINZUDEQINLAO、YONGGAN,YOUQIANGLIEDECHUANGZAOYU、ZHUTIYU。SHIZHONGGUOREN,NAGEGANYUANSHOUQIONG,GANYUANLUOHOUYUREN?“JIANGXIANGBENWUZHONG,NANERDANGZIQIANG”“WANGZICHENGLONG,WANGNVCHENGFENG”。YIZHEIYANGDEMINZUJINGSHENWEIDIYUN,SHENMEYANGDEEZHI、WEIBI,BAOWEI,QUANDOUSHIWUYONGDE。XIANGFANDE,DAOSHIYIZHONGMOLIAN。

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                            [1] 朱熹.四书章句集注[M].北京:中华书局,1983.
                            [2] 藕益.四书藕益解[M].香港:佳芳印刷公司,1994.
                            [3] 李泽厚.论语今读[M].合肥:安徽文艺出版社,1998.
                            [4] 董子竹.论语正裁--与南怀瑾商榷[M].武汉:长江文艺出版社,2007.
                            [5] 程树德.论语集释[M].北京:中华书局,1983.
                            [6] 康有为.论语注[M].北京:中华书局,1984.
                            [7] 董子竹.论语真智慧[M].武汉:长江文艺出版社,2012.
                            [8] 董子竹.中国心学史散论之一[EB/OL].(2010-09-19)[2019-10-10].http://blog.sina.com.cn/dongzizhu.
                            [9] 董子竹.心学史经纬之三十九·孔子“义”学辨[EB/OL].(2012-04-29)[2019-10-10].http://blog.sina.com.cn/dongzizhu.
                          牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   [10] 安德义.论语解读[M].北京:中华书局,2007.

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