牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                          • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 《论语》中天命观的内涵解读

                            《论语》中天命观的内涵解读

                            时间:2020-04-20 15:50作者:刘斌 吕志杰
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于《论语》中天命观的内涵解读的文章,传世本《论语》中多次谈到“天”“命”“天命”以及“知天命”这样的概念,“天命观”是《论语》思想的重要组成部分,也是影响中华民族数千年的一个重要范畴。诚如韩云忠所说:“儒家道德的最高范畴是‘天命’。”

                              摘    要: “天”在《论语》中有三层意义:主宰意义的天、宿命意义的天、自然现象的天;“命”在《论语》中有三层含义:生命意义的命、言辞意义的命、宿命意义的命。基于此,“天命”在《论语》中的应用传达出的倾向有两种:一是敬畏之情;二是上天之命是不可抗拒。“知天命”是先儒们对上天意志的把握,是人积极发挥自己的能动作用可达到的效果。“知不可为而为之”实则是强调知天命而为之,“为之”是在尊崇天命的基础上积极做自己能做的,并不是“违之”。先儒们在积极践行自己的道德标准的时候能心生愉悦,不怨天尤人。乐天知命是《论语》所反映出的天命观的最终归宿,乐天知命包含着遵天命而又不失自由的内涵。

                              关键词: 牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}“天”; “命”; “天命”; 乐天知命; 《论语》;

                              Abstract: “Heaven” in The Analects of Confucius can be understood as an aspect of heaven that dominates everything,an aspect of heaven that decides people's destiny,and an aspect of heaven as a natural phenomenon.“Destiny” in The Analects of Confucius can be understood from the perspectives of life,language and fate.In this light,the “will of heaven” tends to be reflected as either a feeling hold in awe and veneration or a will that cannot be resisted.“Knowing the will of heaven” is a description of Confucians' active attitudes toward the will of heaven,and “To do something even though you know it is impossible” highlights the adherence to the will of heaven rather than the violation of the will of heaven.Confucians of the past practiced with highest moral standards,and never murmured against Heaven and blame other people.“Knowing the will of heaven” denotes both obeying the will of heaven and playing an active role,being the ultimate view of destiny of The Analects of Confucius.

                              Keyword: “heaven”; “destiny”; “will of heaven”; knowing the will of heaven; The Analects of Confucius;

                              CHUANSHIBEN《LUNYU》ZHONGDUOCITANDAO“TIAN”“MING”“TIANMING”YIJI“ZHITIANMING”ZHEIYANGDEGAINIAN,“TIANMINGGUAN”SHI《LUNYU》SIXIANGDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,YESHIYINGXIANGZHONGHUAMINZUSHUQIANNIANDEYIGEZHONGYAOFANCHOU。CHENGRUHANYUNZHONGSUOSHUO:“RUJIADAODEDEZUIGAOFANCHOUSHI‘TIANMING’。”[1]RANER,ZAI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,ZHEIYANGDEGAINIANTONGCHANGZONGSHIZHENDUIJUTISHIJIANERYANDE,BINGWEIZHENDUIGAINIANBENSHEN,XIEXIALINGCENGZAIXUESHUYUEKANSHANGTIJI:“《LUNYU》ZHONGJIZAIDEKONGZIYANLUNDATISHANGDOUSHIJIUSHILUNSHI。”[2]ZHEIGURANSHIYOUZHONGGUODEXUESHUCHUANTONGSUOJUEDINGDE,DANJIUZHEXUECENGMIANERYAN,WOMENYOUYIWUDUIMEIGEGAINIANJICHUMINGQUEDEJIEDING。

                              1、“天”

                              从词源来看,“天,巅也。至高无上,从一大”[3]521。在《哲学辞典》里,将“天”定义为处于自然状态范畴时的最高存在,天本来就是处于最高并且无以加上的地位。“天”字在《论语》中有主宰的意义,这不仅体现在“天”字的单独使用中,也体现在诸如“天”“天子”“天道”“天禄”等用法中。
                             

                            《论语》中天命观的内涵解读
                             

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,“TIAN”ZIDUOCIDANDUSHIYONG,JIUCIERYAN,TONGCHANGSHIZHIRENSUOCUNZAIDEYIJU,JINYIBUJIANGZHIDAIDESHISHIJIANDEZHUZAI。RU:WANGSUNJIAWENYUE:“YUQIMEIYUAO,NINGMEIYUZAO,HEWEIYE?”ZIYUE:“BURAN,HUOZUIYUTIAN,WUSUODAOYE。”[4]65(《LUNYU·BAYI》)AO:ZHIDESHITINGTANGDEDEXINANJIAO,GURENTONGCHANGYIXINANWEIZUN,SUOYIYIBANZAICIJISISHENLING。ZAO:WUSIZHIYI(MENSHEN、HUSHEN、TUSHEN、XINGSHEN、ZAOSHEN)。AO,SUIWEISHENZHUCHUYUZUNWEI,DANSHIXIADEMINSUBINGBUYIAOWEIZHU,FANERCHANGYIZAOSHENWEIZHU,YINWEIZAOSHENSUIXIANGDUIBEIJIAN,DANRENMENSHENGHUOSUOSHIDOUYOUQIUYUZAOSHEN。WANGSUNJIAYICIXIANXIANGLAIXUNWENKONGZI,YIZAIANDIJIFENGFUZI,YUQIZIJIEYUJUNBURUPANFUQUANCHEN。FUZIXUNERBUPOYITIANLAIYINGDA,TIANZHIGAOWUSHANG,FEIAOZAOKEBI,RUGUOWEIFANTIANLI,JISHICHANMEIYUAOZAOZHISHENYOUYOUHEYONG?ZAIRU:ZIJIANNANZI,ZILUBUSHUO。FUZISHIZHIYUE:“YUSUOFOUZHE,TIANYANZHI!TIANYANZHI!”[4]91(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)NANZI,SHIWEILINGGONGDEFUREN(FULAOQISHAO),TAXINGWEIBUDUANZHENG,YOUYINXING,WEILINGGONGBAIBANCHONGAI,NANZIRAOLUANGUOSHI。FUZIDAODAWEIGUOHOU,NANZIQINGQIUBAIJIAN,FUZIBUDEYIJIANMIAN。FUZIDECHUFADIANZAIYUGUIQUANGANHUANANZI,DANZILUWEIRENGENGZHI,RENWEIFUZIYIDAXIANDESHENFENMIANJIANNANZISHIYIZHONGCHIRU。FUZIRENWEI,CHENGDADEZHE,WUKEWUBUKE。XIANZHESHOUXIANZIJISHOUHAOLIZHI,CAINENGJIRENJIAOHUA。FUZIDANXINZILUBUNENGLIJIE,GUYIZHONGYANQISHI,ERQISHIDEZUIZHONGYIJUJIUSHITIANDEXIHAO,XIWANGZILUNENGSHENSI。ZIYUE:“YUYUWUYAN。”ZIGONGYUE:“ZIRUBUYAN,ZEXIAOZIHESHUYAN?”ZIYUE:“TIANHEYANZAI?SISHIXINGYAN,BAIWUSHENGYAN,TIANHEYANZAI?”[4]181(《LUNYU·YANGHUO》)SHIRENDUOSHITONGGUOSHENGRENDEYANYULAITUICE、PINGPANZUOSHIBIAOZHUNDE,DANSHIFUZIRENWEISHIRENYANZHONGDESHENGRENYIJINGTONGGUOXINGDONGXIANGDAJIACHUANDALEZIJIDEXIANGFA,ZHEIJIUHAOBISIJIDEGENGDIELUNHUI,SUIZHIERLAIDEWANWUSHENGZHANGYUXIAOWANG,DOUSHIZUNTIANERXING,DANSHITIANBINGMEIYOUDUICIYANYUSHENME。CICHUKEYIKANCHU,FUZIYIRANJIANGTIANKANWEIZIJISHENGCUNDEYIJUYIJISIKAODECHUFADIANYUGUISU。

                              TONGGUAN《LUNYU》DUI“TIAN”DELUNSHU,TIXIANLEKONGZIDUITIANDEQUANWEIDECHENGREN,YEZHENGYINWEIRUCI,KONGZIZAIMIANLINKUNJINGSHI,CHANGCHANGBIAOXIANCHUMOUZHONGTANRAN。BUJINJINJUXIANYUDUI“TIAN”DEDANDULUNSHUKEYITIXIANZHEIYIDIAN,CONG《LUNYU》ZHONGDUI“TIAN”DEYANSHE,LIRUDUI“TIANZI”“TIANDAO”“TIANLU”“TIANXIA”DENGDELUNSHUZHONGTONGYANGKEYIDECHUCIZHONGLUNDUAN。《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,“TIANZI”ZHIHUANGDI。RU:“‘XIANGWEIPIGONG,TIANZIMUMU’,XIQUYUSANJIAZHITANG?”[4]61(《LUNYU·BAYI》)ZAIRU:“TIANXIAYOUDAO,ZELILEZHENGFAZITIANZICHU;TIANXIAWUDAO,ZELILEZHENGFAZIZHUHOUCHU。ZIZHUHOUCHU,GAISHISHIXIBUSHIYI;ZIDAFUCHU,WUSHIXIBUSHIYI;PEICHENZHIGUOMING,SANSHIXIBUSHIYI。TIANXIAYOUDAO,ZEZHENGBUZAIDAFU。TIANXIAYOUDAO,ZESHURENBUYI。”[4]172(《LUNYU·JISHI》)ZHEILIDE“YOUDAO”YU“WUDAO”XIANGDUIYING,“TIANZI”YU“ZHUHOU”XIANGDUIYING。YOUCIKEJIAN,“TIANZI”ZAIZHEILIJIUSHIZHIHUANGDI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   《LUNYU》ZHONGZIGONGYUE:“FUZIZHIWENZHANG,KEDEERWENYE;FUZIZHIYANXINGYUTIANDAO,BUKEDEERWENYE。”[4]79(《LUNYU·GONGYEZHANG》)JIU《LUNYU》ERYAN,“TIANDAO”JUTIZHISHENME,CICHUBINGWEIJICHUSHUOMING。HUANYANZHI,WOMENBINGBUZHIDAOZIGONGSUOSHUODE“TIANDAO”SHISHENME。DANSHI,WOMENKEYITONGGUOXIANQINQITAWENXIANDUI“TIANDAO”DEYONGFA,LAITUICEZIGONGZHIYI,JINERTUICE《LUNYU》ZHONGSUOSHUODE“TIANDAO”SHISHENMEYISI。RENJIANTAOCENGSHUO:“ZAIZHONGHUAMINZUJINGSHENYANJIUDEXIANSHIDAI,FANGFALUNSHIYIGEBIAOXIANGFENXIFAZHANJUZHIPEIYEWEIDESHIDAI,ERZAIYIGEXIANGJIANDESHIQI,SHIZHIYANJIUYIJIANGQUDEZHULIUFANGFALUNDEQUANWEIDIWEI。”[5]《SHANGSHU》YUE:“MANZHAOSUN,QIANSHOUYI,SHINAITIANDAO。TIANDAOFUSHANERHUOYIN。”[6]73ZHEIJUHUASHUOMING,JIUGONGNENGERYAN,TIANDAOKEYISHANGSHANFAE;JIUNEIRONGERYAN,“MANZHAOSUN,QIANSHOUYI”JIUSHITIANDAODENEIRONG。《GUOYU》YUE:“TIANDAOSHANGSHANERFAYIN,WOFEIGUSHI,YANZHITIANDAO?”[7]388ZHEIJUHUATONGYANGSHUOMING,JIUGONGNENGERYAN,TIANDAOJUYOUSHANGSHANFAEDEGONGNENG。DANTIANDAOJUTINEIRONGSHISHENME,ZHIYOULEGUANHESHIGUANCAIZHIDAO。《YICHUAN》YUE:“TIANDAOKUIYINGERYIQIAN。”ZHEIJUHUAYESHICONGTIANDAODEGONGNENGJIANGDE,TONGSHIYESHICONGTIANDAODENEIRONGLAIJIANGDE。CONGGONGNENGSHANGLAIJIANG,TIANDAOJUYOU“KUIYINGERYIQIAN”DEGONGNENG。CONGNEIRONGSHANGLAIJIANG,“KUIYINGERYIQIAN”YIJITIANDAODENEIRONG。YINCI,WOMENKEYITUICE,ZIGONGSUOSHUODE“TIANDAO”YOULIANGCENGHANYI:YISHIDAIBIAOTIANZHIBUKEGENGGAIDEYIZHI;ERSHIZHISHANEJIXIONGDEDAOLI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,ZIGONGSHUOKONGZIBUTAN“TIANDAO”,ZHEIHUOXUYUKONGZIDUI《ZHOUYI》DETAIDUYOUGUAN。《ZHOUYI》BENWEIBUSHIZHISHU,KONGZI“HOUQIZHUBU,GUANQIDEYI”,JIANGQIGAIZAOWEIJIANGDAODEXIUYANGZHISHU。ZHENGYAHUIZAILUNWEN《LUNSHANWEIYIZHEBUZHAN》TIJI:“ZHIYOUMINGQUEMUBIAO,FANGFAZHENGQUE,WOMENCAINENGXUEYOUSUOHUO、XUEYOUSUOCHENG。”[8]ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,DAODEXIUYANGBIJIXIONGSHANEGENGWEIZHONGYAO,YINCI,TASHUO“SHANWEIYIZHEBUZHAN”。CONGZHEILIYIKEYITUICE,《LUNYU》ZHONGDE“TIANDAO”DANGZHISHANEJIXIONGDEDAOLI,KONGZIZHISUOYIBUTAN,SHIYINWEIQIRENWEIDAOXINGGENGWEIZHONGYAO。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   《LUNYU》WENBENZHONGYOU:“YAOYUE:‘ZI!ERSHUN!TIANZHILISHUZAIERGONG。YUNZHIQIZHONG。SIHAIKUNQIONG,TIANLUYONGZHONG。’”[4]194(《LUNYU·YAOYUE》)ZHEILIJIANGSHUDEYISIWEI,RUGUOPUTIANZHIXIADELAOBAIXINGDOUGUODESHIFENQIONGKUNDEHUA,NEIMESHANGTIANDUIJUNWANGDESHANGCIYEJIUYONGYUANDUANJUELE。KEJIAN,“TIANLU”ZAIZHEILIJIUSHI“JUNLU”,JINYIBUSHUO,JISHISHANGTIANCIJIJUNWANGDEFULUHUOFENGLU。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “TIAN”ZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGHAIYOUZIRANYI,JITOUDINGZHILANTIANZHIYI,ZHEIZHUYAOTIXIANZAIQI“TIANXIA”DEYONGFAZHONG。《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,“TIANXIA”YOUSANCENGHANYI:YISHIZHIDIPAN,JIJINTIANSUOSHUODEJIANGYU。RU:“SANFENTIANXIAYOUQIER,YIFUSHIYIN。ZHOUZHIDE,QIKEWEIZHIDEYEYIYI。”[4]108(《LUNYU·TAIBO》)ZHEILISUOSHUODE“SANFENTIANXIAYOUQIER”ZHI“TIANXIA”JIUSHIZHIDIPAN(HUOJIANGYU),JIZHOUYOUSANFENZHIERDEDIPAN(HUOJIANGYU)。ERSHIZHIWANGQUAN,JITONGZHIQUAN。RU:“WEIWEIHU!SHUNYUZHIYOUTIANXIAYE,ERBUYUYAN。”[4]107(《LUNYU·TAIBO》)FUZIYIZAIZANTANYAOSHUNYUYINSHANRANGERDETIANXIA,TAMENDEKUAILEYUSHENJUGAOWEIWUGUAN,ERSHIYOUYUNENGZAIDEXINGSHANGYOUSUOJIANSHU,NENGWEITIANXIAMOUFULIERDELAIDE。ZHEILIDE“TIANXIA”JIUSHIZHIWANGQUAN(HUOTONGZHIQUAN),JIYAOSHUNYUYOUTONGZHIQUAN。SANSHIFANZHIQUANSHEHUI。RU:“NENGXINGWUZHEYUTIANXIA,WEIRENYI。”(《LUNYU·YANGHUO》)YOURU:“YUZHIBURENYE!ZISHENGSANNIAN,RANHOUMIANYUFUMUZHIHUAI。FUSANNIANZHISANG,TIANXIAZHITONGSANGYE。YUYE,YOUSANNIANZHIAIYUQIFUMUHU?”[4]182(《LUNYU·YANGHUO》)FUZIZAILUNJIRENXIAODESHIHOUDUIZAIWOTICHUPIPING,ZAIWOBUNENGWEIFUMUSHOUXIAOSANNIAN,CONGERBUNENGBAODAFUMUSANNIANDEHUAIBAOENYU,DANGRAN,FUZIBINGBUJINJINZHIYIZAIWOZAIBAOENDEXINGSHISHANGZUODEBUDAOWEI,GENGZHONGYAODESHIZHIYIZAIWODEXIAOXIN。ZHEILIDE“TIANXIA”,SHIZHIQUANSHEHUI。XUYAOZHICHUDESHI,《LUNYU》ZHONGZAIYONG“TIANXIA”ZHEIGEGAINIANSHI,QIHANYIBINGBUSHIYANGEQUFENDE,YOUSHIYEYOUYISISHANGDEJIAOCHA。RU:“GUANZHONGXIANGHUANGONG,BAZHUHOU,YIKUANGTIANXIA,MINDAOYUJINSHOUQICI。WEIGUANZHONG,WUQIBEIFAZUORENYI。QIRUOPIFUPIFUZHIWEILIANGYE,ZIJINGYUGOUDU,ERMOZHIZHIYE。”[4]154(《LUNYU·XIANWEN》)FUZIZAIMIANDUIZIGONGDUIGUANZHONGDEZHIYISHI,PAOCHUZIJIDEKANFA,RENWEITIANXIARENMINZHIJINDOUXIANGSHOUZHEGUANZHONGFUZHENGDAILAIDEHAOCHU。ZHEILIDE“TIANXIA”,JIYOUDIPANDEYISI,YEYOUZHENGQUANDEYISI,YEKEYIFANZHIQUANSHEHUI。“TIANXIA”BULUNSHIZHIDIPANHAISHIWANGQUAN,HUOZHESHISHEHUI,“TIAN”DEHANYISHIBUBIANDE,JIUSHITOUDINGZHILANTIAN,JIZIRANYIYIDETIAN。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   “TIAN”ZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONG,HAIYOUXIANZHIDEHANYI,ZHIYIZHONGWAIZAIDELILIANGDUIRENXINGCHENGZHONGZHONGZHIYUE,RENDUIQIBUDEBUJIESHOU,BUDEBUFUCONG。CICENGHANYIZHUYAOTIXIANZAI《LUNYU》DUI“TIANMING”DESHIYONGZHONG,BINGQIE“TIANMING”SHI《LUNYU》DUI“TIAN”DEYONGFAYANSHEDEZUIZHONGYAOBIAOSHU,TONGSHIYESHIKONGZIJIQIDIZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGSUOCHUANDACHUDUITIANDETAIDUDEZUIZHONGYAOTIXIAN。“TIANMING”ZAIKONGZIDE《LUNYU》ZHONGGONGCHUXIANLIANGCI。YISHI:“JUNZIYOUSANWEI:WEITIANMING,WEIDAREN,WEISHENGRENZHIYAN。XIAORENBUZHITIANMINGERBUWEIYE,XIADAREN,WUSHENGRENZHIYAN。”[4]173(《LUNYU·JISHI》)KONGZIZAICICHUJIJIESHILEJUNZIDEJINGWEIZHIXIN,YOUBIJIAOLEJUNZIYUXIAORENDECHAJUZAIHECHU。JUNZINENGGOUZUODAOJINGWEISHANGTIANDEYIZHI,JINGWEIDEGAOWANGZHONGZHIREN,JINGWEISHENGRENDEYANLUN,ERXIAORENWANQUANWUSUOJINGWEI。ERSHI:“WUSHIYOUWUERZHIYUXUE,SANSHIERLI,SISHIERBUHUO,WUSHIERZHITIANMING,LIUSHIERERSHUN,QISHIERCONGXINSUOYU,BUYUJU。”[4]54(《LUNYU·WEIZHENG》)FUZIJIANGSHULEBUTONGNIANDUANDERENBIXUDADAOBUTONGDEJINGDI,RENDAOWUSHI,YINGGAIBUJINJINNENGGOUMINGLESHIWUDEZHUANGTAI,HAIYINGGAIZUODAODESHINENGGOUBAWOSHIWUDEFAZHAN,ZUODAOWANSHIXINZHIDUMING。YOUCIKEJIANDUIYU“TIANMING”,KONGZIDETAIDUSHI“WEITIANMING”“ZHITIANMING”,XIANRAN,“TIANMING”ZAIZHEILIYOUBUKEKANGJUZHIYI。

                              ZONGZHI,《LUNYU》ZHONG“TIAN”ZHEIYIGAINIANTONGCHANGBAOKUOSANCENGHANYI:YISHIZHUZAIYIYIDETIAN。ZHUZAIYIYISHIZHIJIANGTIANKANZUOZUIGAODEZHUZAIZHE,KEYIZHIPEIYUZHOUWANYOU,DANGRANYEBAOKUOREN,RENSHIJIANDEYIQIEDOUSHIYOU“TIAN”LAIZHUZAIDE。《LUNYU》ZHONG“TIAN”ZIDANDUSHIYONG,HUOZHEZAI“TIANZI”“TIANDAO”“TIANLU”DESHIYONGZHONG,DUOZHUCIYI。ERSHISUMINGYIYIDETIAN,ZHIRENSUOSHOUZHIXIANZHI。SANSHIZIRANXIANXIANGDETIAN。RUQIZAI“TIANXIA”ZHONGDEYONGFA,JIUSHIZHITOUDINGDETIAN。JIYUCISANZHONGDUI“TIAN”DEYIYIJIEDU,WOMENKEYIHENRONGYIDUI《LUNYU》ZHONGSUOSHEJIDE“TIANMING”DELUNSHUDECHUDAAN,GENGZHUNQUESHUOSHIFUZIJIQIDIZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGSUOCHUANDACHUDEQINGXIANGYOULIANGZHONG:YISHIJINGWEIZHIQING;ERSHISHANGTIANZHIMINGSHIBUKEKANGJU。ZHEILIANGZHONGQINGXIANGHUWEIYINGUO,QIEXIANGHUCUJIN,YOUYUTIANMINGBUKEWEIERCHANSHENGJINGWEIZHIQING,JINGWEIZHIQINGYOUQIANGHUALETIANMINGBUKEWEIDENEIXINZUNCHONG。

                              2、“命”

                              CONGCIYUANLAIKAN,“MING,SHIYE。CONGKOU,CONGLING”[9]80。ZAI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,“MING”YOUSHENGMINGDEHANYI,ZHEIZHUYAOBAOKUOLIANGCENGHANYI:YISHISHOUMING,JISHENGMINGDEZHANGDU;ERSHISHENGMING,JIHUOZHEDEZHUANGTAI。RU:AIGONGWENKONGZINAGEDIZIHAOXUE?KONGZISHUO:“YOUYANHUIZHEHAOXUE,BUQIANNU,BUERGUO。BUXINGDUANMINGSIYI!JINYEZEWANG,WEIWENHAOXUEZHEYE。”[4]84(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)YANHUIDEFENNUZAIYUWUERBUZAIYUZIJI,SUOYITADEQINGXUSUIZHEYINFAFENNUDESHIWULIQUERXIAOSAN,QINEIXINHAOSIMINGJING,YANCHIZAIWU,SUIZHIZHAOYINGERYI,YINCI,YANHUIBUHUIQIANNUYUREN;YANHUIYOUZIZHIZHIMING,ZIJIDESHANEDOULERANYUXIONG,SUOYIBUHUIFANTONGYANGDECUOWU。ZHEIYIQIEDOUJIANLIZAIYANHUIDEKEJIZHIGONGSHANG,SUOYICHENGDESHANGHAOXUE,DANTAJINJINHUOLESANSHIERSUI,FUZIYINCIGANTAN,YITANWANXI,ERTANHAOXUEZHIRENNANDE。YOUYOUYIGEJIAOJIKANGZIDEWENTONGYANGDEWENTI,KONGZISHUO:“YOUYANHUIZHEHAOXUE,BUXINGDUANMINGSIYI!JINYEZEWANG。”[4]86(《LUNYU·XIANJIN》)KEJIAN,ZAIZHEILI“MING”JIWOMENJINTIANSUOJIANGDESHOUMING。YOURUCENGZIYUE:“KEYITUOLIUCHIZHIGU,KEYIJIBAILIZHIMING,LINDAJIEERBUKEDUOYE。JUNZIRENYU?JUNZIRENYE。”[4]104(《LUNYU·TAIBO》)LIUCHI,GUSHIYICHIBIJIAODUAN,LIUCHIDAZHIXIANGDANGYUXIANZAIDESANCHI,SHIWUSUIYIXIATONGYONGLIUCHIDAIZHI。JUNZIZHICAI,KEYIFUYOUJUN,SHEGUOZHENG,NENGYUSHENGSICUNWANGZHIJICHANGSHOUQIJIE,JUMOSHEWEN,YISHIQIANGDIAO。TONGGUANSHANGSHU《LUNYU》DUIMINGDEYUNYONG,KEYIKANCHUZHEILIDE“MING”DOUYOUSHENGMINGDEHANYI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,“MING”YOUYANCIDEHANYI,ZHUYAOBAOKUORUXIAJICENGHANYI:YISHIMINGLING;ERSHIJIAODAO;SANSHICILING;SISHICHUANHUA。RU:“JUNZHAOSHIBIN,SEBORUYE,ZUJUERUYE。YISUOYULI,ZUOYOUSHOU。YIQIANHOU,CHANRUYE。QUJIN,YIRUYE。BINTUI,BIFUMINGYUE:‘BINBUGUYI’。”[4]118(《LUNYU·XIANGDANG》)BIN,CHUNQIUSHIQIDEWAIJIAOLIYI,ZHUKESHUANGFANGDOUYAOANPAISHUXILIYIDEGUANYUANZUOBINXIANG。ZHURENZHEIBIANDEJIAOBIN,JIEDAIBINKE;KERENNEIBIANDEJIAOXIANG,FUXIANGXINGLI。SEBORU,MIANSEZHUANGZHONG。ZUJUERU,JUSHOUTOUZUXIAOXINYIYI,RULINSHENYUAN。CHAN,ZHENGQIZHIMAO。BENZEJILUFUZIZAIYINGJIEWAIBINSHIHOUSUOBAOCHIDELIJIE。YOURU:“JUNCISHI,BIZHENGXIXIANCHANGZHI;JUNCIXING,BISHUERJIANZHI;JUNCISHENG,BICHUZHI。SHISHIYUJUN,JUNJI,XIANFAN。JI,JUNSHIZHI,DONGSHOU,JIACHAOFU,TUOSHEN。JUNMINGZHAO,BUSIJIAXINGYI。”[4]121(《LUNYU·XIANGDANG》)CIZEJILUFUZIKESHOUJUNCHENZHILI,ZUNJUNBUJINSHIBIAOMIANSHANGDEXINGWEI,NEIXINDEZUNZHONGYEYAODEDAOCHONGFENDETIXIAN,ERZHEILIDE“MING”SHIMINGLINGDEYISI。ZAIRU:“YAOYUE:‘ZI!ERSHUN!TIANZHILISHUZAIERGONG。YUNZHIQIZHONG。SIHAIKUNQIONG,TIANLUYONGZHONG。’SHUNYIYIMINGYU。YUE:‘YUXIAOZILV,GANYONGXUANMU,GANZHAOGAOYUHUANGHUANGHOUDI:YOUZUIBUGANSHE。DICHENBUBI,JIANZAIDIXIN。ZHENGONGYOUZUI,WUYIWANFANG;WANFANGYOUZUI,ZUIZAIZHENGONG。’”[4]194(《LUNYU·YAOYUE》)YAODIZAISHANRANGSHUNDIDESHIHOUYITIANMINGANPAIZUOWEIQIANZAIDEYIZHI,GAOJIESHUNDIDUIDAITIANXIABAIXINGYINGGAIZHISHOUZHONGZHENGZHIDAO,ERZHEILIDEMINGSHIJIAODAODEYISI。ZAIRU:“WEIMING:BICHENCAOCHUANGZHI,SHISHUTAOLUNZHI,XINGRENZIYUXIUSHIZHI,DONGLIZICHANRUNSEZHI。”[4]151(《LUNYU·XIANWEN》)ZHEILIDE“MING”YOUCILING、CHUANHUADEYISI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONG,DUI“MING”DEYINGYONGZHUYAOBAOKUOLIANGCENGHANYI:YISHISUMING;ERSHITIANMING。RU:“BONIUYOUJI,ZIWENZHI,ZIYOUZHIQISHOU,YUE:‘WANGZHI,MINGYIFU!SIRENYEERYOUSIJIYE!SIRENYEERYOUSIJIYE!’”[4]87(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)BONIUSHIKONGZIDEDIZI,QIXIANJINCIYUYANYUAN、MINZIQIAN。KONGZILAITANWANGRANBONIU,RANBONIUYIJIEDAIGUOJUNDELIYILAIJIEDAIKONGZI,KONGZIBUYUANYISHILI,GUBUJINQIFANGJIAN,ERSHICONGCHUANGHUWAIMIANWOZHETADESHOUANWEITA。BONIUJIANGSI,FUZIYICILAISHIYONGBIE。FUZICIZEYIZAIGANTANMINGYUNDEWUNAI,YIJIDUIBONIUYINGNIANZAOSHIDETONGXI。XIANRAN,ZHEILIDEMINGSHIZHISUMING。YOURU:“SIMANIUYOUYUE:‘RENJIEYOUXIONGDI,WODUWANG。’ZIXIAYUE:‘SHANGWENZHIYI:SISHENGYOUMING,FUGUIZAITIAN。JUNZIJINGERWUSHI,YURENGONGERYOULI。SIHAIZHINEI,JIEXIONGDIYE。JUNZIHEHUANHUWUXIONGDIYE?’”[4]135(《LUNYU·YANYUAN》)SIMANIUXIONGZHANGHUANTUIYINZAISONGGUOZUOLUANERSIYUTAOWANG,ZHUZIRENWEI“SIHAIZHINEIJIEXIONGDI”SHIZIXIAWEILEKUANWEISIMANIUERSHUODE,QIQIANTISHIZIJINENGGOUBAOCHIZHONGDAO,NENGGOUSHIZHONGBAOCHISUJINGDECHUSHITAIDU,NENGGOUSHIZHONGZUNSHOUDUIRENGONGJINGERHEHUYULIDEGUIDING。CONGZHEILIANGZEKEYIJIEDUCHUMINGSHISUMINGDEYISI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   《LUNYU》ZHONG“MING”HAIYOUTIANMINGZHIHANYI。RU:“WUSHIYOUWUERZHIYUXUE,SANSHIERLI,SISHIERBUHUO,WUSHIERZHITIANMING,LIUSHIERERSHUN,QISHIERCONGXINSUOYU,BUYUJU。”[4]54(《LUNYU·WEIZHENG》)YOURU:“JUNZIYOUSANWEI:WEITIANMING,WEIDAREN,WEISHENGRENZHIYAN。XIAORENBUZHITIANMINGERBUWEIYE,XIADAREN,WUSHENGRENZHIYAN。”[4]173(《LUNYU·JISHI》)ZHENGRURENJUNHUASUOSHUO“TAMENJIEZHIZIRANGUILVERYAN”[9]。ERZAI《ZHEXUECIDIAN》LIDUI“TIANMING”YOULIANGZHONGDINGYI,YIZHONGDINGYIWEISHANGTIANDEMINGLINGHUOYIZHI,LINGYIZHONGSHI“JIANGTIANSHIWEIWUYIZHIDEZIRAN”[10]874BINGQIEZAIDUI“TIANMINGZHIXING”DELUNSHUZHONGJIANGYOU“TIANMING”GUIJIEWEI“YILI”,TONGGUANSUOYOU,ZHEIXIEJIHUDOUSHIDUIGUILVDEBUTONGBIAOSHU。

                              ZONGZHI,“MING”ZHEIGECIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGYOUDUOZHONGYONGFA,QIHANYISUIZHEYUJINGDEBIANHUAERBIANHUA。DAZHISHUOLAI,“MING”ZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGYOUSANCENGHANYI:SHENGMINGYIYIDEMING;YANCIYIYIDEMING;SUMINGYIYIDEMING。ERJIYU“MING”DESANZHONGHANYIZAIQUJIEDU“TIANMING”,KEYIJIANGQIDINGYIWEIGUILV。

                              3、乐天知命

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   QIANWENYISHU,《LUNYU》ZHONG“TIAN”ZHEIYIGAINIANTONGCHANGBAOKUOSANCENGHANYI:YISHIZHUZAIYIYIDETIAN;ERSHISUMINGYIYIDETIAN;SANSHIZIRANXIANXIANGDETIAN。ER“MING”ZHEIYIGAINIANTONGCHANGYIBAOKUOSANCENGHANYI:YISHISHENGMINGYIYIDEMING;ERSHIYANCIYIYIDEMING;SANSHISUMINGYIYIDEMING。DANGZHEIGELIANGGEGAINIANFANGZAIYIQISHIYONG,JIYI“TIANMING”DEXINGSHICHUXIANSHI,BULUNSHI“TIAN”“MING”HAISHI“TIANMING”,QIANGDIAODEDOUSHIQISUMINGDEYIYI,JINYIBUKEJIEDUCHU“TIANMING”BAOHANZHEKONGZIJIQIDIZIZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGSUOBIAOXIANCHUDUIDAIWEIZHISUMINGDETAIDU:DUIBUKEKANGJUMINGYUNDEJINGWEI。DANSHI《LUNYU》WENBENZHONGYOUDUOCIQIANGDIAO“ZHITIANMING”“LETIANMING”,RUGUOSHUOMING“BIAODALEKONGZIDUIRENLEIDESHENGSI、RENLEIDESHENGCUN、RENLEIDESHENGHUOZHIZHONGJIYIYIDECHENSI,QUANSHILEKONGZIZHONGJIGUANHUAISIXIANGDEJIBENNEIHAN:NEISHENGYUWAIWANG”[11],NEIMEYEKEYIDUANDING“LETIANZHIMING”SHIKONGZILILUNDEZUIHOUGUISU。KONGZIYIFANGMIANCHENGRENTIANMINGDEXIANZHI,LINGYIFANGMIANYOUTICHU“ZHIBUKEWEIERWEIZHI”。“ZHIBUKEWEI”,ZHEISHIZHITIANMING;“WEIZHI”,SHIZHIDAODEXINGWEI。ZHITIANMINGSHIXIANRUMENDUISHANGTIANYIZHIDEBAWO,SHIRENJIJIFAHUIZIJIDENENGDONGZUOYONG。“ZHIBUKEWEIERWEIZHI”SHIZESHIQIANGDIAOZHITIANMINGERWEIZHI。WEIZHI,SHIZAIZUNCHONGTIANMINGDEJICHUSHANGJIJIZUOZIJINENGZUODE,BINGBUSHI“WEIZHI”,QUWEIBEITIANYIERYIYIGUXING。“TIANMING”YU“ZHIBUKEWEIERWEIZHI”ZHEILIANGFANGMIANMAOSIXIANGHUDUILI,SHIJISHANGBEIKONGZIXIANGTONGYIQILAI,HUANJUHUASHUO,“TIANMING”YU“ZHITIANMINGERWEIZHI”SHIBIANZHENGTONGYIDE。FENGYOULANXIANSHENGSHUO:“TIANMINGKEYIJIAORENDEDAODEXINGWEIBUNENGCHENGGONG,DANBUNENGJIAORENBUZUODAODEXINGWEI。”[12]174JIUSHISHUO,RENSUIRANSHISHICHUCHUSHOUTIANMINGDEZHIYUE,SUIRAN“ZIYOUZUOWEIGENBENDAODEJIAZHIGURANZHIDEZHENSHI,QIYUNYONGXUYAOSHOUDAOXIANZHISHENZHIQIANGZHI”[13],DANRENKEYIYOUZIJIDEDAODEZHUIQIU,KEYIQUJIANXINGZIJIDEDAODELIXIANG。CONGZHEIGEFANGMIANJIANG,RENYOUSHIZIYOUDE,SHIYOUZIYOUYIZHIDE。RENZAI“ZHIBUKEWEIERWEIZHI”ZHONGSUZAOZIJIDESHENGXIANRENGE,ZHONGGUOCHUANTONGXIANRUMENJIANGCIZUOWEIZIJITISHENGDAODEJINGJIEDEFAZE。ZHIYUDUITIANMINGZHILE,ZETIXIANZAIXIANRUMENZAIYIJINGZHUDINGDESUMINGZHONGJIJIDIQUJIANXINGZIJIDEDAODEBIAOZHUN,BINGQIENENGZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGTIHUIDAOQIANSUOWEIYOUDENEIXINNINGJINGSHENZHIXINSHENGYUYUE,BINGBUSHIXIAOJIKUMENDIWEILEDACHENGMUBIAOERXINSHENGYUANTIANYOURENDEQINGXU。ZHEIJIUSHIDUI“TIANMING”ZHILE,ZHEIJIUSHI“LETIANZHIMING”。

                              参考文献

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                              [2] 谢遐龄.社会科学研究观念必须革新[J].学术月刊,1994(4):4-6.[3][东汉]许慎.说文解字[M].沈阳:辽海出版社,2015.
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