牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                      2. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 先秦诸子对人类欲望的认识与控制

                        先秦诸子对人类欲望的认识与控制

                        时间:2020-05-08 08:57作者:张兆端
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于先秦诸子对人类欲望的认识与控制的文章,在先秦诸子思想体系中包含着关于人类欲望及控制欲望的丰富思想,对其加以系统挖掘和研究阐发,吸收其合理思想智慧,对于指导人们尤其是为政者自觉加强道德修养、追求健康生活方式、做到廉洁从政,具有重要的借鉴价值。

                          摘    要: 欲望作为人类的生命特性,是人类个体及群体生存和发展的内在动力。古往今来,人类生活之欢乐与痛苦、幸福与烦恼,社会治理之和谐与混乱,和平与战争等,无不与人类个体及群体的欲望及对待欲望的态度和方式有关。人类每时每刻都面临着如何驾驭个体及群体欲望的命题和挑战。先秦诸子在普遍承认人生有欲的前提下,分别提出了“寡欲”“制欲”“节欲”“共欲”等控“欲”思想,充满着丰富的人生智慧和治理辩证法。对其加以系统挖掘和研究阐发,吸收其合理思想智慧,对于指导人们尤其是为政者自觉加强道德修养、追求健康生活方式、做到廉洁从政,具有重要的借鉴价值。

                          关键词: 先秦诸子; 欲望; 寡欲; 节欲; 制欲; 共欲;

                          ZAIXIANQINZHUZISIXIANGTIXIZHONGBAOHANZHEGUANYURENLEIYUWANGJIKONGZHIYUWANGDEFENGFUSIXIANG,DUIQIJIAYIXITONGWAJUEHEYANJIUCHANFA,XISHOUQIHELISIXIANGZHIHUI,DUIYUZHIDAORENMENYOUQISHIWEIZHENGZHEZIJUEJIAQIANGDAODEXIUYANG、ZHUIQIUJIANKANGSHENGHUOFANGSHI、ZUODAOLIANJIECONGZHENG,JUYOUZHONGYAODEJIEJIANJIAZHI。

                          一、“欲”之本性与利害

                          “欲”,即欲望、欲求,是先秦诸子思想中普遍使用的一个概念。古汉语中,“欲”的繁体为“慾”,指欲望、嗜好。《说文解字》释曰:“欲:贪欲也,从欠,谷声”;“贪:欲物也,从贝,今声。”“欠”表示有所不足;“谷”表示山岭之间的沟壑。“欲壑难填”一词即由此而来。《广雅·释诂二》曰:“欲,贪也。”《增韵》曰:“欲,爱也。”《玉篇·欠部》曰:“欲,愿也”。现代汉语中,“欲”作名词,指欲望、欲念;作动词指想要、希望、需要;作副词指将要。心理学中,欲望指人类为满足自身的各种需求而产生的动机、愿望、向往和追求。哲学意义上,欲望是人类生命本能的释放,构成人类生存与发展的内在动力。人之生命是其欲望的母体,欲望是人之生命的延续。“欲望使世界充满生机”,“消除了欲望,世界会变得一片冰冷,一切都失去了生存与死亡的理由。”①1 马克思透过繁茂芜杂的社会现象揭示了人类历史的一个发展规律,即“人类首先必须吃、喝、住、穿,然后才能从事政治、科学、艺术、宗教等等”②2,认为人们的一切奋斗活动都同他们的利益相关,追求利益是人类活动的最根本目的。
                         

                        先秦诸子对人类欲望的认识与控制
                         

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                        牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   QIER,BUMANZUZHIHAI。LAOZITONGGUODUIMINGLIYUSHENGMING、SHENGMINGYUHUOLI、DEDAOYUSHIQUDEBIANZHENGBIJIAO,GAOJIERENMENGUOFENZHUIZHUMINGLIBIDINGHUIFUCHUDADEDAIJIA;GUOFENJULIANCAIFU,BIDINGHUIZAOSHOUGENGWEICANZHONGDESUNSHI。“GUZHIZUBURU,ZHIZHIBUDAI,KEYIZHANGJIU”;“HUOMODAYUBUZHIZU;JIUMODAYUYUDE。GUZHIZUZHIZU,CHANGZUYI”14。CINAIWEIRENCHUSHIDEPINGANZHIDAO。MOZIZHICHU,SHENGHUOZHONGDEXUDUOQINGKUANGWANGWANGSHI,“FEIWUANJUYE,WOWUANXINYE;FEIWUZUCAIYE,WOWUZUXINYE”15MEIYOUANDINGZHIXIN、MANZUZHIXIN,RENJIUHUICHENGWEIYUWANGDENULI。HANFEIZIZHICHU:“FANSHIQISUOYUZHILUERWANGXINGZHEZHIWEIMI,MIZEBUNENGZHIYUQISUOYUZHIYI。”16FANSHILIKAIDAOYIZHILUERZIYIWANGWEI、ZOUSHANGMITUZHE,YONGYUANWUFADADAOQIYUWANGDEMUDE。SHENZHIYOUKENENGRU《SHIJI》SUOYAN:“YUERBUZHIZU,SHIQISUOYIYU;YOUERBUZHIZHI,SHIQISUOYIYOU。”(《SHIJI·FANJUCAIZELIECHUAN》)GUWANGJINLAI,YOUDUOSHAOYINGXIONGHAOJIEZAIZHEITIAOBUGUIZHILUSHANGZHONGDAOFUZHE,ZHIZHISHENBAIMINGLIE。

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                          二、“欲”之主体及种类

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                        牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   CONG“YU”DENEIRONGJIAODUKAN,YIRUJIAWEIZHUDEXIANQINZHUZIJIANGQIHUAFENWEIXINGSHANZHIYUHEXINGEZHIYU、YOUDAOZHIYUHEWUDAOZHIYU、ZHENGDANGZHIYUYUBUDANGZHIYU。QIANZHENAIHEHUDAOYI,QUZHIYOUDUQIETONGGUOZHENGDANGTUJINGMANZUDEYUWANG;HOUZHENAIWEIBEIDAOYIYUANZE,QUZHIWUDUQIEYUNYONGFEIZHENGDANGSHOUDUANMANZUDEYUWANG。QIANZHELAIZIYIMENGZIWEIDAIBIAODERENXINGSHANJIASHUO,HOUZHELAIZIYIXUNZIWEIDAIBIAODERENXINGEJIASHE。ZIRAN,XIANQINZHUZICHANGDAOFAYANGDESHIQIANZHE,EZHIDESHIHOUZHE。

                          三、控“欲”主张与方略

                        牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZHUANGZISHUO:“ZHIDAOZHEBIDAYULI,DAYULIZHEBIMINGYUQUAN,MINGYUQUANZHEBUYIWUHAIJI。”30HANFEIZIZHICHU:“JINZHONGRENZHISUOYIYUCHENGGONGERFANWEIBAIZHE,SHENGYUBUZHIDAOLI,ERBUKENWENZHIERTINGNENG。”31RENMENYISHENGDOUZAICHIXUBUDUANDIJINGLIYUWANG,RONGYIHUSHIYUWANGZAIZIJIXINZHONGDECUNZAIYUXIANXIAN,SHICHANGXIANYUZHONGZHONGYUWANGDECHONGTUHEKUNHUOZHIZHONG。WOMENYANJIUXIANQINZHUZIKONG“YU”SIXIANG,JIUSHIXIANGCHUANGJIANZHONGHUACHUANTONGSIXIANGWENHUADEZHIZHEQINGJIAOHEDUIHUA,MUDE“SHIXIANGJIANGYUWANGCONGYINBIZHONGZHANGXIANCHULAI:LEJIEYUWANGSHIRUHEYIJIWEISHENMEERCHANSHENG;YUWANGSHIRUHEYINGXIANGWOMENDESHENGHUO,WOMENRUHEQUKONGZHITA”32。XIANQINZHUZIZAICHENGRENRENSHENGYOUYUDEQIANTIXIA,DADOUZHUZHANGBAJIEZHIYUWANGZUOWEIRENSHENGZHIMEIDE,MUDESHISHIRENYOUYUWANGDENUPUBIANWEIYUWANGDEZHUREN。

                          XIANQINDAOJIARENWEIYUWANGYOUHAIYUQIUDAO,YUWANGNAIHUOHUANZHIGENYUAN,YINCIZHUZHANGGUAYUHEWUYU,CHANGDAOYIDAOZHI“YU”。YIFANGMIAN,LAOZIRENWEI,“SHAOZEDE,DUOZEHUO”33,TICHU“JIANSUBAOPO,SHAOSIGUAYU,JUEXUEWUYOU”34,SHIXINGWUWEIERZHI、HUAYUCHUNPOMINFENG。ZHUANGZITICHU:“SHAOJUNZHIFEI,GUAJUNZHIYU,SUIWULIANGERNAIZU。”35LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHUIQIUXIAOGUOGUAMINZHILIXIANG,ZHUZHANGSHIXINGSHIMINWUZHIWUYUZHIYUMINZHENGCE。CHUQUZHEIYIXIAOJISIXIANGYINSUWAI,YOUQIXIANSHIQIDIJIAZHIDEKONG“YU”ZHUZHANGYOULIU:YIYUE“SHANGSHANRUOSHUI,LIERBUZHENG”36。ZUIDADEDAODESHISHENGYANGWANWUERBUZISHIYOUGONG、BUJUWEIJIYOU,ZUOWANWUZHILINGZHANGERBUJIAYIZHUZAI。ERYUE“ZHIQIRONG,SHOUQIRU”37。SANYUEYOUZIZHIZHIMING。LAOZISHUO:“ZISHENGZHEQIANG,ZHIZUZHEFU。”38ZHUANGZISHENGMING:“WUSUOWEIMINGZHE,FEIWEIJIANBIYE,ZIJIANERYIYI。FUBUZIJIANERJIANBI,BUZIDEERDEBIZHE,SHIDERENZHIDEERBUZIDEQIDEZHEYE,SHIRENZHISHIERBUZISHIQISHIZHEYE。”39SIYUE“QUSHEN、QUSHE、QUTAI”HERENCI、JIEJIAN、BUWEITIANXIAXIAN40。WUYUEFANSHIYAOLIUYOUYUDI,BUKETAIGUO。LAOZISHUO:“CHIERYINGZHI,BURUQIYI;CHUAIERRUIZHI,BUKEZHANGBAO。JINYUMANTANG,MOZHINENGSHOU;FUGUIERJIAO,ZIYIQIJIU。”41LIUYUE“GONGCHENG、MINGSUI、SHENTUI”42。《ZHOUYI》RENWEI,RENSHENGSHISHI“SHANGXIAWUCHANG”“JINTUIWUHENG”,ZHENZHENGDEJUNZINAI“ZHIJINTUICUNWANGERBUSHIQIZHENG”ZHISHIDUKONGYUZHE,ERFEIZHIJINBUZHITUI,ZHICUNBUZHIWANG,ZHIDEBUZHISANGZHIYUQIUWUDUZHE43。

                          XIANQINRUJIARENWEIYUWANGSHIRENZHITIANXING,BUKEJINJUE,YINCIZHUZHANGGUAYUHEJIEYU。ZHEIJIZHONGTIXIANWEIKONGZITUICHONGDECONGZHENG“WUMEI”:“JUNZIHUIERBUFEI,LAOERBUYUAN,YUERBUTAN,TAIERBUJIAO,WEIERBUMENG。”44MENGZIYESHUO:“YANGXINMOSHANYUGUAYU。”45XUNZIZHICHU:“YUSUIBUKEJIN,KEYIJINJINYE。YUSUIBUKEQU,QIUKEJIEYE。”“DAOZHE,JINZEJINJIN,TUIZEJIEQIU。”46RENDEYUWANGWUQIONGWUJIN,BUKENENGWANQUANMANZU,DANKEYINULIQUMANZU;RENDEYUWANGBUKENENGXIAOCHU,DANQUEKEYIYOUSUOJIEZHI。ZHEIZHONGDUIYUWANGSHUANGZHONGTEXINGDEBIANZHENGRENSHI,TIGONGLEGUANTONGGUJINDEKONG“YU”ZHUNZE。ZUOWEIZHONGHUADAODEWENHUADEYUANCHUANGZHE,XIANQINRUJIADAIBIAORENWUKONGZI、MENGZI、XUNZIFENBIETICHULEYIDEZHIYU、YIRENZHIYUHEYILIZHIYUDEZHENGZHIZHUZHANG。KONGZITICHU“WEIZHENGYIDE”“ZHENGZHE,ZHENGYE”“XIUJIANREN(BAIXING)”。MENGZITICHU“MINGUIJUNQING”,ZHUZHANG“SHIRENZHENGYUMIN”,RENWEI“WUHENGCHANERYOUHENGXINZHE,WEISHIWEINENG。RUOMIN,ZEWUHENGCHAN,YINWUHENGXIN”。WEIZHENGZHEBUYAOZHIGUYIWEIMANZUZISHENYUWANG,YING“ZHIMINZHICHAN,BISHIYANGZUYISHIFUMU,FUZUYICHUQIZI;LESUIZHONGSHENBAO,XIONGNIANMIANYUSIWANG。RANHOUQUERZHISHAN,GUMINZHICONGZHIYEQING”47。XUNZIRENWEI,RENSHENGYUQIUWUDUBIRANYINQIZHENGZHI、DONGLUANHEPINQIONG,“XIANWANGEQILUAN,GUZHILIYI”GUIFANZHI48,YISHIYUWANGDEMANZUBUHUIYINWUZHIDEKUIFAERZHONGZHI,WUZHIDEGONGJIBUHUIGUOFENQUCONGYUYUWANGSUOQIU,SHIDEYUWANGHEWUZHINENGGOUXIANGFUXIANGCHENG。《XUNZI》“ZHENGMING”PIANXITONGLUNSHULEYUWANGJIEZHIYUGUOJIAZHILI、GERENDAODEXIUYANGZHIJIANDEBIANZHENGGUANXI。YIFANGMIAN,XUNZIRENWEIFANSHIXIANGTONGGUOQUCHUHUOJIANSHAORENMENYUWANGLAITANLUNZHIGUOZHIDAOZHE,SHIZEWUFAZHENGQUEYINDAORENMENJIEZHIYUWANG,FANERHUIBEIYIYOUDE、GUODUODEYUWANGSUOKUNHUO,ZHINENGSHIXING“LONGLIZHONGFA”YIGUIFANZHI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,XUNZIZHICHU,JIEZHIYUWANGDEGUANJIANZAIYURENMENDEXINLIDINGLIYUDEXINGXIUYANGDEDAOYIRENKEHELIXINGXUANZE,XUYAOYINDAORENMENYIZHENGQUEDEHENGLIANGBIAOZHUNQUXUANZEZHUIQIUHEYIDEDONGXI。

                          XIANQINRUJIADEKONG“YU”ZHUZHANGJUTIBAOKUO:YISHIHUANWEISIKAO、TUIJIJIREN。JI“JISUOBUYU,WUSHIYUREN”49;“WOBUYURENZHIJIAZHUWOYE,WUYIYUWUJIAZHUREN”50。ERSHIYIYIZHILI,YIDAOQUZHI。KONGZISHUO:“JIANLISIYI,JIANWEISHOUMING”51。RENRENDOUXIANGWANGFUGUIHETAOBIPINJIAN,DANXU“YIDAODEZHI”“YIDAOQUZHI”。52SANSHIBUKEDEJIAN,SHESHENGQUYI。MENGZISHUO:“SHENGYIWOSUOYUYE;YIYIWOSUOYUYE。ERZHEBUKEDEJIAN,SHESHENGERQUYIZHEYE。”53RENSHENGYISHIBUKENENGSHENMEDOUZHUIQIU、SHENMEDOUMANZU,YOUSHECAIYOUDE。SISHISHULI“FUGUIBUNENGYIN,PINJIANBUNENGYI,WEIWUBUNENGQU”DE“DAZHANGFU”54RENGE。WUSHI“QIONGBUSHIYI,DABULIDAO”,ZUODAO“QIONGZEDUSHANQISHEN,DAZEJIANSHANTIANXIA”55。LIUSHIQIUZHIYOUDAO。MENGZIRENWEI,DUIYUSHIJIANYIQIEYAO“QIUZHIYOUDAO”。FAN“QIUZAIWOZHE”,RUZHISHIJILEI、DAODEXIUYANG、RENSHENGJINGJIEZHINEIZAIJINGSHENDEZIWOWANSHAN,NAI“QIUZHIYOUYIYUDEYE”;FAN“QIUZAIWAIZHE”,RUJINQIANCAIFU、DIWEIMINGYUDENG,JUNNAISHENWAIZHIWU,KEYINULIDANBUKEQIANGQIU。FOUZE,“QIUWUYIYUDEYE”56。QISHIJIEYONGAIREN、SHIMINYISHI。57BASHISHENJIAOYOU、SHANYILE。JIAOWANGNAIRENZHIYUQIUZHIYI。《ZHOUYI》TICHU“JUNZISHANGJIAOBUCHAN,XIAJIAOBUDU”58DERENJIJIAOWANGZHIHUI。KONGZITICHU“YIZHESANYOU,SUNZHESANYOU”59:TONGZHENGZHI、CHENGXIN、JIANWENGUANGBOZHIRENJIAOWANGSHIYOUYIDE,TONGGUANYUZOUWAIMENXIEDAO,SHANYUAYUFENGCHENG、HUAYANQIAOYUZHIRENJIAOWANGSHIYOUHAIDE;SHANYUYILILEDIAOJIEZISHEN、CHENGDAOTARENZHIYOUDIANHEHAOCHU、JIEJIAOXIANDEZHIYOU,SHIYOUYIZHIAIHAO;GUANYUJIAOZONGBAHU、YOUSHOUHAOXIAN、DACHIDAHEZHE,SHIYOUHAIZHIAIHAO。GUWANGJINLAI,YIXIEGUANYUANDIERUFUBAINITANDEYUANYINZHIYI,JIUZAIYUJIAOYOUBUSHEN,QUEFAZIWOJIEBEI。”60JIUSHIZHONGSHENXIUYANG、ZHONGSHENJIEYU。KONGZIZHENDUIBUTONGRENSHENGJIEDUANDESHENGLIZHUANGKUANGHESHENGHUOXIXING,TICHULEXIANGYINGDEJIEYUYAOZHI:“JUNZIYOUSANJIE:SHAOZHISHI,XUEQIWEIDING,JIEZHIZAISE;JIQIZHUANGYE,XUEQIFANGGANG,JIEZHIZAIDOU;JIQILAOYE,XUEQIJISHUAI,JIEZHIZAIDE。”KONGZIXIANSHENSHUOFA,RENSHENGJINGLIZHIXUE、ERLI、BUHUO、ZHITIANMING、ERSHUNZHIHOU,ZHUIQIUDEZUIGAOJINGJIESHI“SUIXINSUOYUBUYUJU”。61SHISHI“SHENDU”“SHENWEI”。QIANGDIAO“JUNZIJIESHENHUQISUOBUDU,KONGJUHUQISUOBUWEN。MOJIANHUYIN,MOXIANHUWEI,GUJUNZISHENQIDUYE”62。ZAIWURENKANJIAN、WURENTINGDAODEYINBI、XIWEIZHICHURENGYAOXINCUNWEIJU、SHENZHONGXINGSHI。SHIYISHIZHIDANGSUOZHI:“ZHIZHIERHOUYOUDING,DINGERHOUNENGAN,ANERHOUNENGLV,LVERHOUNENGDE。”63WEIRENCHUSHI,ZHIQIYOUZHI、ZHIQISUODANGZHI,CAIHUIYOUXINLIDINGLIHESHENGHUOYIZHI,CAINENGANXINSHENGHUO、SILVZHOUXIANG,JINERDADAOZHISHANJINGJIE。

                        牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   FANYINGPINGMINLIYIDEMOJIAXUESHUODEKONG“YU”ZHUZHANGZHUYAOBAOKUO:YISHIYIJIANXIANGAIJIAOXIANGLIWEIZHENGZHIGANGLING,CHANGDAOAIRENLIREN,WEITIANXIAREN“XINGLICHUHAI”64。ERSHIFANDUITONGZHIZHEBODUOMINCAI,QIONGSHEJICHI,CHANGDAO“JIEYONG”“JIEZANG”HE“FEILE”。SANSHIZHONGSHIMINSHENGZHIYU。RENWEIMINZHONGZUIDADEYUWANGSHISHENGCUN,ZUIZENGEDESHISIWANG;“JIZHEBUDESHI,HANZHEBUDEYI,LAOZHEBUDEXI”NAIMINZHI“JUHUAN”65。WEIZHENGZHEYINGZHONGSHIJIEJUEZHEIXIEMINSHENGWENTI。SISHIQUANHENGLIHAI:“GONG,LIMINGYE。YUZHENG,QUANLI;QIEEZHENG,QUANHAI”。“YU。QUANZHELIANGERWUPIAN。”66DUIYUSHIGONGZHIYUQIU,JIYAOCONGZHENGMIANHENGLIANGYOULIDEYIMIAN,YOUYAOCONGFANMIANHENGLIANGYOUHAIDEYIMIAN,BIMIANFANPIANMIANXINGDECUOWU。WUSHIXIUYANG“PINZEJIANLIAN,FUZEJIANYI,SHENGZEJIANAI,SIZHEZEJIANAI”DEJUNZIZHIDAO67。LIUSHIFANDUIGUMINGDIAOYU。“GONGCHENGMINGSUI,MINGYUBUKEXUJIA,FANZHISHENZHEYE”;“MINGBUKEJIANERCHENGYE,YUBUKEQIAOERLIYE”68。

                          XIANQINFAJIATICHULEYIFAZHI“YU”DEZHUZHANG。ZHUYAOBAOKUO:YISHI“FANZHITIANXIA,BIYINRENQING”69,QIANGDIAOZHILITIANXIABIXUYIJURENQINGHAOEZHILIYU,LIYONGSHANGFAKONGZHICHENMIN。ERSHIGONGSIFENMING,JIANCHI“YIGONGYISHENGSIYU”“QUSIQUJIUGONGFA”“QUSIXINGXINGGONGFA” 70。SANSHI“WUJIAN(BUZONG)QIYU”。QIANGDIAO“SHENGRENZHIZHIMIN,DUYUBEN,BUZONGQIYU,QIYULAILIMINERYI”。JUNZHUBUYAOSUIYIXIANGCHENXIAXIANLUZIJIDEYUWANGHUOAIHAO,YING“QUHAOQUE”YI“JUEQIWANG,POQIYI,WUSHIRENYUZHI” 71,FANGZHIBEIRENLIYONG。SISHIYI“BUYU”WEIBAO。《HANFEIZI》SHULILELIANGZEJIEZHIYUWANG、LIANJIECONGZHENGDELISHIDIANFAN。YIZESHI“ZIHANBUYUYU”。CHUNQIUSHISONGGUOYOUXIANGXIARENDEDAOYIKUAIPUYU,JIANGQIJINXIANJIXIANDEZHIRENZIHAN。ZIHANMEIYOUJIESHOU,BINGDUIQISHUO:“ERYIYUWEIBAO,WOYIBUSHOUZIYUWEIBAO。”72ZHENGRULAOZISUOYAN:“SHENGRENYUBUYU,BUGUINANDEZHIHUO。”73LINGYIZESHIGONGYIXIUSHIYUBUSHOUYU。GONGYIXIUDANRENLUXIANGSHI,GUORENDEZHIQIXIHUANCHIYUZHENGXIANGMAIYUJINXIANJITA,TAYIGAIBUJIESHOU。RENMENDUICIBULIJIE,GONGYIXIUHUIDASHUO:“FUWEISHIYU,GUBUSHOUYE。FUJISHOUYU,BIYOUXIARENZHISE;YOUXIARENZHISE,JIANGWANGYUFA;WANGYUFA,ZEMIANYUXIANG。SUISHIYU,CIBUBIZHIWOYU,WOYOUBUNENGZIJIYU。JIWUSHOUYUERBUMIANYUXIANG,SUISHIYU,WONENGZHANGZIJIYU。”HANFEIZIPINGJIASHUO:“CIMINGFUSHIRENBURUZISHIYE,MINGYURENZHIWEIJIBURUJIZHIZIWEIYE。”74WEIGUANWEIRENBIXUMINGBAI:ZAIMANZUYUWANGDEDAOLUSHANG,YIKAOTARENHUILUBURUYIKAOGERENFENDOU!

                        牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   GUANZIXUEPAIDEKONG“YU”ZHUZHANGJIZHONGTIXIANWEI“JIEYUZHIDAO,WANWUBUHAI”75。ZHUYAOBAOKUO:YISHIQIANGDIAO“ZHIGUOZHIDAO,BIXIANFUMIN”,RANHOUZHIZHI76;“CANGLINSHIZEZHILIJIE,YISHIZUZEZHIRONGRU。”77ZHUZHONGWUZHIMANZUYUDAODETISHENGXIANGTONGYI。ERSHIQIANGDIAO“ZHIGUANHUAMIN,QIYAOZAISHANG。SHIGUJUNZIBUQIUYUMIN。”78HANFEIZIYETICHU:“LIZHE,MINZHIBEN、GANGZHEYE,GUSHENGRENZHILIBUZHIMIN。”79DUIYUWEIZHENGZHEERYANYINGDANGYANYULVJI,WEIBAIXINGZUOBIAOLV;DUIYUZHIZHENGERYANGUANJIANSHICONGYANZHILI,BUYAOGUODUOKEQIUBAIXING。SANSHIFUERZHIZU。QIHUANGONGCENGWENGUANZHONG:“FUYOUYA(JIBIANJI)HU?”GUANZHONGDAYUE:“SHUIZHIYIYA,QIWUSHUIZHEYE;FUZHIYIYA,QIFUYIZUZHEYE。RENBUNENGZIZHIYUZU,ERWANGQIFUZHIYAHU?”80GUANZHONGYISHUIYIWUSHUIZHIDIWEIBIANJIWEILI,SHUOMINGRENDADAOFUERZHIZUZHISHINAIWEIFUZHIBIANJI。YOUYURENMENZHUIQIUFUYUDEYUWANGNANYIMANZU,YINCIBUZHIDAOZAIZUGOUFUYUDESHIHOUJIUJIAYISHOULIAN,SANGSHILEFUERZHIZUDEBIANJI,GAOBUHAOLIANYIJINGDEDAODEFUYUYEHUISHIQU。SISHI“SANYUBIJIE”、QUMINYOUDU。GUANZIZHICHU:“JUNYOUSANYU(JIQIU、JIN、LING)YUMIN,SANYUBUJIE,ZESHANGWEIWEI”81。TONGZHIZHEZAIDUIBAIXINGDESUOQU、JINZU、MINGLINGSHANGYINGYOUSUOJIEZHI,BUKEGUOFEN,YIFANGGUANBIMINFAN。JUNZHUDEYUWANGWUQIONGYUTUDIDE“SHENGCAIYOUSHI”HEMINZHONGDE“YONGLIYOUJUAN”ZHIJIANDEMAODUNSHIYINQISHEHUIZHILIHUNLUANDEGENYUAN。TONGZHIZHEZHIYOUZUODAO“QUYUMINYOUDU,YONGZHIYOUZHI”,CAINENGQUEBAO“GUOSUIXIAOBIAN”。FOUZE,“QUYUMINWUDU,YONGZHIBUZHI,GUOSUIDABIWEI”82。WUSHI“SHENJIHOUBI、SHENNEIHOUWAI”83。GUANZIRENWEI,YAOXIANGYIZIWOKEZHIFANGZHIHUOHUAN,SHOUXIANXUYAOYIZISHENKULETILIANGTARENZHIKULE。YOUDAOJUNZHUJIGUANLI,YINGXIANBAOCHIZIWOSHENZHONG、BAYUWANGKEZHIYUNEIXIN,RANHOUZAIQUYAOQIUTAREN、GUANLISHEHUI,CUSHIMINZHONGZHUANXINWUHAOBENYE。LIUSHI“BUXIUHUHAO,BUPOYUE”。WEIZHENGZHEJIBUWEIAIHAOZHISHISUOYOUHUO,YEBUYAOBEIYANEZHISHISUOXIEPO,YINGZUODAO“EBUSHIQILI,YUBUGUOQIQING”84。

                          MANZUWUZHISHENGHUOXUQIU、ZHUIZHUCAIWUSHIRENLEIZUIJIBEN、ZUIQIANGLIEDEYUWANGZHIYI。RENDUISHENWAIZHIWUDEKANZHONGRUOCHAOGUOZHUTIZISHEN,JIUHUIWEIWAIWUSUONUYI。WEIRAORUHELIXINGDUIDAIWAIWU,XIANQINZHUZIWEIWOMENTIGONGLEFENGFUDESIXIANGZHIHUI。CHUNQIUZHENGZHIJIAGUANZHONGSHOUXIANTICHU:“DAODEDANGSHEN,GUBUYIWUHUO”;“SHENGRENCAIWU,BUWEIWUSHI”;“JUNZISHIWU,BUWEIWUSHI。”85ZHUANGZIPIPING“SANGJIYUWU,SHIXINGYUSU”,ZHUZHANG“WUWUERBUWUYUWU”,“WUERBUWU,GUNENGWUWU”86。TARENWEI,YANGSHENGZHIDAOZHONGZAISHUNYINGZIRAN,BUWEIWAIWUSUOZHI。GUDAISUOWEIZIDEZISHIZHIREN,BINGFEIZHIGAOGUANHOULU、DIWEIXIANHE。SUIRONGHUAFUGUIZAISHEN,BINGFEICHUZIBENRAN,JIURUTONGWAIWUOURANDEDAO,BUGUOSHILINSHIJITUOZHIWU。DUIYUJITUOZHIWU,WULUNSHIDAOLAIHAISHILIKAI,DOUBUBIJIAYIZUZHI,BUKEWEILEZHUIQIURONGHUAFUGUIERZIYIFANGZONG,BUKEYINWEIQIONGKUNPINFAERQUFULIUSU。YOUYUMILIANWAIWUERSANGSHIZISHEN、YOUYULIUSUERSHIDIAOBENXING,NEISHIBENMODAOZHI。ZHUANGZIZHUZHANG,CHUSHIYINGNENGSHANGNENGXIA、NENGJINNENGTUI,ZUODAOYISHIWAIWUERBUBEIWAIWUSUOYISHI,YIQIEYISHUNHEWEIDULIANG,CAINENGYOURANZIDEDISHENGHUO。XUNZIYEPIPING“JIWEIWUYI”,CHANGDAO“ZHONGJIYIWU”:“ZHIYIXIUZEJIAOFUGUI,DAOYIZHONGZEQINGWANGGONG,NEISHENGERWAIWUQINGYI。CHUANYUE:‘JUNZIYIWU,XIAORENYIYUWU。’”87YOUWUDEXINGXIUYANGHEDEXINGXIUYANGDAXIAOZHIRENDEQUBIEZAIDUIDAIWAIWUDETAIDUSHANGBIAOXIANDESHIFENMINGXIAN。RENSHENGZAISHI,MEIYOUYIDINGDEWUZHISHENGHUOZILIAODESHENGCHANHEXIAOFEI,RENMENJIUWUFASHENGHUO。RANERYIDANXIANRU“XINWEIWUYI”DEJINGDI,JIUHUIZOURUBAIJINZHUYI、“BAIWUJIAO”DENITANERWUFAZIBA,DUIYUCAIWUDEJULIANJIUHUIBIANDE“DUODUOYISHAN”、YONGWUMANZUZHIJINGLE”88。

                          XIANQINBINGJIALUN“YU”ZHUYAOBAOKUO:YISHIYIMOUYONG“YU”。《SUNZI》JICHENG《LAOZI》“YUQINGUZONG”MOULVE,TICHU“LIERYOUZHI”“YILIDONGZHI、YIZUDAIZHI”DEBINGJIA“GUIDAO”89。ERSHIZHINU“ZHIYU”。《ZHOUYI》TICHU:“JUNZIYICHENGFENZHIYU。”90SHANYUEZHINUQI、KEZHIYUWANGSHIJUNZIXIUYANGDEZHONGYAOJINGJIE。《SUNZI》SHUO:“ZHUBUKEYINUERXINGSHI,JIANGBUKEYIYUNERZHIZHAN;HEYULIERDONG,BUHEYULIERZHI。”91FOUZEHUIJISHIYEHERENSHENGZAOCHENGWUFAWANHUIDEYANZHONGSUNSHI。ZHENGRU《SIMAFA·RENBEN》SUOYAN:“GUOSUIDA,HAOZHANBIWANG;TIANXIASUIAN,WANGZHANBIWEI。”《LIUTAO》“LIJUN”PIANZAI,JIANGTAIGONGGAOJIEZHOUWUWANG,JIANGSHUAIJILISHIQIYOUSANZHONGBANFA:YIYUE“LI”,JISHANYUYUESHUZIJI,YUSHIZUTONGHANSHU;ERYUE“LI”,JISHANYUSHENTILIXING,YUSHIZUTONGLAOKU;SANYUE“ZHIYU”,JISHANYUKEZHISIYU,YUSHIZUTONGJIBAO。SANSHISHANGXIA“TONGYU(LI)”。GUANZISHUO:“FANRENZHE,MOBUYULIEREHAI,SHIGUYUTIANXIATONGLIZHE,TIANXIACHIZHI;SHANTIANXIAZHILIZHE,TIANXIAMOUZHI。TIANXIAMOUZHI,SUIWEIBIHUI;TIANXIASUOCHI,SUIGAOBUWEI。”92WEIZHENGZHEZHIYOUYUTIANXIARENTONGYUGONGLI,CAINENGHUODEMINZHONGYONGHUHEZHICHI,CAINENGGONGGUQIZHIZHENGDIWEI。TONGZHIZHERUOSHANQUANDULI,ZHIMINZHONGYUSHUISHENHUOREERBUGU,BIJIANGYINQITIANXIARENFANKANGERDAOTAI。《SUNZI·JIPIAN》KAILIEDEJUEDINGZHANZHENGSHENGFUDEWUGEYAOSUZHISHOUBIANSHI“DAO”:“DAOZHE,LINGMINYUSHANGTONGYIYE,GUKEYIYUZHISI,KEYIYUZHISHENG,ERBUWEIWEI。”“MOUGONG”PIANTICHUDEYUZHISHENGLIDEWUZHONGMOULVEZHIYIJI“SHANGXIATONGYUZHESHENG”。《DIXING》PIANTICHU:“SHIZURUYINGER,GUKEYUZHIFUSHENXI;SHIZURUAIZI,GUKEYUZHIJUSI。”93ZHEIZHONGBAMINXINHE(JUN)JUNXIN、JIANGXINYUBINGXINZHITONGYIZUOWEIZHANZHENGQUSHENGJICHUDESIXIANGSHISUNZIDEWEIDAGONGXIAN。GUWANGJINLAI,ZHIJUNRUCI,ZHIGUOLIZHENGYIDANGRUCI。

                          注释

                          1 威廉B.艾尔文:《欲望》,董美珍译,北京:中国青年出版社,2008年,前言第2页。
                          2 《马克思恩格斯选集》第3卷,北京:人民出版社,1995年,第574页。
                          3(1)王文锦:《礼记译解》,北京:中华书局,2001年,第298-299页。
                          4(2)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第326页。
                          5(3)王先谦:《荀子集解》,北京:中华书局,1988年,第366页。
                          6(4)王先谦:《荀子集解》,北京:中华书局,1988年,第428页。
                          7(5)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第1012页。
                          8(6)王先谦:《荀子集解》,北京:中华书局,1988年,第428页。
                          9(7)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第1205页。
                          10(8)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第464页。
                          11(9)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第230页。
                          12(10)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第1193页。
                          13(11)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第371页。
                          14(12)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第186页。
                          15(13)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第11页。
                          16(14)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第137页。
                          17(15)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第280页。
                          18(16)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第387页。
                          19(17)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第199页。
                          20(18)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第552页。
                          21(19)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第235页。
                          22(20)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第605页。
                          23(21)王文锦译解:《礼记译解》,北京:中华书局,2001年,第1页。
                          24(22)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第138页。
                          25(23)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第253页。
                          26(24)陆玖译注:《吕氏春秋》,北京:中华书局,2011年,第43页。
                          27(25)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第280页。
                          28(26)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第11页。
                          29(27)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第155页。
                          30(28)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第495页。
                          31(29)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第137-138页。
                          32(30)威廉B.艾尔:《欲望》,董美珍译,北京:中国青年出版社,2008年,前言第2-3页。
                          33(31)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第92页。
                          34(32)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第75页。
                          35(33)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第583页。
                          36(34)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第31页。
                          37(35)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第113页。
                          38(36)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第134页。
                          39(37)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第284页。
                          40(38)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第118,271页。
                          41(39)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第33-35页。
                          42(40)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第35页。
                          43(41)杨天才、张善文译注:《周易》,北京:中华书局,2011年,第15,25页。
                          44(42)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第194页。
                          45(43)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第374页。
                          46(44)王先谦:《荀子集解》,北京:中华书局,1988年,第429页。
                          47(45)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第206,211页。
                          48(46)王先谦:《荀子集解》,北京:中华书局,1988年,第346页。
                          49(47)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第132页。
                          50(48)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第78页。
                          51(49)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第151页。
                          52(50)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第70页。
                          53(51)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第332页。
                          54(52)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第266页。
                          55(53)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第351页。
                          56(54)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第350页。
                          57(55)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第49页。
                          58(56)杨天才、张善文译注:《周易》,北京:中华书局,2011年,第623页。
                          59(57)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第171-172页。
                          60(58)习近平:《办公厅工作要做到“五个坚持”》,《秘书工作》2014年第6期。
                          61(59)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第172,54页。
                          62(60)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第17页。
                          63(61)朱熹:《四书章句集注》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第3页。
                          64(62)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第155页。
                          65(63)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第374页。
                          66(64)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第472页。
                          67(65)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第11页。
                          68(66)吴毓江:《墨子校注》,北京:中华书局,2006年,第11页。
                          69(67)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第430页。
                          70(68)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第32页。
                          71(69)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第474页。
                          72(70)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第165页。
                          73(71)朱谦之:《老子校释》,北京:中华书局,1984年,第261页。
                          74(72)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第338页。
                          75(73)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第950页。
                          76(74)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第924页。
                          77(75)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第2页。
                          78(76)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第554页。
                          79(77)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第342页。
                          80(78)王先谦:《韩非子集解》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第188页。
                          81(79)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第294页。
                          82(80)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第51页。
                          83(81)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第1006-1007页。
                          84(82)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第776页。
                          85(83)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第937页。
                          86(84)陈鼓应:《庄子今注今译》,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第339页。
                          87(85)王先谦:《荀子集解》,北京:中华书局,1988年,第27页。
                          88(86)中共中央纪律检查委员会,中共中央文献研究室编:《习近平关于党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争论述摘编》,北京:中央文献出版社、中国方正出版社,2015年,第17页。
                          89(87)杨丙安校理:《十一家注孙子校理》,北京:中华书局,1999年,第97页。
                          90(88)杨天才、张善文译注:《周易》,北京:中华书局,2011年,第365页。
                          91(89)杨丙安校理:《十一家注孙子校理》,北京:中华书局,1999年,第283-284页。
                          92(90)黎翔凤:《管子校注》,北京:中华书局,2004年,第1205页。
                          93(91)杨丙安校理:《十一家注孙子校理》,北京:中华书局,1999年,第227页。

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