牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                          2. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 文学论文 > 《沃伊采克》的政治、文化及哲学批判

                            《沃伊采克》的政治、文化及哲学批判

                            时间:2020-04-17 11:26作者:章文颖
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于《沃伊采克》的政治、文化及哲学批判的文章,《沃伊采克》是毕希纳最后一部、也是他“成就最高、影响最大”的作品。它酝酿了现代德语戏剧艺术风格的多种源头,批判精神是其突出的表征。正如毕希纳本人的个体存在是政治、哲学、科学、热血和诗情的结合一样,《沃

                              摘    要:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} 批判精神是毕希纳剧作《沃伊采克》最具代表性的一个现代艺术表征,但剧本结构的开放性和语义的复杂性决定其批判意蕴向多个维度延伸。该剧的社会政治批判是最显在的一个意义层面,它批判了社会对底层无产者无情的压迫。其次是内涵更广泛的社会文化批判,包括对“文明”社会人伦价值的深切怀疑和对现代精神病症问题的揭示。最终作者把观众引向了对生命意义、个体存在境遇的哲学批判。从当代在中外上演的三个剧场案例,可见其批判意蕴在剧场实践中的具体呈现。

                              关键词: 毕希纳; 沃伊采克; 批判精神; 剧场呈现;

                              Abstract: Büchner's critical spirit within Woyzeck is the most representative feature of it as a work of modern art,but the uncertainty of the text structure and the complexity of the semantics lead to multiple dimensions of its critical implications. Social and political criticism is the most obvious dimension of its significance,which shows the ruthless oppression of society on the underclass. A second dimension is a broader socio-cultural criticism,including doubts about the ethical value of a“civilized”society and the revelation of modern mental illness. The author finally leads the audience to a philosophical criticism on the significance of life and individual existence. With three theatre cases staged in contemporary China and Germany,this article also examines the specific presentations of its critical implications in theatre practice.

                              Keyword: Georg Büchner; Woyzeck; critical spirit; theatrical presentations;

                              《WOYICAIKE》SHIBIXINAZUIHOUYIBU1、YESHITA“CHENGJIUZUIGAO、YINGXIANGZUIDA”DEZUOPIN2。TAYUNNIANGLEXIANDAIDEYUXIJUYISHUFENGGEDEDUOZHONGYUANTOU,PIPANJINGSHENSHIQITUCHUDEBIAOZHENG。ZHENGRUBIXINABENRENDEGETICUNZAISHIZHENGZHI、ZHEXUE、KEXUE、REXUEHESHIQINGDEJIEHEYIYANG,《WOYICAIKE》DEPIPANYIYUNYESHIDUOWEIDE。ZUOJIADUITASUOZAISHIDAIDESHEHUI、WENHUA、GETISHENGCUN,YIJIRENLEIJIJIANGMIANLINDEKUNJINGHECONGWEIBAITUODEKUNANJINXINGLEZONGHEDEFANSI。BENWENSHICONGZHENGZHI、WENHUAHEZHEXUESANGECENGMIAN,JIEHEJUCHANGANLIJINXINGCHANSHI。

                              一、社会政治批判

                              社会政治批判是剧本最显在的一个意义层面,也是国内学术界比较主流的解读。3从情节主线来看,作者通过沃伊采克这个社会底层人物的悲剧命运,揭示了阶级社会中无产者所遭遇的贫困处境和残酷的不公。但沃伊采克作为该剧最主要的悲剧人物是一个杀人者而不是被杀者。所以,毕希纳在情节构思过程中有意突出了主角的杀人行为的被动性。在第一手稿中,沃伊采克就经常有一种幻觉,有人要他去杀人,暗示杀人者的杀人行为是受某种神秘力量驱使的,并不完全自主。4第二手稿中,践踏他人格的上尉和做人体实验的医生这两个施虐者角色的出现,使沃伊采克在精神和肉体上受到欺凌和压迫的事实有了更直接的原因和明确的表现,更加凸显了社会外因的影响,将悲剧的重心,从“杀人”转移到杀人者被各种社会力量以“合理”的方式虐待的过程上来。这样,杀人者成了被虐者,杀人行为成了悲剧性的反抗。于是,反抗压迫和剥削的社会批判主题就显现出来了。这种将犯罪的责任归咎于社会而非罪犯的做法,后来成为欧美批判现实主义的文学和戏剧作品中常见的模式,而毕希纳是欧洲戏剧史上较早提出这个批判视角的作家。
                             

                            《沃伊采克》的政治、文化及哲学批判
                             

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                              二、文化批判

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                              1.对“文明”社会人伦价值的深切怀疑

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                              YISHIXIANGYEHECHENGSHIDEDUILI。QUANJUCHANGJINGFASHENGDEKONGJIANFENWEIXIANGYEHECHENGSHILIANGLEI,WOYICAIKEZAIZHEILIANGLEIKONGJIANZHONGDEZHUANGTAIJIERANBUTONG。RUTAZAIKUANGYELIGEJINGTIAO,CHANSHENGHUANJUE,KANDAOYUANCHUCHENGSHILIYOUTIANHUOLEIDONGDESHIJIEMORIDEJINGXIANG;ERDANGTADUORUCONGLINSHI,SHIJIEYOUXIANRULESIJI18。“KUANGYE”XIANGZHENGZIRAN,“CHENGSHI”XIANGZHENGWENMINGSHEHUI,ANSHILECHENGSHIHEXIANGYESUODAIBIAODELIANGZHONGWENHUAXINGTAIDEJIANRUIDUILI。WOYICAIKECENGZAIKUANGYELIDONGNIANSHAREN,YESHIZAIYEWAISHAREN、QIDAODE19。CIWAIDECHANGJINGJIBENDOUFASHENGZAICHENGSHI。CHUZAIYEWAIDEWOYICAIKEYOULI、KANGFEN、SHENJINGZHI,TASUOJIANSUOGANSUOWEIDOUCHUYUNEIXINDEZIRANYIZHIDEQUSHI;ERCHENGSHIDECHANGJINGDOUZAIRENWEIDEWENMINGGUIFANXIAFASHENG,RENMENZUOZHEWULIAO、HUANGDAN、ZIYIWEISHIDEJUDONG,WOYICAIKEZEXIANDEMUNE、GUDU、RUANRUO、YAYI。XIANGYEHECHENGSHILIANGLEICHANGJINGZHONGRENWUNENGLIANGDEDUIBI,WEIZUOZHEJIESHIWENMINGDUIRENDEZIYOUBENXINGHESHENGMINGCHONGDONGDEYANGEZUOLEZHENGTIXINGDEHONGTUO。

                              ERSHIRENHEDONGWUDEDUIZHAO。BIXINAZAIJUZHONGQIAOMIAODISHEZHILEYIMINGYIANLIANGGEFANXIANGPINGXINGDEYIXIANG———DONGWUDERENHUAHERENDEDONGWUHUA。20RENHEDONGWUXIANGHUYINGSHE,YICILAIBIAOXIANWENMINGYUZIRANDEDUILIHECUOWEI。BIXINAYONGJIWEIFENGCIHEGUAIDANDESHOUFA,ZAIJUZHONGSHEJILELIANGCHANGZASHUAPENGDEXI,JIZHONGBIAOXIANLE“DONGWUDERENHUA”,YONGDONGWUDEXUNHUAFENGCIRENDEJIAOHUA,ZHIYILE“QIMENGZHUYI”SUOXUANYANGDELIXINGHEJIAOHUADEJIAZHI。21ZHAOLAIZHEXIANSHIXIANGWEIGUANDERENJIESHAOJIJIANGJINXINGZASHUAYANCHUDEMA、JINSIQUEHEHOUZIYOUXIANGRENYIYANGDEBENLING。TABUDUANDINAZHEIXIEDONGWUHERENLAIBIJIAO,SHUOTAMENJINGGUOJIAOYUHOUYOULEYONGYOU“QINSHOUDELIXING”(viehische Vernunft)HUO“LIZHIDESHOUXING”(vernünftige Viehigkeit),ZHEISHITAMENBUZAIXIANGDUOSHURENLEINEIYANGZHISHI“QINSHOUBANYUCHUNDEGETI”(viehdummes Individuum)。22ZHEIXIANRANSHIYONGDONGWULAIYINGSHERENLEIDEZIYIWEISHI。JIAOHUADERENLEIWUFEISHIZHANGWOLEYIXIEWULIAODEJINENG,TADEDONGWUXINGBENNENGBEIFUQIANDELIZHISUOBAOGUO,TADELIZHICONGWEITUOLIGUODONGWUDEBENXING。ZHAOLAIZHEYOUXIANGGUANZHONGJIESHAOYIPIJUYOU“SHUANGZHONGLIZHI”DEMA,TANENGTINGDONGRENHUA,YINERJIANJUDONGWUHERENDELIZHI,DANTAYOUBUNENGSHUOHUA,SHUOMINGLIZHIYOUXIAN,MEIYOUWANQUANBAITUODONGWUXING。TASHI“YIGESHOUXINGDEREN”,YOU“QUESHISHIYITOUCHUSHENG”23,ZHEIANYURENSHILIZHIHEZIRANDESHUANGZHONGJIEHETI,RENBUBIYINWEIJIAOHUAHUODEDENENGLIERZHANZHANZIXI。BIXINARENWEI,LIZHI“ZHISHIWOMENJINGSHENBENZHIDEYIGEJIXIAODECEMIAN,JIAOYUZHIBUGUOSHIZHEIZHONGBENZHIDEYIGEHENOURANDEXINGSHI”。24RUGUORENYINWEIZHEIYIXIAODIANJIAOHUADECHENGJIUJIUHUSHIZIRANBENXINGDEHUA,ZHIHUISHIZIJIDEZIRANBENXING“FUBAIBIANZHI”。25

                              RENDEDONGWUHUASHIXIANGDUIJIAOWEIYINBI,QUEGUANCHUANQUANJUDELINGYIGEZHONGYAOYIXIANG。BIXINAJIESHILEXIANDAISHEHUIZHONGRENLEIGEZHONGXINGTAIDEDONGWUHUA。ZUIMINGXIANDESHIWOYICAIKE,TADEDONGWUHUATONGGUOBEIQILINGHESHOUNVEDAILAITIXIAN:WEILEHUKOU,TAQUZUOBINGLISHIYANDUIXIANG,BEIJILU、BEIGUANCHA、BEICHUMO、BEIZHANSHI;TABEISHANGWEIRENYIQUSHI、WUMIE、CHAONONG,BEIGUSHOUZHANGRUMAOUDA。YISHENGMATASHI“CHUSHENG”,“ZAIXIANGLVZIGUODU”26,“XIANGYITIAOGOUYIYANG”SANIAO27,JIE“YISHENG”ZHIKOUBIXINAFANFUQIANGDIAOLEWOYICAIKEBEIDONGWUHUAZHEIYICHUMUJINGXINDESHISHI;MALIHEGUSHOUZHANGDAIBIAOLEBENNENGFANGZONGDEDONGWUHUA。MALIXIHUANKANNANREN,DUINANXINGQIANGZHUANGDESHENTIYOUQIANGLIEDEYUWANG28,DUIWUZHIDEYINYOUYEHAOWUDIKANGNENGLI。TONGYANG,GUSHOUZHANGYOUXIONGJIANDETIPOHEWANGSHENGDEHEERMENG,QUEMEIYOURENDEMEIDEHESHENDUSIKAODENENGLI。TAXUJIU、DIAOQING、DOUOU,XIHUANKANNVREN,ZHANYOUNVXINGDESHENTI。TAKANMALIDEYANSHENHONGDEXIANGZHIFAQINGDEHEIMAO。29TAMENXIANGLETANHUANDEBIAOXIANGZHIXIA,RANSHAODESHIDONGWUBANDEYUWANGHEBENNENG;“YISHENG”“JIAOSHOU”HEDAXUELIDEXUEZHETUANTIDAIBIAODESHIYIHUALEDELIZHIZHUYI。TAMENBEILIXINGYANGELEQINGGAN,BISHIRENDEZIRANBENXING,JIANGKEXUEZHISHIGUCHUIWEIRENLEISHEHUIWEIYIHEZUIGAOMUDE。ERTAMENSUOZUODEYANJIUQUEDOUWULIAOERHUANGDAN,HAOWURENDAODEJIAZHI。TAMENYIJINGBEIKEXUELIXINGGAIZAOCHENGLELENGXUEDEDONGWU。

                              ZAIZHEISANLEIRENZHONG,ZHIYOUWOYICAIKESHIPOYUSHENGJIBEIDONGDIBEIDONGWUHUADE,YEWEIYOUTADUIZIJIBEIDONGWUHUADEXIANSHIYOUQINGXINGDEYISHI。TASHUOCHUBINGTONG,JUJUEJIROUHUODONGBIAOYAN,TAZHENGBIANZIJIYOUSANIAODEQUANLI30。JINGUANWUXIAO,DANTAYOUWEIHURENGEZUNYAN、ZHENGQUZIRANQUANLIDEYISHI。HEJUYOU“SHUANGZHONGLIZHI”DEMAXIANGDUIYING,WOYICAIKENENGTIYANDAO“SHUANGZHONGZIRAN”31,YIZHONGSHIJINGYANXIANSHIDESHIJIE,LINGYIZHONGSHIBIAOXIANGBEIHOURUDIYUBANZHUOSHAODESHIJIEDEZHENXIANG32。JIUZHEIYIDIANLAISHUO,TASIHUYOUSHIQUANJUZHONGZUIWEIQINGXING、ZUIBUXIANGDONGWUDEREN。

                              SANSHIJIAOHUAYUWUZHI/YEMANDEDUIBI。ZHEIZUDUIBIZUOWEIYIDUIKEYIBIANZHENGZHUANHUADEYIYIJIEGOUGUANCHUANQUANJU。SHOUXIANSHIDUIZHISHIJIAOHUADEFENGCI。BIXINACENGSHUOZHEXUEYANJIULINGTABIANDEYUCHUN,RANGTA“YOUCONGYIGEXINDEFANGMIANRENSHILERENDEJINGSHENDEPINKUN”。33DANGRENBUZAISHIZHISHIDEMUDEERZHISHISHOUDUANDESHIHOU,ZHISHIJIUSHIQULEJIAZHI,CHENGWEILELIXINGYIHUADECHANWU。SUOYITASUZAOLE“JIAOSHOU”HE“YISHENG”ZHEILIANGGEZAIZIJIZHISHISHIJIELIZIQIQIRENDEJIAOSE;“SHANGWEI”DAIBIAODESHIDAODEJIAOHUADEWEISHAN。TAYIDAODEHEJIAOYANGZHIMINGDUIWOYICAIKERENYIZHIZHAI。TAQIANZEWOYICAIKEYINROUYUHEMALITONGJUSHENGZI,QUECHENGRENZIJIYEAIKANCHUANZHANGTONGWADENVRENBENGBENGTIAOTIAO34;TAFANFUFENGCIWOYICAIKESHIGE“HAOREN”,YICILAICIJIHOUZHEDEZIBEIXIN。TAHAIGUYITISHIWOYICAIKE,MALIHEBIERENYOURAN,KANWOYICAIKEBENGKUIDILIKAI,YOUGUAIDUIFANGMAOSHI。35“SHANGWEI”QISHISHIYONGSHENFENYOUSHIDIWEIDUIWOYICAIKEJINXINGCANKUDERENGEJIANTA。DANGDAODELIXINGCHENGWEIYIZHONGQIANGQUAN,SHIJISHANGYIJINGCONG“WENMING”DECHUZHONGZOUXIANGLE“YEMAN”;WOYICAIKEDAIBIAODESHI“WUZHI”DEDICENGPINMIN。TAMENYINWEIPINQIONGERMEINENGDUSHU、CHENGJIA,YEMEIYOUQUANLIWEIZIJIDEXINGWEIZHENGQUZHENGYIXING。RANERTAMENQUECHANGCHANGBINEIXIESHOUGUOJIAOYANGDERENGENGYOUXUEYOUROU,GENGQINGXINGDIKANQINGLESHIJIEDEZHENXIANG。WOYICAIKEJINGUANHUODEWONANG,DANTAWEILEMALIHEHAIZIGANYUANQUZUORENTISHIYAN;JINGUANJINGSHENSHICHANG,DANTAYOUMINRUIDEDONGCHALI。JUZHONGHAIYOUYIGESHENMIDESHAZI,ZAITAHANHUNDEHUAYUZHONG,JINGCHANGANSHIZHESHIQINGDEZHENXIANG。MALIBEISHAZHIQIAN,TAYUGANDAOMINGTIANTADEHAIZIHUILIUZAIZIJISHOUZHONG36;TAHAIZHIDAOWOYICAIKESHENSHANGDEXUEJISHISHARENSUOZHI37。TAZUIHOUSHOULIULEHAIZI,BINGANSHIWOYICAIKEZUIZHONGTOUSHUIZIJINDEJIEJU38。ZUOZHETONGGUOWOYICAIKEHESHAZIZHEILIANGGEJINGSHENSHICHANGDEWUZHIZHELAIDUIBISHOUZHISHIHEDAODEJIAOHUADELIZHIZHE,ZHIYILEJIAOHUASHIFOUZHENDENENGJIRENDAILAIZHIHUI、JINBUHEDAODEDEZHENGYI。

                              2.对现代人精神病症问题的揭示

                              LINGYIGECHENZHONGDEWENHUAPIPANZHUTISHIXIANDAIRENDEJINGSHENBINGZHENG。BIXINAMINRUIDIDONGCHADAOLEXIANDAISHEHUIRENMENNANYITAOTUODEBEIJINGSHENZHEMODEEYUN。39JUBENQUCAIYUSANQISHARENAN,TAMENDEGONGTONGZHICHUCHULESHARENFANDEPINMINSHENFENHEQINGSHADONGJIZHIWAI,TAMENDOUBEIHUAIYIJINGSHENYOUWENTI,DANZUIZHONGQUEBEIPANDINGWEIZHENGCHANGXINGWEIRENERHUOXING40。ZHEIXIESUCAIBEINONGSUODAOLEJUZHONGDEWOYICAIKESHENSHANG,JUBENZHANXIANLEJINGSHENCUOLUANZHENGSHITABEISHOUZHEMOZHIZHIZOUXIANGBENGKUIDEGUOCHENG。BIXINAZAOYUFULUOYIDEBANGESHIJI,CONGRENBENZHUYIDEJIAODULAIKANDAIJINGSHENBING。TAZHENQIEDIMIAOHUILEWOYICAIKEFUZADEXINLIGANSHOUHEKONGBUDEHUANJUE,ZHANXIANLEJINGSHENBINGRENGUAILIDEXINGWEIBEIHOUYINZANGDEFEILIXINGDESIWEI。

                              GENGSHENCENGDE,BIXINAFAXIANLEJINGSHENBINGWENTIZAIXIANDAIWENMINGSHEHUIZHONGRIYITUXIANDEMOUZHONGLISHIBIRANXING,CONGERSHIJINGSHENBINGCONGOUFADESHENGLIJIBINGSHANGSHENGWEIPUBIANDEXIANDAISHEHUIBINGZHENG。ZHEIQIAQIAHUYINGLEYIBAIDUONIANYIHOU,FUKEZAI《FENGDIANYUWENMING》ZHONGJIESHIDEJINGSHENBINGSHILIXINGSHEHUIWENMINGDELISHICHANWU,ERFEICHUNCUIDESHENGLIBINGBIANDEWENHUAPIPANSIXIANG。JUBENSHEZHILELIANGGEDUILIDESHIJIE:ZHONGRENDELIXINGSHIJIEHEWOYICAIKE/SHAZIYANZHONGDEFEILIXINGDESHIJIE。QIANZHESHISU、PINGYONG、MAMUWUQINGQUEXIANGYOUZHULIUDEDIWEI;HOUZHEYIYIZHONGGUAIDANDEFANGSHIXIANCHUGENGGAOJIDEZHIHUI,QUESHIZHONGSHOUDAOPAICHIHEFOUDING。ZHEILIANGGESHIJIEXIANGZHENGLEXIANDAISHEHUIZHONGLIXINGDUIFEILIXINGDESHULIHEYAZHI;FEILIXINGDUILIXINGDECHAOFENGHEFANKANG。XIANDAISHEHUIQIMENGLIXINGZHANJUJUEDUIYOUSHI,FEILIXINGBUZAIZUOWEILIXINGDEBANSHENGWU,ERSHIBEISHIWEIPOHUAIZHIXUDEDUILIWUZAODAOQISHIHEDAYA。RUFUKESUOSHUO,“LIXINGTONGGUOYICIYUXIANWEITAANPAIHAODEDUIKUANGBAODEFENGDIANDESHENGLI,SHIXINGZHEJUEDUIDETONGZHI”,ER“FENGDIANJIUBEICONGXIANGXIANGDEZIYOUWANGGUOZHONGQIANGXINGTUOCHU”。41

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YOUCI,JINGSHENBINGSHEJILEGENGWEIYINBIERQIANGDADELIXINGZHUYIZHIXIADESHEHUIQUANLIJIEGOU。WOYICAIKEDEBEIJUSHICONGTASUOZAIDEGAODULIXINGDESHEHUIBEIJINGZHONGBIRAN“SHENGCHENG”DE42:LIXINGZHIXUXIABUGONGPINGDESHEHUIDENGJIHEBOXUEZHIDUZAOCHENGTAZHANGQIPINQIONG;“YISHENG”YI“KEXUE”ZHIMINGYONGWANDOUSHIYANQINHAITADESHENGLIJIANKANG;“SHANGWEI”YONGDAODEDEMINGYIBIANDITADERENGE;YOUQIANYOUSHIDERENKEYIQINGYIDUOZOUTADEQINGREN;ZUIZHONGTAYISHARENDEFANGSHICHUISIYIBO。ZHEIQIZHONGHUANGDANDELUOJISHI:WUCHUBUZAIDELIXINGSHEHUIBIANZHIDEQUANLIMIWANG,JIANGRENYIBUBUBICHENGLEJINGSHENBING,ERTADEFENGDIANZAILIXINGSHEHUIZHONGYOUZAOYUDAOGENGDUODEPAICHIHEYAZHI,YIZHIZOUXIANGHUIMIEDEBAONVE。ZUIHOU,FENGZIHAIYAOBEILIXINGZUIGAODEBAOLIJIQI———FALV,DANGZUOLIXINGDERENBEIJIAOSHA!SHEHUIQUANLIJIEGOUYINCIMIANCHULEZIJIDEZUIZE,YIZHENGYIDEMINGYIXUANPANFENGRENYOUZUI,BABEIJUGUIYUOURAN,LIXINGDESHEHUIJIQIJIXUYUNZHUAN。

                              WENHUAPIPANDEYIYUNZHUYAOTONGGUOXIANGZHENG、YINYUHEKUAZHANGBIANXINGDESHOUFALAIBIAOXIAN,SUIBURUZHENGZHIPIPANNEIMEXIANJIANZHIBAI,QUEZAIQUANJUXINGCHENGLESHENSUIDEANSHIHEFENGCIDEGEDIAO,ZAIGUANZHONGXINZHONGZHUJIANFAJIAO。2018NIANSHANGHAIXIJUXUEYUANYAOQINGDEGUODAOYANYIWAN·PANTELIEFUZHIDAODEBIAOYANXIBIYEJUMU《WOYICAIKE》YONGZHONGGUOHUADEXIJUYUHUIJIAOQUANMIANDISHIXIANLEYUANZUODEJINGSHEN,WENHUAPIPANDEYIYUNBIAODADEFEICHANGQINGXI。43GAIJUGUANCHUANLE“JIANLI”SHOUFA,BANGZHUGUANZHONGTIAOTUOCHENNIDEQINGXU,BAOCHISIKAODETOUNAO:WUCHANGCIYANCHUDEGUOCHENGZHONG,SUOYOUHOUCHANGDEYANYUANQUANDOUZUOZAIWUTAISHENCHUDEYIZISHANG,ZAIGUANZHONGYANQIANWANCHENGHUANZHUANGHEHUANCHANG;DUANLUOZHIJIANBUSHIHUIYOUYIGENVSHENGSHANGTAILAIJIXINGYANCHANGYIDUANYINGWENGE,RANHOUYOUBEITAIXIATAI。DAJUCHANGDEWUTAISHEJIJIANJIE,CUZHUO,CHONGMANXIANSHIGAN。DAOYANBASHANGHAIJUMINLOUXIUSHANYONGDEJIAOSHOUJIABANSHANGLEWUTAI,BAKONGJIANFENCHENGLESANCENG,BINGPEIYISHIDUOGEPOSUDEWUTAICHANGGUIDENG。CHONGCHIZHENGGEWUTAIDEJIAOSHOUJIAJIXIANGZHENGLEXIACENGLAODONGZHEDESHENGCUNKONGJIAN,YEXIANGZHENGZHEMIWANGBANDESHEHUIQUANLIDEKONGZHI,DANCHENGSHI/XIANGYEDEKONGJIANZHUANHUABIAOXIANLIJIANRUO,YINERYEMEIYOUBIAOXIANCHUWOYICAIKEZAILIANGZHONGKONGJIANZHONGDEBUTONGDESHENGMINGZHUANGTAI。

                              WOYICAIKEDENGRENDEZHIYEYECONG19SHIJIDESHIBINGZHUANHUANWEIDANGDAICHENGSHIDEJIANZHUGONGREN。DAOYANBA“YISHENG”HE“JIAOSHOU”DEJIAOSEHEBING,“YISHENG”SHIYIGECHENGTIANTAZHEHUANGDATOUTUOXIE,CHUANZHELANYUNDONGKUHEHUISEYANGMAOKAISHAN,TINGZHEPIJIUDU,BAOZHESHUODADEWANDOUGUANZIDEGUAILAOTOU;SHANGWEIZESHIYIGECHUANZHEHOUMIANGEZISHUIYIHEBUTUOXIE,JIAOQINGERYOUYUDEZHANGZHE。ZHEIXIANRANSHIDUIZHISHIJIAOHUAQUNTIDEXINLAFENGCI。WOYICAIKEDEAJIAOHEBJIAOLUNHUANSHIYAN“SHAZI”,JIAZHONGLE“SHAZI”DEXIFEN,TAJINGCHANGANJINGDIZAITAISHANGXINGDONGZHE,XIANGSHIYIGEPANGGUANZHE,JIANHUOGENQITARENYOUYIXIEDONGZUOSHANGDEJIAOLIU。TADUIMALIHAO,BANGTABAOHAIZI,JINGJINGDITINGBAIYINVJIANGHEISETONGHUA,QITUZUZHIMALIZUIHOUYICIGENWOYICAIKECHUQU,BANGMALIDESHITIGAISHANGTANZI。KEJIANDAOYANBA“SHAZI”ZUOWEIWOYICAIKEDEYINGZI,RANGTAMIBUWOYICAIKEWEINENGSHIXIANDEWENQINGHESHANYI。TONGSHIJIANGLIANGGEFENGRENNINGJUCHENGYILEIFEILIXINGDEJIAOSEFUHAO,ZHIYILIZHIZHUYIDEQUANWEI,ZHEIYUJUBENDEPIPANYIYUNXIANGWENHE。

                              ZASHUATUANDEQINGJIEBIAOXIANDEYOUWEIZHUMU:SHIYANZHAOLAIZHEDENANYANYUANCHUANZHEDUANKUSIWAHEFENSEGAOGENXIE,PIYIJIANBAOLANSEDEDUANLIFU,MIANDUIGUANZHONGSHUOHUA,YUQIKUAZHANGXUANMIAO,XUANBUZHEISHIYIGE“SHAZIMENDESHIJIE、MEILIDESHIJIE”44,RANGFENGCIDEMUDEGENGMINGXIAN。JINSIQUEHEHOUZIDOUSHIZHENRENBANYANDE,YOUQIQIAOMIAODESHIHOUZI(SHIJIBANXIANGSHIYUANREN)ZHAILETOUTAOHOUJIUSHIGUSHOUZHANG,ZHIJIEPIZHEYUANDESHOUPIHECHUANZHEBAOWENLIANYIQUNDEMALIDIAOQINGZUOAI,QIANGHUADONGWUXINGDEROUYU,BIAODALERENDEDONGWUHUADEPIPANZHUTI。DANWOYICAIKEYISHOUYAPOZHEHEJUEXINGZHEDEXINGXIANGCHUXIAN,JIAOSHAOBIAOXIANJINGSHENBINGZHENG,YINERYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGXUERUOLERENWUDEBIAOXIANLI,YEMEIYOUBIAODACHUJINGSHENBINGDEWENHUAPIPANWENTI,ERSHIBAPIPANDEHUOLIJIZHONGDAOSHEHUIWENTISHANG。TAYISHENSONGKUADEHEIXIZHUANGJIAPIXIE,LENGJINGGUDU,SHUOHUAHUANMANWULI,JINGCHANGZAIJIAOSHOUJIADESHANGCENGPANGGUANQITARENDEYANXING,ZHIDAOSHAMALIDESHIHOUCAIYOUJIEZHIDIBAOFAJIQING。TAZUIHOUXIANGZHONGRENFAWEN:“NIMENJUEDEWOSHIYIGESHARENFANMA?QIAOQIAONIMENZIJIBA!”YANRANZHANZAIPIPANZHEDELICHANG,YAOQIUGUANZHONGZHONGSHENXIONGAN,FANSISHEHUIHEWENMINGDEZUIQIAN。“SHAZI”TIHUANJUBENZHONGFAYUANPUYIDEJIAOSE,ZAIJUMOZANTANZHEISHIYICHANGHENJIUDOUMEIYOUYUDAOGUODEZHENZHENGDE、PIAOLIANGDEMOUSHA,ZAIPEIHEYIGELENGKUDEMOBOZIDEDONGZUO。ZHICIANCHANG,QUANJUJIARANERZHI,LIUJIGUANZHONGNINGZHONGDEFANSIYUYUN。

                              三、哲学批判

                              JUBENDELISANXINGJIEGOUCUSHIRENMEN“CONGTAZIJIDEXINLINGGANSHOUZHONGNACHUDONGXILAITIANJIADAOZHEIBUJUZHONG,TONGSHIJIANGXIANGXIANGLIDEXUEYEHETAZIJIDEQINSHENJINGLIHUNHEQILAI”45,ZUIZHONGYINXIANGLEDUISHENGMINGHECUNZAIDEZHEXUESIKAO。

                              BIXINAWEIWOMENZHANXIANLEYIFURENYURENZHIJIANCUNZAIZHISHULIDEHUANGLIANGTUJING。WOYICAIKEWULUNZAISHENMECHANGHE,HERENHERENDOUBUNENGZHENZHENGDIGOUTONG。“YISHENG”CONGBUZAIHUTADEBINGTONG,SHENZHIGANDAOXINGFEN;“SHANGWEI”XIANGSHOUZHEWOYICAIKEWEITAXIUMIANDEFUWU,QUEZAITANLUNZHESHIJIANHETIANQI,DUITAJINXINGDAODEZHIZE;ANDELIESISHIWOYICAIKEZUIQINJINDEZHANYOU,JUZHONGYOUWUCHANGXISHITAMENLIANGRENDANDUZAIYIQIDE,DANSHIMEIYOUYICIDUIHUASHIZHENZHENGDEGOUTONG;WOYICAIKEHEMALIZHIJIANDEDUIHUACONGLAIMEIYOUQINGGANDEJIAOLIU,SHENZHIHAIYAOGEZHECHUANGJIANGHUA46。WOYICAIKEZAIGONGZHONGCHANGHEZONGSHIHEDAJIAGEGEBURU,ZHONGRENXUANNAOKUANGHUAN,ERTAZECHENJINZAIZIJIHUANJUEHEXIANSHIJIAOZHIDETONGKUZHIZHONG。JUZHONGQITAJIAOSEZHIJIANYEPUBIANCUNZAIZHELENGMODESHULI:MALIHENVLINJUMAGELITEZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZHOUMA,“YISHENG”HE“SHANGWEI”ZHIJIANDEXIANGHUCHAOFENG,MALIHEGUSHOUZHANGZHIJIANRUYESHOUBANZHENGFUYUBEIZHENGFUDEQINGYUDEXUANXIE……YINWEIYAOBIAOXIANZHEIZHONGRENJIJIANDEJIAOLIUZHANGAI,JUZHONGRENWUDETAICIXIANCHUYIZHONGTEYOUDESHENGSEGAN,XINGCHENGLEQUANJUDEHUANGDANYIJING,BUZHIBUJUEBAGUANZHONGDAIRULESHENGZHIGUDUDETIYANZHIZHONG。HUOXUBIXINA“BINGBUSHIZAIXIANGWOMENZHANSHIYIGESHEHUIDELIQUNZHERUHEZIRANZHUYIDI、ZHUJIANBEISHULIDEGUOCHENG,ERSHIQIFAWOMENJINRUSHENCHUSHULIDEGANJUE”。47ZHEIZHONGSHULIGANSHIDUIXIANDAISHEHUIRENDEGULIZHUANGTAIDEJIESHI。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XIANDAIRENYUANZIHUASHENGCUNZHUANGTAIGENYUANYUSHENGMINGZHONGJIJIAZHIDESHILUODAOZHIDESHENGMINGYIYIDEXUWUHUA。DANGXINGERSHANGXUEZAI“JIAOSHOU”KOUZHONGCHENGLEBUMINGSUOYIDEKONGDONGGAINIANSHI,YIWEIZHECHAOYUEXINGDELIXINGBENTISUOYINDAODECHONGGAOLIXIANGDESHUAILUO48;DANGWOYICAIKEYAOBA“YIGENXIEZIXIEDAOTIANSHANGQU”BARENDIAOSIDESHIHOU,SHANGDIXINYANGKAISHIDONGYAO49。MEIYOULEZHONGJIDEJIAZHIYIKAO,RENSHENGDEYIYIBIRANZOUXIANGXUWU。SHANGWEIGUAHUZISHI,ZONGYAOWOYICAIKEDONGZUOMANYIDIAN,YINWEITAHUANGKONGGUAWANHUZIZHIHOUYAOZUOSHENME。TABANGWOYICAIKEJISUANSHENGXIADESANSHINIANSHENGMINGGAIZENMEXIAOMOGUOQU,JUEDE“YONGYUAN”HE“SHUNJIAN”SHITONGYICI。TAHAIPAXIANGDAODIQIUHEMOFANGSHUICHEZHOUERFUSHIDIZHUANDONG,YINWEIZHEISHITULAOWUGONGDERENSHENGXIANGZHENG。YINCI,TAZONGSHIYAOBIERENMANXIALAI、ANJINGXIALAI,LAISHIYINGZHEIWULIAODEJIEZOU。50

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                              注释

                              1毕希纳在去世前都未完成《沃伊采克》的定稿,原作的手稿是零乱的,德文原着在出版的过程中一百多年来出现了顺序不一的多种版本,本文所依据的完整的德文文本是由维尔纳·R·雷曼(Werner R.Lehmann)1971年整理定稿、被收录在《毕希纳作品和书信集》中的版本(Büchner,Georg.Werke und Briefe.Münchner Ausgabe(München:Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH&Co.KG.,1988),),中文文本参考了李士勋在《毕希纳全集》中的译本(毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,李士勋、傅惟慈译,北京:人民文学出版社,2008年)。另外,毕希纳在1836年11月的时候,可能还开始创作了另一个名叫《彼得·阿莱蒂诺》(Pietro Aretino)的剧本,但文稿不存。参见毕希纳年表(Büchner,Georg.Werke und Briefe.Münchner Ausgabe(München:Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH&Co.KG.,1988),411.)。
                              2范大灿主编:《德国文学史(第3卷)》,南京:译林出版社,2007年,第340-341页。
                              3如刘明厚:《沃伊采克:一个小人物的悲剧---毕希纳戏剧〈沃伊采克〉评析》,《云南艺术学院学报》,2011年第2期;陈莱:《论毕希纳〈沃伊采克〉中的社会批判主题》,《华章》,2013年第2期;刘耀中:《以社会戏剧论析〈沃伊采克〉》,《台艺戏剧学刊》,2010年第5期,这些文章都把剧本最核心的批判主题解读为沃伊采克作为无产阶级小人物之受难和受压迫。
                              4在毕希纳第一手稿中,沃伊采克这个人物叫路易斯(Louis),第二稿以后才开始更名为沃伊采克。
                              51830年法国七月革命后,德国多地爆发了以学生、工人和资产阶级为主的革命。但是,革命遭到了奥地利和普鲁士的严厉镇压,1833年人民攻占法兰克福新闻总署的起义行动失败,大批民主民族人士被捕或流亡海外,革命遭受重创。毕希纳本人也因写作《黑森快报》被通缉,1835年3月出逃法国。
                              6(1)“青年德意志派”是19世纪30年代在法国七月革命影响下德国出现的一批激进的民主革命派作家,主张用文艺作品宣传政治、表达社会改革和自由的思想。
                              7(2)以上毕希纳对民主革命的观点可参阅毕希纳在1836年和1835年写给青年德意志派作家兼出版人卡尔·古茨科(Karl Gutzkow)的两封信。(见毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,李士勋、傅惟慈译,北京:人民文学出版社,2008年,第329、359页。)
                              8(3)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,李士勋、傅惟慈译,北京:人民文学出版社,2008年,第205-206页。
                              9(4)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第203页。
                              10(5)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第359页。
                              11(1)Günter Oesterle,Das Komischwerden der Philosophie in der Poesie:Literatur-,philosophie-und gesellschaftsgeschichtliche Konsequenzen der“voie physiologique”in Georg Büchners Woyzeck.in Gersch/Mayer/Oesterle u.a(Hrsg.).Georg-BüchnerJahrbuch Band 3(1983)(Frankfurt:Europische Verlagsanstalt,1984),201.
                              12(2)很遗憾,笔者未能找到该剧演出的公开视频资料,本段内容是根据当年的剧评和演出剧照还原而成的。
                              13(3)晓属:《激情永驻---关于〈放下你的鞭子/沃伊采克〉》,《文化月刊》,1995年第8期。
                              14(4)叶廷芳:《〈沃伊采克〉又一景──布、孟合导的〈放下你的鞭子──沃伊采克〉观后》,《中国戏剧》,1995年第8期。
                              15(5)冼济华:《话说郭涛》,《中国戏剧》,1995年第9期。
                              16(6)晓属:《激情永驻---关于〈放下你的鞭子/沃伊采克〉》。
                              17(7)晓属:《激情永驻---关于〈放下你的鞭子/沃伊采克〉》。
                              18(1)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第195页。
                              19(2)据案件卷宗记载,真实的沃伊采克是在他情妇家的门厅(Hausflur)杀的人,并且很快就被捕了。(See Büchner,Georg.Werke und Briefe.Münchner Ausgabe(München:Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH&Co.KG.,1988),601.)可见毕希纳把杀人和毁灭证据的场景设置在野外是有意改动的结果。
                              20(3)学者张舒将这一现象称为“动物向人升格”和“人向动物降格”(参见张舒:《毕希纳戏剧作品〈沃伊采克〉中人的动物化与降格》,《德语人文研究》,2016年第2期)。但笔者认为“升格”和“降格”一说预设了人类文明的优先地位,与毕希纳在剧中要表现的对现代文明教化的人道主义价值的反思的意图不太吻合,故采用了较为客观的表述,即“人化”和“动物化”。
                              21(4)毕希纳非常看重这两场戏,在原作第一手稿中,这两场戏就是最开头的两场,略作删改后一直保留到了最后的出版稿。(See Büchner,Georg.Werke und Briefe.Münchner Ausgabe(München:Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH&Co.KG,1988),199-200.)
                              22(5)毕希纳非常看重这两场戏,在原作第一手稿中,这两场戏就是最开头的两场,略作删改后一直保留到了最后的出版稿。(See Büchner,Georg.Werke und Briefe.Münchner Ausgabe(München:Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH&Co.KG,1988),237。
                              23(1)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第201-202页。
                              24(2)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第306页。
                              25(3)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第202页。
                              26(4)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第205页。
                              27(5)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第212页
                              28(6)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第196页。
                              29(7)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第200页。
                              30(8)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第212页。
                              31(9)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第213页。
                              32(10)在剧中沃伊采克多次在幻觉中看到世界在如地狱般熊熊燃烧的大火里燃烧。(同上,第195、213、217页。)
                              33(1)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第347页。
                              34(2)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第210页。
                              35(3)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第214-218页。
                              36(4)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第227页。
                              37(5)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第234页。
                              38(6)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第236页。
                              39(7)毕希纳在之前的一部中篇小说《棱茨》中就开始关注精神病问题。小说主人公棱茨是“狂飙突进”时代的东欧诗人,因情感受挫而精神错乱,小说描写的就是棱茨在欧柏林牧师家养病期间的经历,细腻地描写了棱茨受精神病困扰的惶惑而痛苦的心理状态。
                              40(8)Hans-Georg Schede,Georg Büchner:Woyzeck:Reclam Lektüreschlüssel(Stuttgart:Philipp Reclam jun.GmbH&Co.KG,2006),7-8.
                              41(1)(法)福柯:《疯癫与文明:理性时代的疯癫史》,刘北成、杨远婴译,北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2003,第57页。
                              42(2)Alfons Glück,Woyzeck:Ein Mensch als Objekt.In Philip Reclam(Hrsg.).Georg Büchner.Dantos Tod,Lenz,Leonce und Lena,Woyzeck.(Stuttgart:Philipp Reclam jun.GmbH&Co.KG.,1990),182.
                              43(3)该剧的公演实况可参看上海戏剧学院录制的演出视频或参见郝思一:《上海戏剧学院2015级表演系、舞美系毕业剧目〈沃伊采克〉剧照》,《戏剧艺术》,2019年第1期。
                              44(1)这句话剧本中为沃伊采克在杂耍篷旁观众人跳舞时所说。德文原版中并不确定台词为“傻子们的世界”,因为手稿里“世界”前面的形容词难以辨认,中文版根据德语学界的在上世纪80、90年代的研究成果,补上了“傻子们的”一词。(见毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,李士勋、傅惟慈译,北京:人民文学出版社,2008年,第199页。)
                              45(2)转引自Julian Hilton,Georg Büchner(London and Basingstoke:The Macmillan Press LTD,1982),132.
                              46(1)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第197页。
                              47(2)Hilton,Georg Büchner,122.
                              48(3)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第203页。
                              49(4)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第218页。
                              50(5)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第208-210页。
                              51(6)沃伊采克说究竟“不是对不起是”还是“是对不起不是”。(同上,第218页)。
                              52(1)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第219,237页。
                              53(2)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第235页。
                              54(3)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第227-228页。
                              55(4)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第236页
                              56(5)(德)毕希纳:《毕希纳全集》,第230-231页。
                              57(6)刘明厚:《沃伊采克:一个小人物的悲剧---毕希纳戏剧〈沃伊采克〉评析》。
                              58(7)李琦:《浅析毕希纳的宿命论观》,上海外国语大学硕士学位论文,2012年。
                              59(8)高鸽:《上戏版〈沃伊采克〉:哲学性文本的中国化阐述》,《上海艺术评论》,2019年第1期。
                              60(1)高鸽:《上戏版〈沃伊采克〉:哲学性文本的中国化阐述》。
                              61(2)完整演出视频参见:https://www.bilibili.com/video/av32628199?from=search&seid=110408714.
                              62(3)德国当代戏剧导演乌尔里希·拉什(Ulrich Rasche),他的作品向来以宏大的舞美设计和朗诵诗形式着称,他2016年导演的席勒《强盗》(Die Ruber)也运用了齿轮和滚动带的设计,同样是朗诵剧的形式。完整视频见:https://www.bilibili.com/video/av20647248?from=search&seid=5855432207640817337.

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