牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

    1. <form id='kvty5'></form>
        <bdo id='kvty5'><sup id='kvty5'><div id='kvty5'><bdo id='kvty5'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

          • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 英语论文 > 美剧《破产姐妹》中的玩笑式侮辱分析

            美剧《破产姐妹》中的玩笑式侮辱分析

            时间:2019-01-15 10:02作者:张国 闫赛雪
            本文导读:这是一篇关于美剧《破产姐妹》中的玩笑式侮辱分析的文章,礼貌是语用学研究领域的重点现象,诸多学者围绕面子、礼貌策略、不礼貌现象等研究问题展开讨论。礼貌不仅是一个语用现象,也是一种交际策略,可以减轻听话者的面子威胁,有利于构建、维持良好的人际关系。

              摘    要:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} 国内外有关(不)礼貌及其策略的研究成果丰硕,但虚假不礼貌及其各种实践活动的研究仍需不断深入。本文结合前人研究成果与《破产姐妹》的语料,从触发机制、构建机制、回应机制三个维度分析了玩笑式侮辱这种虚假不礼貌实践活动的语用机制及动态建构,并尝试从以下两个方面来探讨玩笑式侮辱这种实践活动引起虚假不礼貌评价的原因:一是“不要太把自己当回事”的价值观;二是面子威胁的权重小。

              关键词: 牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}虚假不礼貌; 玩笑式侮辱; 触发机制; 构建机制; 回应机制;

              Abstract: 牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}The exploration of mock impoliteness and its practical interactions still needs to be carried out, fruitful as the study on(im)politeness and strategies is both at home and abroad. Combining previous studies with the data from 2 Broke Girls, an American popular sitcom, this paper analyzes the pragmatic mechanism and dynamic construction of jocular abuse, one of practical interactions of mock impoliteness. Specifically speaking, this paper mainly discusses how the recipient occasions jocular abuse, how the initiator frames the jocular utterance and how the recipient responds to the utterance. Finally, the paper aims to explain the reason why jocular abuse can occasion the evaluation of mock impoliteness:(1) a shared ethos that places value on "not taking yourself too seriously";(2) the overall weightiness of the FTA is low.

              Keyword:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} mock impoliteness; jocular abuse; occasioning; framing; response;

              LIMAOSHIYUYONGXUEYANJIULINGYUDEZHONGDIANXIANXIANG,ZHUDUOXUEZHEWEIRAOMIANZI、LIMAOCELVE、BULIMAOXIANXIANGDENGYANJIUWENTIZHANKAITAOLUN。[1][2[3][4][5]LIMAOBUJINSHIYIGEYUYONGXIANXIANG,YESHIYIZHONGJIAOJICELVE,[3][4]KEYIJIANQINGTINGHUAZHEDEMIANZIWEIXIE,YOULIYUGOUJIAN、WEICHILIANGHAODERENJIGUANXI。XIANGYINGDI,CulpeperZHICHUBULIMAOYEYOUQICELVEXINGSHI(BIRUJINJIYUDESHIYONG),[5]BINGGUINACHUBULIMAODEGUIYUEHUABIAODASHI。[6]CulpeperZHUYAOSHICONGZHENSHIBULIMAODEJIAODUJINXINGCHANSHU,DANSHIZAIJIAOJIGUOCHENGZHONG,QINREN、PENGYOU、TONGXUEDENGZHIJIANKAIWANXIAO、QUXIAO、DIAOKANDENG“BULIMAO”XINGWEIYEHUICUJINSHUANGFANGDEQINMIGUANXI。ZHEIZHONGBULIMAOXINGWEIXIANRANBUSHIZHENSHIBULIMAO,ERSHI“JIANLI、WEICHIQINMIGUANXIDEYIZHONGBUGOULIMAOHUOQUEFALIMAODEXINGSHI”。[3](P144)YOUCI,“XUJIABULIMAO”DEGAINIANYINGYUNERSHENG。

              ZUOWEIYIZHONG“BIAOMIANSHANGDEBULIMAO”,[5][7]XUJIABULIMAOYOUDUOZHONGSHIXIANFANGSHI,WANXIAOSHIWURUBIANSHIQIZHONGZHIYI。BENWENYI《POCHANJIEMEI》WEIWENBENYULIAO,CONGWANXIAOSHIWURUDECHUFA、XINGCHENGYUHUIYINGSANGEJIAODULAIFENXIYULIAOZHONGYOUGUANWANXIAOSHIWURUDEHUIHUAHUODONG。

              一、虚假不礼貌与玩笑式侮辱

              Leech最早称调侃(banter)为“虚假不礼貌”,[3]这些表面上的假话、不礼貌言语是一种表现友好的冒犯方式,有利于会话者之间的亲密关系。受到Leech及其调侃原则的影响,Culpeper认为虚假不礼貌等同于调侃,两者都是表面上的不礼貌,而非为了引起冒犯。[5](P352)经过改进后,Culpeper将虚假不礼貌定义为参与者的一种理解,而真实不礼貌的语境条件则不会产生这样的理解。[8](P208)上述学者对虚假不礼貌的研究都是在(不)礼貌的框架下进行的,Haugh & Bousfield认为虚假不礼貌本质上是既不属于礼貌的一种形式,也不属于不礼貌的一种形式,应该被单独分析。[9]他们将虚假不礼貌定义为“对言行的评价”,是一种“无关不礼貌”的概念。[9](P1103)
             

            美剧《破产姐妹》中的玩笑式侮辱分析
             

              XUJIABULIMAODEBIAOXIANXINGSHIKEYIYOUDUOZHONGHUDONGSHIJIAN,LIRUYOUMO、[10][11][12]QUXIAO、[13][14][15][16]WANXIAOSHIDIAOKANDENG,[9][17][18]BENWENSUOYANJIUDEWANXIAOSHIWURUYESHIQIZHONGYIZHONG。[9][12][19]HayJIANGWANXIAOSHIWURUDINGYIWEISHUOHUAZHEWANXIAOSHIDIWURUQIZHONGYIWEITINGHUAZHE,DANRUGUOWURUDESHIBUZAICHANGDEDISANFANG,NEIMEJISHISHIYIWANXIAOSHIDEFANGSHI,YESHIZHENZHENGDEWURU。[12](P20)Haugh & BousfieldRENWEIWANXIAOSHIWURUZHEIZHONGHUDONGSHIJIANSHIWURUDEYIZHONGTESHUXINGSHI,SHUOHUAZHEZAIYIZHONGFEIYANSU、WANXIAOSHIDEKUANGJIAZHONG,YONGYIXIEMAOFANXINGDEBIAODAFANGSHIJIANGCHENGSHOUZHEGUIWEIMOUYILEIREN,HUOZHEFUYUCHENGSHOUZHEMOUZHONGFUMIANSHUXING。[9](P1108)

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   WANXIAOSHIWURUDEYANJIUCHENGGUOZHUYAOTIXIANZAIDUIQIGAINIANLILUNDEYANJIUSHANG。[9][12]Haugh & BousfieldJIANGWANXIAOSHIDIAOKANYUWANXIAOSHIWURUJINXINGLEMINGQUEQUFEN,BINGZHICHUWANXIAOSHIHUAYUDESANGEFENXIWEIDU。[9]DANSHITAMENCONGZHEISANGEFENXIWEIDUDUIQIANZHEZHANKAIXIANGXISHUOMING,DUIWANXIAOSHIWURUQUEYIDAIERGUO。YINCI,BENWENJIEHETAMENSUOTICHUDEFENXIWEIDU,CHANGSHIZHEDUIWANXIAOSHIWURUDEFENXIJIZHIZHANKAISHUOMING。

              二、语料分析

              BENWENXUANYONGDEYULIAOWEIMEIJU《POCHANJIEMEI》DIYIJI。ANZHAOYANGEDESHAIXUANBIAOZHUN,WOMENTICHULEWUXIAODEDUIHUABUFEN,ZAIJUBUXUGUANYUJINGZHONGZHIXUANYONGMANZUWANXIAOSHIWURUDEDUIHUAZUCHENGBENWENYULIAO。《POCHANJIEMEI》SHIYIBUQINGJINGXIJU,DUSHEYOUMODEMaxYULEGUANXIANGSHANGDECarolineSHIYIDUIDAGONGJIEMEIHUA,ZAISHENCAIAIXIAODEHanSUOJINGYINGDECANTINGZUOFUWUYUAN,FENGQUDEHEIRENLAOTOUEarlSHIGAICANTINGDESHOUYINYUAN,OlegSHIGAICANTINGDECHUSHI,SophieSHIZHEIDUIJIEMEIHUADELINJU,TONGSHIYESHIOlegDEZHUIQIUDUIXIANG,JohnnySHIYUMaxHUSHENGAIYIDEJIETOUYISHUJIA。

              (一)选用《破产姐妹》作为分析语料的原因

              BENWENXUANYONG《POCHANJIEMEI》DIYIJI(YOU23JIZUCHENG)ZUOWEIYANJIUYULIAO,CONGZHONGSHAIXUANCHU181GEJUBUXUGUANYUJINGZUOWEIYANJIUYULIAO。SUOYOUSHIPINZILIAOJUNLAIZITENGXUNSHIPINPINGTAI。《POCHANJIEMEI》DIYIJIZAIGAISHIPINPINGTAIDEPINGFENWEI9.3FEN。JIANGGAIJUXUANWEIBENWENYANJIUYULIAODEYUANYINRUXIA:

              SHOUXIAN,YUYINYUNLVYUBIAOQINGDONGZUOZAIXUJIABULIMAODEGANZHIPINGJIAZHONGQIZHEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。[20]YINGSHIHUAZUOPINNENGGOUTIGONGHUIHUAHUODONGSUOFASHENGDEQINGJINGYUJING,BIANYUFENXIZHETONGGUOHUIHUAZHEDEYUYINYUDIAO、BIAOQINGDONGZUODENGDUIXUJIABULIMAOFANCHOUXIADEWANXIAOSHIWURUJINXINGPANDING。

              QICI,WANXIAOSHIWURUGENGCHANGJIANYUPENGYOU、QINREN、JIARENDENGGUANXIQINMIDERENQUNZHONG。[9]《POCHANJIEMEI》JIANGSHUDESHIDOUSHINIANQINGRENDEYOUQING、AIQINGHEGONGZUOJINGLI,TAMENBICIZHIJIANDEGUANXIJIAOWEIQINMI,SUOYIGAIJUZHONGFASHENGZAIPENGYOUJIANDEHUDONGDUIHUAWEIBENYANJIUTIGONGLEDALIANGDEKEYONGYULIAO。

              (二)语料收集

              BENYANJIUSUOCAIYONGDEYULIAOZHUYAOSHIDIYIJI(GONG23JI)SUOCHUXIANDE181GEDUIHUABUFEN。ZAISHOUJIGUOCHENGZHONG,BIZHEJILINGWAILIANGMINGYOUZHEYUYONGXUEZHISHIBEIJINGDEXIEZHUZHEYANGEANZHAOHaugh & BousfieldSUOJIDE“WANXIAOSHIWURU”DINGYIJINXINGFANFUSHAICHA,[9]BINGQIECANKAOLEChenSUOLIECHUDEWANXIAOSHIWURUDEWUTIAOKEFENBIANTEZHENG,[19]CONGERBAOZHENGYULIAODEKEXINDU。

              三、玩笑式侮辱分析维度

              WEILEQUEDINGCANYUZHEZHIJIANDEDUIHUASHIWANXIAOSHIDE,SHUOHUAZHEDUIWANXIAOHUAYUDEGOUJIANFANGSHIJICHENGSHOUZHE(MUBIAOZHEJIQITACANYUZHE)DEHUIYINGJUYOUGUANJIANZUOYONG。[18]HaughZHICHULESANGEXIANGHULIANXIDEFENXIWEIDU,LAIQUEDINGCIZHONGWURU、DIAOKANDENGHUDONGSHIJIANSHIZAIXUJIASHI、WANXIAOSHIDEKUANGJIAZHIXIAJINXINGFENXIDE,ERBUSHIGONGJIXINGDE。[18]BIZHEJIEHEJUTIYULIAO,YICIZHANKAITAOLUN。

              (一)玩笑式侮辱的触发机制

              WANXIAOSHIWURUTONGCHANGSHIDUICHENGSHOUZHESHANGYIGEYUBUSUOZUOCHUDEHUIYING,[16]QIZHONGDECHUFAYINSUBAOKUOCHENGSHOUZHEBAOYUAN、ZANMEI、CHUIXUDENGGUOFENQIANGDIAOHUOKUAZHANGDEXINGWEI;KOUWUHUOQIYI;MIANZIWENTIDENG。[18](P2108)JIEHEBENWENYULIAO,WOMENFENBIEJULISHUOMING:

              1、过分强调或夸张

              TINGHUARENDUICHENGSHOUZHEJINXINGWANXIAOSHIWURUKENENGSHIDUIQIBAOYUAN、CHUIXUDENGGUOFENQIANGDIAOHUOKUAZHANGYUJUDEHUIYING,RUXIALISUOSHI。

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   (1) Caroline: … What’s the interest rate on your credit card?

              Max: Don’t know, but my interest rate in the conversation is zero.

              Caroline: Max, how could you not know that? That’s one of the first things my father taught me about finance.

              Max: Where … at Embezzle U.

              Caroline: Max, I interned at Merrill Lynch. Let me help you with this. …

              MaxYIJINGMINGQUEBIAOSHIDUIDANGQIANTANHUAZHUTIBUGANXINGQU,ERCarolineQUERENGZAICHUIXUZIJIDEQIANGXIANG(“LILVSHIWOBAZUIZAOJIAOWOXUEXIYOUGUANJINRONGDESHI”),ZHEIZHONGKUAZHANGDESHUOFACHUFALEMaxDUIQIDEWANXIAOSHIWURU——“ZAINAERJIAODE?ZHAQIDAXUEMA?”ZAIBENWENYULIAOZHONG,CHUIXU、KUAZHANGDENGYINSUSUOCHUFADEWANXIAOSHIWURUGONGYOU113LI,SHICHUXIANPINLVZUIGAODECHUFAYINSU。

              2、口误或歧义

              WANXIAOSHIWURUDECHUFAKENENGSHICHENGSHOUZHEZAISHANGYIYUBUZHONGSHIYONGLEJUYOUQIYIDEDANCIHUOKOUWU,RUXIALIZHONGDE“out”:

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   (2) Max: … Did you go to the prom with your dad?

              Caroline: That’s my debutante dance, when I came out.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Max: Out? Like you came out that you were dating your dad?

              Caroline: Gross. I think I can still fit a goose feather pillow in. …

              CarolineJIESHISHUOZHEIZHANGZHAOPIANSHIZIJICHUCIGONGKAI(come out)DEMINGYUANWUHUISHANGYUFUQINDEHEZHAO,DANSHIQUEBEIMaxDIAOKANCHENG“GONGKAIYUHEZHAODEBABAYUEHUI”。XIANRAN“out”ZHEIGEQIYICICHUFALEMaxCAIYONGBULIMAOCELVEDUICarolineJINXINGLEWURU:SHIYONGZHUYU“you”JIANGCHENGSHOUZHEYUFUMIANSHUXING(LUANLUN)LIANXIZAIYIQI。[5](P358)[7](P41)DANGAIWURUZHISUOYISHIWANXIAOSHIDE,SHIYINWEILIANGRENGUANXIQINMI,QIECarolineBINGMEIYOUJIANGCIWURUJIEDUWEIBULIMAO,ERSHIYONG“ZHENEXIN”ZHEIYANGDEWANXIAOHUAYUJINXINGHUIYING,BINGZHUANHUANLEHUATI。

              3、面子问题

              WANXIAOSHIWURUDECHENGSHOUZHEZAISHANGYIYUBUZHONGWEIXIEDANGQIANSHUOHUAZHEDEMIANZIYEHUICHUFAWANXIAOSHIWURUHUAYU,RUXIALISUOSHI。

              (3) Caroline: Wow. Girl, your bartender friend is cute. Look at those arms. Nice guns.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Max: He’s not just a bartender, this dude is legit. He's a street artist, goes by "Jpeg".

              Caroline: Hmm. Well, right now he's cutting up limes and cleaning glasses.

              Max: Well, you're an heiress who's slinging burnt hash and stale toast.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Caroline: Touche.

              Max: Douch-ay.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   MaxCHENGZANPENGYOUJohnnySHIYIMINGJIETOUYISHUJIA,DANCarolineQUEBUYIWEIRANDIRENWEITACIKEDESHENFENZHISHIYIMINGJIUBAO。JohnnySHIMaxDEHAOPENGYOUJIAIMUDUIXIANG,SUOYIZHEIZHONGQINGSHIWEIXIELEMaxDEMIANZI。MaxCAIYONG“YIYAHAIYA”DEBULIMAOCELVE,FANJICarolineDESHENFENSHI“RENGRENGJIAOROUNIYUHUAIMIANBAODEQIANJIN”。FUHAOQIANJINYUCANTINGFUWUYUANZHEILIANGZHONGSHENFENXIANRANSHIZIXIANGMAODUNDE,ZHEISHIWANXIAOHUAYUDEYIDATEDIAN。[18]ZAIMIANZIWEIXIEDECHUFAXIA,FAQIZHECAIQUBULIMAOCELVEJINXINGYANYUFANJI。CHUYUJIEMUXIAOGUO,ZHEIZAI《POCHANJIEMEI》ZHEIBUQINGXIJUZHONGBIJIAOCHANGJIAN。

              ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,HUALUNZHONGGUOFENQIANGDIAOYUKUAZHANG、KOUWUHUOQIYIYIJIMIANZIWENTIDOUHUICHUFAWANXIAOSHIWURU。DANSHIZAIBENWENYULIAOZHONG,WANXIAOSHIWURUDECHENGSHOUZHEZAIZHIQIANHUALUNZHONGBINGMEIYOUCHUXIANYISHANGSANZHONGQINGKUANG,DANRENGRANHUICHUFAWANXIAOSHIWURUHUAYU,WOMENJIANGZHEIXIETESHUQINGKUANGGUIWEIQITA。

              4、其他

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIZHEILEIWANXIAOSHIWURUZHONG,CHENGSHOUZHEMEIYOUBIAOXIANCHUZHIJIEDEGUOFENQIANGDIAOHUOKUAZHANG、KOUWUHUOQIYI、MIANZIWENTIDENGYANXING,DANSHIJIYUDUICHENGSHOUZHEDEBEIJINGLEJIE,FAQIZHEHAISHIHUIZIZHUDIFACHUWANXIAOSHIWURU,RUXIALISUOSHI:

              (4) Han: Guess what, everyone? I have a secret.

              Max: You’re a woman trapped in a man’s body?

              Han: No.

              Max: You're a man trapped in a woman's body? You're a little boy trapped in a little girl's body?

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Han: I am a man in a man's body.

              Max: We're not talking about your night life.

              Han: I have discovered something when going over the employee applications.

              ZAICILIZHONG,HanYIBENZHENGJINGDIZHUNBEIGENMaxFENXIANGZIJIFAXIANDEMIMI,DANSHIMaxBINGMEIYOUANZHAOZHENGCHANGLUOJIXUNWENMIMISHISHENME,ERSHIWANXIAOSHIDIDUIHanDEXINGBIEJINXINGWURU。MIANDUIHanDEFOUDINGHUIDA,MaxFAQIXINYILUNXINGBIEYUSHENGAOFANGMIANDEWURU。KEJIANZHEIZHONGLEIXINGDECHUFAYINSUBINGFEICHENGSHOUZHEBENSHENDEYANXINGSUOYINQI,ERSHIFAQIRENPINGJIEZHEDUICHENGSHOUZHEDELEJIEYUQINMIGUANXIZIZHUFACHUWANXIAOSHIWURU。GAICHUFAYINSUYUFAQIZHEDEYOUMOXINGGEJIQINGJINGJUZHONGJIDINGDERENWUXINGXIANGYOUGUAN。

              YOUSHI,WANXIAOSHIWURUDECHENGSHOUDUIXIANGSHENZHIBUSHIJUYOUSHENGMINGLIDEGETI,ERSHIBEIFUYUFUMIANSHUXINGDECHENGSHI、GUOJIA、CAILIAODENG。RUXIALISUOSHI:

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   (5) Johnny: Look over there. You can see Manhattan.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Max: Oh, yeah. She’s a bitch. Always shoving her stuff in your face. You can never have it.

              Johnny: Yeah. I’d never want to live in Manhattan.

              ZAICILIZHONG,WANXIAOSHIWURUDECHENGSHOUZHESHIBUJUBEIYANXINGNENGLIDECHENGSHIMANHADUN。SHUOHUAZHEZIZHUDIYONGJINJIYU“bitch”LAIXINGRONGMANHADUNZHEIGEDIFANGJIDAIJIRENMEIHAOKEWANG,QUEYOURANGRENWUFAYONGYOU。DUIZHEIGECHENGSHIYOUAIYOUHENDEQINGGANBUNENGCONGZIMIANSHANGJIEDU,ZHENGRUMaíz-ArévaloSUOZHICHUDENEIYANG,WANXIAOSHIWURUTONGCHANGYUJINJIYUMIQIEXIANGGUAN,[17](P292)ERGAICIJIUSHIQIZHONGYILEI。[21]

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   BENYULIAOZHONGHAICHUXIANLEFAQIZHEYUNYONGYUGUOJIAXINGXIANG、CAILIAODENGXIANGGUANDEGUIYUEBIAODAYU,JIECICHUFAXIANGGUANDEWANXIAOSHIWURU,CICHUBUZAIZHUYISHUOMING。GUANYUCHENGSHOUZHEZIZHUFACHUDEWANXIAOSHIWURU,HaughBINGWEISHEJI,[18]SUOYIBIZHEJIANGCILEIXINGDECHUFAYINSUGUIWEIQITA。BIAO1ZONGJIELEGECHUFAYINSUDELEIXINGJIZAIBENYULIAOZHONGDECHUXIANPINLV。

              表1 玩笑式侮辱的触发类型
            表1 玩笑式侮辱的触发类型

              (二)玩笑式侮辱的构建机制

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SHUOHUAZHEKEYITONGGUODUOZHONGFANGSHILAIGOUJIANWANXIAOSHIHUAYU,LIRUYONGCIKUAZHANG、GUIYUEYU、HUATIZHUANHUANBIAOJI、ZIXIANGMAODUN、YINRENFAXIAO、YUYINSHANGDETISHI、MIANBUJIDONGZUODENG,[18](P2108)ZUIDACHENGDUQUEBAOCHENGSHOUZHENENGGOUJIANGQIWURULIJIEWEIWANXIAOSHIERFEIGUYIZHONGSHANGSHI。ZAIBENWENYULIAOZHONG,WOMENFAXIANYOUSHIHOUZHEIXIECELVEKENENGHUIDANDUCHUXIAN,YEYOUSHIHOUHUIJIEHESHIYONG。

              1、用词夸张

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   (6) Caroline: Max. It’s not gonna snow. I know snow. We owned a s chalet in saas-fee Switzerland. And I think I know more than anyone in this restaurant about living in cold climes. (in the morning in the next scene)

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Max: What the …? (It is snowing) Well, good morning, world's worst weather girl. I have never seen so much sunshine. …

              ZAILIJU(6)ZHONG,CarolineZAIQIANYICHANGJINGZHONGBIAOSHITIANQIKENDINGBUHUIXIAXUE,ERSHISHIZHENGMINGTADEPANDUANSHIWU。CarolineQIANGDIAOZIJIDUIXIAXUEDELEJIE,ZHEIZHONGGUOFENZIXINCHUFALEMaxDEWANXIAOSHIWURU,CHENGQIWEI“SHIJIESHANGZUICHADETIANQIYUBAOYUAN”。ZUIGAOJIXINGSHIDEYUNYONGYOUZHUYUFAQIZHEGOUJIANWANXIAOHUAYU,YONGKUAZHANGDEXINGSHIRANGCHENGSHOUZHEGENGYIJIESHOUZHEIYIHUAYUSHIWANXIAOSHIDE。

              2、自相矛盾和夸张

              (7) Max: Earl, can you break some 20s? The big spenders at table two wanna split their $11 check three ways even though one person did all the eating.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Earl: I was in a three-way once. Same thing happened.

              ZAILI(7)ZHONG,SANWEIGUKEPINGTAN11MEIYUANDEKUAZHANGXINGWEICHUFALEMaxDEWANXIAOSHIWURU,JIANGQIXICHENGWEI“DACAIZHU”,GAICHENGHUXIANRANSHIKUAZHANGDE、ZIXIANGMAODUNDE。JINGUANCISHICHENGSHOUZHESHIBUZAICHANGDEDISANFANG,JUYOUZHENSHIWURUDEKENENGXING,DANZHEIZHONGZIXIANGMAODUN、KUAZHANGDESHOUFASHIGOUJIANWANXIAOHUAYUSHICHANGYONGDECELVEZHIYI。[18]

              3、规约语

              (8) Max: … I don’t know how you're pulling it off.

              Caroline: What do you mean?

              Max: Giving up everything that you had. The maids, the closet, the dentist, the sushi, the tub. All of it. The tub. I almost can't give it up, but I only had it for an hour. You're kind of a badass.

              Caroline: Max. You just called me a badass?

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   Max: I'm drunk on black truffle.

              ZAILI(8)ZHONG,MIANDUISHIQUYIQIEDECaroline,MaxYONGBULIMAOGUIYUEYU(Badass“HUNDAN”)LAIBIAODAZIJIDEJINGPEI。ZAIDANGQIANYUJINGXIA,GAIGUIYUEYULAJINLESHUANGFANGDEJULI,BANGZHUGOUJIANLEWANXIAOSHIWURU。

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   CHULEYISHANGYUJINGXINXIZHIWAI,YUYIN(LAZHANG)、WEIXIAO、BIAOQINGDONGZUODENGDOUZAIGOUJIANWANXIAOSHISHIJIANHUODONGZHONGFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。ZAIDUIYUYINHEDONGZUOJINXINGDESHIZHENGYANJIUZHONG,McKinnon & PrietoZHENGMINGLEXUJIAHUAYUHEZHENSHIHUAYUZAIYINQIANGDEZUIGAODIANYUYINGAOFANWEISHANGCUNZAIXIANZHECHAYI,BINGQIEFAXIANWEIXIAO、SHOUSHI、MEIMAODEJINCUHUOSHANGTIAODENGDONGZUODUIWANXIAOSHIHUAYUDEGOUJIANZUOYONG。[20]

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIFENXIWANXIAOSHIWURUDEGOUJIANFANGSHISHI,BIZHEFAXIANWANXIAOSHIWURUDECHENGSHOUZHEBINGBUZONGSHIDANGQIANTINGHUAZHE,ERSHIYIBUTONGDEMUBIAOWEIDAOXIANG。ERQIEFAQIZHEZAIGOUJIANWANXIAOSHIWURUSHI,HUIJIEZHUYIXIEJIAOWEICHANGJIANDEBIAODAFANGSHIHECELVE(JIANBIAO2),LIRUZAIYIZIJIWEIDAOXIANGDEWANXIAOSHIWURUZHONG,SHUOHUARENTONGCHANGYI“I …”、“my …”HUO“… me …”ZHEIYANGDIYIRENCHENGDEFANGSHILAIQUDEXIAOGUO。ZAIYITINGHUARENWEIMUBIAODEWANXIAOSHIWURUZHONG,CHUXIANPINLVJIAOGAODESHI“(you) +LIYU”、ZHURUbitch,suckerDENGDANDUSHIYONGDEJINJIYU、JIEYONGDONGHUARENWUHUOQITAZHUANYOUMINGCILAIQUDEWANXIAOSHIWURUDEXIAOGUO。YIDISANFANGWEIMUBIAOJINXINGDEWANXIAOSHIWURU,DIANXINGDEZHISHIYUSHI“this”、“the …”、“he/she”ZHEIYANGDEZHISHIDAICI。YIQITABUJUYOUYANYUXINGWEINENGLIDESHIJIAN、DIDIAN、QINGXINGWEIMUBIAOJINXINGDEWANXIAOSHIWURUZESHITONGGUOGAIMINGCISUODAIBIAODETEZHENGLAIQUDEXIAOGUO。

              表2 玩笑式侮辱的目标导向及常见的表达方式
            表2 玩笑式侮辱的目标导向及常见的表达方式

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XUYAOJIAYISHUOMINGDESHI,BENYULIAOZHONGYOU2GEWANXIAOSHIWURUDELIZIZHONGTONGSHICUNZAILIANGZHONGMUBIAODAOXIANGDEQINGKUANG,ZHEIJIUDAOZHIJISUANWANXIAOSHIWURUCHUXIANDEZONGCISHUWEI183CI。DANSHIZONGDEJUBUXUGUANYUJINGRENGRANSHI181GE。

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   TONGGUOSHANGSHUFENXIDEZHI,JINGUANWANXIAOSHIWURUZUICHANGFASHENGZAIPENGYOU、JIARENDENGGUANXIQINMIZHEZHIJIAN,DANYECHANGJIANYUYIZIJI、YIBUZAISHUOHUAXIANCHANGDEDISANFANGSHENZHIYIBUJUYOUYANYUXINGWEINENGLIDEDISANFANGWEIDAOXIANG。WANXIAOSHIWURUZAIJIANGOUSHICHULEYISHANGSUOLIEJUDECHANGYONGBIAODAFANGSHIZHIWAI,HAISHEJIYIXIEBULIMAOCELVEDESHIYONG。LIRU,ZIXIANGMAODUNDEBIAOSHU,[18]SHIYONGDAICI“I”、“You”,MINGQUEDIJIANGTARENYUYIZHONGFUMIANTEZHENGLIANXIQILAI(WAIZAISHENTITEZHENG、XINLI、XINGGE、XINGWEI、XINYANG、JIATINGHUOSHEHUIGUANXIDENG)。[5](P358)[6](P3242)[9](P1108)

              (三)玩笑式侮辱的回应机制

              DrewZAIYANJIUQUXIAOHUAYUDEHUIYINGFANGSHISHI,ZHICHULEFEIRENZHENHUIYINGFANGSHIDELIUGELIANXUTI,CONGZUOZHIYOUFENBIESHI:WUSHI;YIBENZHENGJINGDIHUIYING;TONGGUOBIERENXIAOSHENGYISHIDAOZIJIBEITARENQUXIAO;XIAOZHEJUJUEHUOGAIZHENG;XIANXIAO,RANHOUZAIJUJUE;SHUNSHICANYU。[16]HaughZHICHUZAIMIANDUIMIANDEDUIHUAZHONG,WANXIAOSHIWURUDEHUIYINGFANGFAZHUYAOSHISANZHONG:WUSHI、FOUREN、JIESHOU。[18](P2108)WOMENJIEHELIANGWEIXUEZHEDEFAXIAN,JIANGBENWENHUIYINGFANGSHIJUTIFENWEIYIXIAJIZHONG:

              1、严肃纠正

              WOMENYILI(1)WEILI:MaxLIYONGCarolineFUQINYINJINRONGZHAPIANRUYUYISHI,WANXIAOSHIDIWURUCarolineSHIZAIZHAQIDAXUEXUEXILILV,DANSHICHENGSHOUZHEYANSUJIUZHENGLEZIJIDEXUEXIJINGLI。TAYONGZHEIYANGYIZHONGYANSUJIUZHENGDEFANGSHILAIZHENGMINGZIJIDEZHUANYESHUIPING,WEIHUZIJIDEJIJIMIANZI。CHENGSHOUZHEBINGMEIYOUBAZHEIZHONGWURUJIEDUWEIRENZHENYANSUDEWURU,YINWEITAZAIYANSUJIUZHENGYIHOURENGRANXIANGBANGZHUMax,BINGQIEXIWANGDEDAORENKE。

              2、否认、拒绝

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAILI(4)ZHONG,HanMIANDUIMaxZHENDUIZIJIDESHENGAOYUXINGBIEDEWANXIAOSHIWURU,XIANSHICAIQULEFOURENDEHUIYINGCELVE;ZHENDUIXIAYILUNJINYIBUDEWURU,HanZUOCHULEJINYIBUDEJIUZHENGYUJIESHI。ZHEIZHONGFOURENYUJIESHIQIAHAOKEYISHUOMINGCHENGSHOUZHEMEIYOURENZHENDUIDAIWURUXINGHUAYU,GUERMEIYOUCAIQUYIYAHAIYADEYANYUGONGJI。ZHEIZHONGHUIYINGFANGSHIDUOJIANYUTINGHUARENWEIDAOXIANGDEHUIYINGZHIZHONG。

              3、顺势加入

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   (9) Max: Festive holiday gift baskets? No way. I’m not into all that crap.

              Caroline: Oh, no. Are you gonna be one of those “I am too cool to believe in the wonders of Christmas” type of bitches?

              Max: I am so many types of bitches, I’ve lost count. And …

              MaxRENWEISHENGDANJIEHELIPINLANZISHIYIXIEPOLANSHIER,ZHEIYANGGUODUBAOYUANDEYANXINGCHUFALECarolineWANXIAOSHIDICHENGMaxSHUYU“BUXIANGXINSHENGDANJIEDENEILEIJIANREN”。MIANDUIZHEIYANGDEWURU,MaxCAIYONGLESHUNSHICANYUDECELVE,JIARUDAOSHUOHUARENDUIZIJIJINXINGDEWANXIAOSHIWURUZHONGQU:“WOSHIHENDUOZHONGLEIXINGDEJIANREN,DUODAOWOSHUBUGUOLAI。”TONGGUOSHUNSHIJIARUWANXIAOSHIWURUZHONG,CHENGSHOUZHEQIAOMIAODILAJINHUIHUASHUANGFANGDEJULI,JIANGHUIHUABAOCHIZAIWANXIAOSHIFENWEIXIA,WEICHIYOUHAOSHEHUIGUANXI。

              4、无视

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   (10) Caroline: Well, that must have been hard. I admire your courage.

              Sophie: What are you, counsellor from UNICEF?

              Max: You are acing this interview.

              CarolineGUODUZANMEISophieMIANDUIKUNJINGSHIDEYONGQI,ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGGUOFENQIANGDIAODEYANXING(JIAN3.1.1)CHUFALESophieJIANGQIWURUWEILIANHEGUOERTONGJIJINHUIDEFUDAOYUAN。DUIYUCIWANXIAOSHIWURU,CHENGSHOUZHEMEIYOUJIAYIFOUREN,YEMEIYOUSHUNSHICANYU,ERSHIWEIZUOCHURENHEHUIYING,CHENGSHOUZHEDEHUALUNZHICIJIESHU。

              5、默认接受

              (11) Max: What’s up, children of the corn?

              Han: I will stay tonight and decorate diner for American holiday of Thanksgiving.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   HanWEILEGANENJIEERYONGYUMIGANDUIZISHENJINXINGZHUANGBAN,ZHEIYISHENKUAZHANG、GUOFENQIANGDIAODEZAOXINGYIJIAIXIAODESHENGAOCHUFALEMaxDEWANXIAOSHIWURU。ERHanZEMORENLE“YUMIDILIDEXIAOHAI”ZHEIYISHENFEN,SUIHOUJIESHIZIJIZHISUOYIZHEIYANGZHUANGBANDEYUANYIN。ZAIZHEILEIHUIYINGZHONG,WANXIAOSHIWURUDECHENGSHOUZHETONGCHANGMORENJIESHOUSHUOHUAZHEDUIZIJIDEWURU,SHUNZHEHUATIJIXUHUALUN。

              6、重复

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   RULI(8)SUOSHI,MaxYONGJINJIYUWURUCaroline,CarolineFEIDANMEIYOUSHENGQI,FANERZHONGFUZHEIYIJINJIYULAIQIANGDIAOZIJIDEDAOMaxKUAJIANGDEJINGXI。ZHEILEIHUIYINGFANGSHIDUOYONGLAIBIAOSHICHIJING、BUKESIYI、YIWAIDENGGANQING。

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   BIAO3ZONGJIELEBUTONGDAOXIANGDECHENGSHOUZHEDUIWANXIAOSHIWURUSUOZUOHUIYINGDEFENLEI:

              表3 玩笑式侮辱的回应机制
            表3 玩笑式侮辱的回应机制

              四、发现与讨论

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIDISANBUFEN,WOMENFAXIANSUIRANWANXIAOSHIWURUDECHUFAYUCHENGSHOUZHEGUOFENQIANGDIAOHUOKUAZHANG、KOUWUHUOQIYI、WEIXIEDANGQIANSHUOHUAZHEMIANZIWENTIDENGHUAYUXINGWEIXIANGGUAN,DANFAQIZHEYEKENENGZIFADIDUICHENGSHOUZHE(SHENZHISHIDAIYOUDIANXINGFUMIANTEZHENGDEGUOJIA、CAILIAODENG)FAQIWANXIAOSHIWURU;FAQIZHEGOUJIANQIWANXIAOHUAYUDEFANGSHIDUOZHONGDUOYANG,DUOBIAOXIANZAIKUAZHANGDEYONGCI、JINJIYUDESHIYONG、ZIXIANGMAODUNDESHUOFAHEBULIMAOCELVEDESHIYONG,ZAIJIEHEYUYANYUNLVHEDONGZUOBIAOQINGDENGTEZHENG;CHENGSHOUZHEDUIWANXIAOSHIWURUDEJIEDUTIXIANZAIQIHUIYINGFANGSHISHANG,BENWENXIANGXITAOLUNDELIUZHONGHUIYINGFANGSHIDOUSHUOMINGCHENGSHOUZHEWEIJIANGWURUHUAYUJIEDUWEIZHENZHENGDEWURU,FOUZEBUHUIMORENJIESHOU、WUSHIHUOSHUNSHICANYUDENG。CONGCHENGSHOUZHECHUFADAOFAQIZHEJIANGOU,ZAIDAOCHENGSHOUZHEHUIYINGDEGUOCHENGSHIWANXIAOSHIWURUZHEIGEYUYONGXIANXIANGDEDONGTAIJIANGOU,YANYUSHUANGFANGQUDEDESHIJIXIAOGUOYOULIYUBICIDEQINMIGUANXI。DUICI,WOMENKEYICONGYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIANJINXINGTAOLUN。

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   SHOUXIAN,WANXIAOSHIWURUZHEIZHONGSHIJIANHUODONGJIQISUOYINQIDEXUJIABULIMAODEPINGJIAFANYINGCHUHUIHUACANYUZHEGONGYOUDEDAODEGUAN——“BUYAOTAIBAZIJIDANGHUISHI”DEJIAZHIGUAN,ERZHEIZHONGJIAZHIGUANSHIYINGYUSHIYONGZHEZHONGMOUXIESHIJIANSHEQUNDEHEXINDAODEGUAN。[9](P1112)NENGGOUYILIANGHAOYOUMOJIESHOUWANXIAOSHIWURUQIAHAOFANYINGCHUCHENGSHOUZHEDUI“BUBAZIJITAIDANGHUISHI”JIAZHIGUANDEZUNXUN。ZAIZHEIZHONGJIAZHIGUANDEYINGXIANGXIA,CANYUWANXIAOSHIWURUDESHIJIANSHUANGFANGDOUGENGKENENGJIANGCIHUIHUAHUODONGJIEDUWEIXUJIABULIMAO,JINERJIAQIANGBICIJIANDEQINMIGUANXI。

              QICI,JULI、QUANLIJISHIJIAQIANGDUJUEDINGLEMIANZIWEIXIEXINGWEISUOBIAOXIANCHUDELIMAOCHENGDU。[22](P29)JIANDANLAISHUO,QUANLIJIUSHIDUITARENJINXINGKONGZHIHUOSHIJIAYINGXIANGDENENGLI,[23](P120)JULISHISHUOHUAZHEYUTINGHUAZHEYIZHONGDUICHENGXINGDESHEHUIGUANXIDETIXIAN。[23](P122)JULIYUQUANLITONGFAQIZHEYUCHENGSHOUZHEZHIJIANDEGUANXIYOUGUAN,JUEDINGLELIANGZHEZHIJIANDESHUIPINGJULI(QINMIGUANXI)HECHUIZHIJULI(QUANLIGUANXI),ERSHIJIACHENGDUZEYUGAIWANXIAOSHIWURUXINGWEIYOUGUAN,FANYINGLEQIWENHUABEIJINGXIASHIJIADEQIANGDUDAXIAO。[22](P29)GENJUJISUANGONGSHIWx=D(S,H)+P(H,S)+Rx,[4]JIMIANZIWEIXIEXINGWEIDEZHENGTIQUANZHONG=SHUOHUAZHEHETINGHUAZHEZHIJIANDEJULIGUANXI+TINGHUAZHEDUISHUOHUAZHEDEQUANLIYIJISUOSHIJIADEQIANGDU,YINWEIFAQIZHEYUCHENGSHOUZHEZHIJIANSHEHUIJULIJIN,BICIZHIJIANDEQUANLIYUSHIJIAQIANGDUXIAO,SUOYIGOUCHENGDEMIANZIWEIXIEDECHENGDUYEXIAO。

              LINGWAI,BENWENSUOCAIYONGDEYULIAOLAIZIYINGSHIHUAZUOPIN,RENWUSHEDINGYUQINGJIEXUYAOKENENGHUIDUIBENWENDETONGJIJIEGUOCHANSHENGYIDINGDEYINGXIANG,DANSHIBENWENDEZHUYAOMUDEBINGFEIQIONGJINSUOYOUWANXIAOSHIWURUDEDONGTAIJIANGOUYUYUYONGJIZHI,ERZAIYUJIANGFENXIKUANGJIAYUWENBENJIEHE,YONGWENBENDUIKUANGJIAJINXINGCHANSHUSHUOMING。

              五、结语

              BENWENLIYONGSUOSHOUJIDE《POCHANJIEMEI》DIYIJIZHONGDEHUIHUAYULIAODUIWANXIAOSHIWURUZHEIYIYUYONGXIANXIANGJINXINGLEDINGXINGFENXI,TAOLUNLEQICHUFA、GOUJIANYUHUIYINGDEDONGTAIGUOCHENG,DANSHIBENYANJIUYECUNZAIYIDINGDEJUXIANXING。SHOUXIAN,GAIYANJIUDEYULIAOSUIRANTIEJINSHENGHUO,JUYOUDOUSHIQINGNIANSHENGHUOZHONGPENGYOUXIANGCHUQINGJINGDEDIANXINGTEZHENG,QUERENGWUFAQUDAIZHENZHENGDEZHENSHIYULIAO。QICI,BENWENZHISHEJIGAIJUDIYIJIDEYULIAO,MEIYOUQUANMIANYANJIUHOUXUWUJIZHONGDEYULIAO,YEMEIYOUSHEJISHIFOUSUIZHEXIANGCHUSHIJIANDEZENGJIA,PENGYOUJIANWANXIAOSHIWURUDECHUXIANPINLVHUIFASHENGBIANHUA。WEILAIWANXIAOSHIWURUDESHENRUYANJIUKEYIYUSHIZHENGYANJIUXIANGJIEHE,GENGYOULIDIJIESHIGAIYUYONGXIANXIANG。

              参考文献

              [1] Goffman,E.Interactional ritural[M].Chicago:Aldine.1967.
              [2] Fraser,B.Warning and threatening[J].Centrum,1975,3(2):169-180.
              [3] Leech,G.Principles of Pragmatics[M].London:Longman.1983.
              [4] Brown,P.& Levinson,S.Politeness:Some universals in language usage[M].Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.1987.
              [5] Culpeper,J.Towards an anatomy of impoliteness[J].Journal of Pragmatics,1996,25:349-367.
              [6] Culpeper,J.Conventionalised impoliteness formulae[J].Journal of Pragmatics,2010,42:3232-3245.
              [7] Culpeper,J.Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show:The Weakest Link[J].Journal of Politeness Research,2005,1:35-72.
              [8] Culpeper,J.Impoliteness:Using Language to Cause Offence[M].Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.2011.
              [9] Haugh,M.& Bousfield,D.Mock impoliteness,jocular mockery and jocular abuse in Australian and British English[J].Journal of Pragmatics,2012,44:1099-1114.
              [10] Schnurr,S.& Chan,A.When laughter is not enough.Responding to teasing and self-denigrating humour at work[J].Journal of Politeness Research,2011,43:20-35.
              [11] Hay,J.Functions of humor in the conversations of men and women [J].Journal of Pragmatics,2000,32:709-742.
              [12] Hay,J.Male cheerleaders and wanton women:humour among New Zealand friends [J].Te Reo,2002,45:3-36.
              [13] Haugh,M.“Just kidding”:Teasing and claims to non-serious intent[J].Journal of Pragmatics,2016,95:120-136.
              [14] Schnurr,S.Constructing leader identities through teasing at work[J].Journal of Pragmatics,2009,41:1125-1138.
              [15] Lampert,M.D.& Ervin-Tripp,S.M.Risky laughter:Teasing and self-directed joking among male and female friends [J].Journal of Pragmatics,2006,38:51-72.
              [16] Drew,P.Po-faced receipts of teases[J].Linguistics,1987,25:219-253.
              [17] Maíz-Arévalo,C.Jocular mockery in computer-mediated communication:A contrastive study of a Spanish and English Facebook community[J].Journal of Politeness Research,2015,11(2):289-327.
              [18] Haugh,M.Jocular mockery,(dis)affiliation,and face[J].Journal of Pragmatics,2010,42:2106-2119.
              [19] Chen,X.R.“You're a nuisance!”“Patch-up” jocular abuse in Chinese fiction[J].Journal of Pragmatics,2019,139:52-63.
              [20] McKinnon,S.& Prieto,P.The role of prosody and gesture in the perception of mock impoliteness[J].Journal of Politeness Research,2014,10(2):185-219.
              [21] Leach,E.Anthropological aspects of language:Animal categories and verbal abuse.In:Eric,H.L.(Eds.),New directions in the study of language[M].Cambridge Mass & London:MIT Press.1964,23-63.
              [22] Culpeper,J.& Terkouraf,M.Pragmatic Approaches (Im) politeness[A].In:Culpeper,J.,Haugh,M.& Kádár,D.Z.(Eds.),The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)politeness[C].London:Palgrave Macmillan.2017,11-39.
              [23] Spencer-Oatey,H.& ?egarac,V.Power,Solidarity and (Im)politeness[A].In:Culpeper,J.,Haugh,M.& Kádár,D.Z.(Eds.),The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)politeness[C].London:Palgrave Macmillan.2017,119-141.

            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}相关的文章
            联系我们
            • 写作QQ:
            • 发表QQ:
            • 服务电话:
            • 售后电话:
            • 邮箱:
            范文范例

            豪运棋牌送20金币-牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词} 欢乐斗牛棋牌下载 番茄棋牌---HOME_Welcome 明豪棋牌---HOME_Welcome 天棋棋牌---HOME_欢迎您