牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}

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                          • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 医学论文 > 国内国外美沙酮外带服务的现状探究

                            国内国外美沙酮外带服务的现状探究

                            时间:2020-02-03 21:50作者:李宁 刘赫楠 顾蓉艳
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于国内国外美沙酮外带服务的现状探究的文章,美沙酮外带服务解决了传统MMT存在的获取服务的时间成本高,难以长期坚持治疗,治疗依从性低,可及性差,脱失率高等问题,提高了患者的依从性和生活质量,初步恢复其社会功能。

                              摘要:美沙酮维持治疗(MMT)自20世纪60年代初首先在美国开展以来,在降低因吸毒引发的公共卫生问题和社会问题等方面取得了显着的效果。为改善MMT存在的获取服务的时间成本高、可及性差、MMT人员依从性低难以长期坚持等问题,美国、英国、澳大利亚、德国等国家探索出了一种MMT的新模式:美沙酮外带服务(TMS)。2013年,云南省玉溪市红塔区疾病预防控制中心率先推行TMS试点。项目开展后,取得了良好效果,患者满意度和依从性均有提高。本文从万方数据、CNKI、PubMed、Web of Science等网站摘取相关文献和资料,通过回顾国内外MMT和美沙酮外带服务的产生和发展历史及其现状,对美沙酮外带服务的经验和教训进行总结和分析,为进一步改善和推进我国美沙酮外带服务提供参考。

                              关键词:牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}美沙酮维持治疗; 外带服务; 现状与挑战;

                              作者简介:  李宁(1994-),男,山东省菏泽市人,硕士,预防医学与卫生学。Email:;   *刘伟,Email:;

                              基金: 美国中华医学基金会项目;加强昆明医科大学全球健康行动(13-149);

                            Status and challenges of methadone take-home services

                              Abstract:Methadone maintenance therapy(MMT), first developed in the United States in early 1960 s, has achieved significant results in reducing public health and social problems caused by drug abuse. With the development of MMT work, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany and other countries have explored a new model of MMT, i.e. takehome methadone service(TMS), in order to solve the problems of high cost of long time to obtain the services, poor accessibility and low compliance of MMT users. In 2013, Hongta district center for disease control and prevention in Yuxi city of Yunnan province took the lead in carrying out the pilot TMS project, which achieved good results and highly satisfied MMT users. This paper aims to review and analyze the generation, development and current situation of MMT and TMS at home and abroad, and the experience and lessons of TMS based on the literature extracted from Wan Fang Data, CNKI, PubMed, Web of Science and other websites, so as to provide reference for further TMS improvement and promotion in China.

                              Keyword:MMT; TMS; status and challenges;

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   GENJU《2018NIANZHONGGUODUPINXINGSHIBAOGAO》[1]XIANSHI,JINNIANLAIQUANQIUDUPINXINGSHIBURONGLEGUAN,ZHONGGUODUPINLANYONGRENSHUZENGSUJIANHUANDANGUIMOYIRANJIAODA。DANGJINSHIJIEFANWEINEI,MEISHATONGWEICHIZHILIAO(methadone maintenance treatment,MMT)SHISHIYONGZUIWEIGUANGFANHEYOUXIAODEJIEDUWEICHIZHILIAOHEKANGFUFANGFA。ZI20SHIJI60NIANDAIMMTDEGAINIANBEITICHUYILAI,MMTDUIXIDURENYUANDEJIEDUWEICHIZHILIAOHEKANGFUFAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。WEIJIEJUECHUANTONGMMTCUNZAIDEHUOQUFUWUSHIJIANCHENGBENGAO、KEJIXINGCHA、HUANZHEYICONGXINGDINANYIZHANGQIJIANCHIDENGWENTI,MEIGUO、YINGGUO、AODALIYA、DEGUODENGGUOJIATANSUOCHULEYIZHONGMMTDEXINMOSHI:MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWU(take-home methadone service,TMS)。BENWENZAIGUONEIWAIYANJIUDEJICHUSHANG,DUIGUONEIWAITMSDEFAZHANLISHIHEXIANZHUANGJINXINGHUIGU,ZONGJIEMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUDEJINGYANHEJIAOXUN,WEIJINYIBUGAISHANHETUIJINWOGUOMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUTIGONGYIJU。

                              1、国外美沙酮外带服务的现状

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUSHOUXIANZAIXIFANGFADAGUOJIATICHUHESHISHI,YUNXUHUANZHEJIANGMEISHATONGYAOWUDAIHUIJIAFUYONG,BUBIMEITIANQIANWANGMEISHATONGMENZHENJIESHOUZHILIAO。GUOWAIXIANGGUANYANJIU[2,3,4]ZHENGSHI,MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUJIEHEMMTMENZHENJIANDUYUGUANLINENGYOUXIAOTIGAOHUANZHEDEZHILIAOYICONGXINGHEWEICHIZHILIAOXIAOGUO。XIANGBIMMT,JIESHOUMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUDEHUANZHEZAIZHILIAOZHONGJIANCHISHIJIANGENGZHANG[5].ZAIMMTHUANZHEZHONG,HUANZHEJIESHOUMEISHATONGWAIDAIZHILIAOYUZHUYUANLVXIAJIANGYOUGUAN,TMSBUJINKEYIJIANSHAODUPINCHENGYINHUANZHESHULIANG,HAIKEYIJIANSHAOYILIAOBAOJIANZIYUANDEXIAOHAO[6].

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   GUOWAIXIANGGUANYANJIU[2,3,5]PUBIANRENWEI,TMSCUNZAISHIYONGMEISHATONGJILIANGBUZHUNQUEERDAOZHIGUOLIANG,MEISHATONGZHUANYONG、BAOGUANBUSHANBEIQITARENWUYONGDENGQINGKUANG。YUCIXIANGGUANDEZHONGDUOYANJIUBIAOMING,DADUOSHUYUMEISHATONGYOUGUANDESIWANGYUFEIFAZHUANYIMEISHATONGZHIJIEXIANGGUAN,QIZHONGYOUHENDAYIBUFENBINGLIMEIYOUNARUMMTJIHUA[7,8,9,10].WEILEJINLIANGJIANSHAOZHUANYONGHEWUYONG,MarcusDENG[11]SHIYONGDAISUODEYAOXIANGFANGZHIERTONGYINYIWAIJIECHUMEISHATONGERSIWANGDEQINGKUANGFASHENG。YOURENJIANYIZAIYANGEDEYILIAOJIANDUXIASHIYONGMEISHATONG,YEYOURENRENWEIXIANZHIXINGZHENGCEHUIDAOZHITUOSHILVDETIGAO[10].

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   MEIGUOCHUFANGYISHENGKESHOUQUANHUANZHEWAIDAIMEISHATONG,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGYAOQIUHUANZHEBIAOXIANCHULINCHUANGWENDINGXING,JIMEISHATONGHULIHEBAOZHANGZERENSUOBIXUDESHEHUI、RENZHIHEQINGXUWENDINGXING[8].LINCHUANGWENDINGXINGHAIYAOQIUHUANZHEYIJINGXIAOCHUZHANGQIYAOWUHUOJIUJINGLANYONG,XIANSHIDABUFENNIAOJIANCHENGYINXING,ZHUFANG、JIUYEHE(HUO)WENDINGDEZHICHIXITONG,BINGZUNSHOUTMSXIEYI[8].LINGWAIYIXIANGGUOWAIYANJIU[12],HUANZHEWAIDAIMEISHATONGDEJILIANGXUYAOGENJULINCHUANGZHILIAOYISHIZUOCHUPANDUAN,TONGSHIKAOLVMMTMENZHENDEYIJIAN:ZHISHAOLIANXU3GEYUEMEIYOURENHEYAOWULANYONGXINGWEI,YOUNENGLIYIFUZERENDEFANGSHICHULIYAOWU,PEIHEZHILIAOJIHUAHEMENZHENGUIZHANGZHIDU,QITABEIKAOLVDEYINSUHAIBAOKUOZHIYEHUODONGYIJIDUIXUEXIDECANYUDENG。YISELIEDEYIXIANGYANJIUXIANSHI,ZHANGSHIJIAN(2ZHOU)MEISHATONGWAIDAIHUANZHEKANGFUJINZHANJIAOKUAI,DANZHANGSHIJIAN(2ZHOU)MEISHATONGWAIDAIZHILIAOSHIBAIHESHIQUWAIDAIZHILIAOZIGEDEHUANZHEBIDUANSHIJIANWAIDAI(1ZHOU)ZHILIAOSHIBAIDEHUANZHEQINGKUANGJINYIBUEHUADEFENGXIANGENGGAO[13].

                            镇痛药物

                            配图 镇痛药物

                              2、国内美沙酮外带服务的现状

                              2.1 美沙酮维持治疗的现状和挑战

                              WOGUOYU2003NIAN2YUEZHENGSHIQIDONGMMTSHIDIANGONGZUO。2004NIAN3-6YUE,WOGUOSHOUPI8JIASHIDIANDANWEIFENBIEZAISICHUAN、YUNNAN、GUIZHOU、GUANGXI、ZHEJIANGSHENGQULUXUKAIZHEN[14].JIEZHI2016NIAN5YUE31RI,QUANGUO29GESHENGGONGSHEYOU788GEMEISHATONGMENZHEN,BAOKUO28LIANGLIUDONGFUYAOCHE,ZAIZHIRENSHUWEI162770REN[15].JUGUJI,JIN2009NIAN,MMTJIUJIANSHAOLEHIVXINFAGANRANZHEYUE3 700REN,HAILUOYINXIAOHAO22.4DUN,DUPINJIAOYI80YIYUAN[16].XIANGGUANYANJIU[17,18]BIAOMING,MMTZAIJIANSHAOHAILUOYINDENGDUPINLANYONG,AIZIBINGDENGCHUANRANBINGCHUANBO,SHEHUIFANZUIFASHENG,ZENGJIAHUANZHEJIUYEJIHUI,GAISHANQISHENGHUOZHILIANGDENGFANGMIANFAHUIZHEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                              MMTDEFUWUMOSHISHIYIMENZHENFUWUWEIZHU,JIANQINGDUPINSHANGHAI,SHIHUANZHEDADAOSHENGWU-XINLI-SHEHUIDEKANGFU。MMTMENZHENTIGONGYILAICHENGDUJIAODI、ZUOYONGSHIJIANJIAOZHANGDEMEISHATONGTIDAICHENGYINXINGQIANG、ZUOYONGSHIJIANJIAODUANDEHAILUOYIN[14].ZHEIZHONGFANGFAYAOQIUXIDURENYUANMEITIANDAOMMTMENZHEN,ZAIGONGZUORENYUANJIANDUXIAFUYONGYIDINGJILIANGDEMEISHATONG,CONGERJIANSHAOFEIFADUPINDESHIYONGHEXIANGGUANGAOWEIXINGWEIDEFASHENG。SHOUXIAN,HUANZHEXUXIANGMMTMENZHENTIJIAORUZUSHENQING,SHENQINGTONGGUOHOU,MENZHENWEIQIJIANLIGUANLIDANGAN。HUANZHEMEITIANQIANWANGMMTMENZHENFUYAO,ZAIYISHENGDEBANGZHUXIA,HUANZHEFUYAOJILIANGJINGGUOYIDUANSHIJIANDIAOZHENGHOUQUYUWENDING,ZHIHOUHUANZHEANCIJILIANGFUYAO,QIEHUANZHEBUKESUIYIYAOQIUGENGGAIFUYAOJILIANG。ZAIFUYAOQIJIAN,MENZHENHUIANGUIDINGYAOQIUHUOBUDINGQIDUIHUANZHEJINXINGNIAOMAFEIJIANYAN。JIANYANYANGXINGZHE,MENZHENHUICAIQUXIANGYINGGANYUCUOSHI。

                              DANSHI,SUIZHEHUANZHEZHILIAOSHIJIANDEYANZHANG,HUANZHESHENTIGONGNENGJISHEHUIGONGNENGZHUBUHUIFU,MEITIANBIXUDAOMENZHENFUYAODEZHILIAOFANGSHIHEJIZHUJIANHUIFUZHENGCHANGDEGONGZUO、SHENGHUOZHIJIANDEMAODUNRIYIXIANXIAN[19].CHUANTONGMMTHUOQUFUWUSHIJIANCHENGBENGAO,KEJIXINGCHA,MMTRENYUANYICONGXINGDI,TUOSHILVGAODENGWENTIZHUJIANXIANXIAN,BULIYUHUANZHEKANGFUZHILIAOXIAOGUODEGONGGU。MMTDEFAZHANMIANLINZHEJUDADETIAOZHAN。

                              2.2 国内MMT新发展

                              YOUYUCHUANTONGMMTMIANLINDEWENTIYUEJIATUCHU,GUONEIJIEJIANLEGUOWAIMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUDEJINGYAN,CHANGSHIKAIZHANLEMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWU。2011NIAN,ZHEJIANGSHENGLEQINGSHIKAISHISHIXINGMEISHATONGWAIDAISHIDIANGONGZUO,ZHUYAOZHENDUISHENGNEIDUANQICHUXINGDEHUANZHE[18].2013NIAN10YUE,YUNNANSHENGHONGTAQUJIBINGYUFANGKONGZHIZHONGXINZAICIJICHUSHANGJINXINGLECHUANGXIN,GUIDINGFANSHIFUHEMEISHATONGWAIDAITIAOJIANDE,DOUKEYIZIYUANSHENQINGMEISHATONGWAIDAI,BINGQIECAIYONGLEMIMAYAOXIANGHEGPSDINGWEIXITONGZUOWEITMSJIANDUGUANLISHOUDUAN[20].ZHEISHIWOGUODIYICIDAGUIMOKAIZHANMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUSHIDIAN,SUIHOUXIANGJIKUOZHANDAOYUNNANSHENG8GEDIZHOU。

                              ZAIHAINANSHENGWENCHANGSHI,YIZHONGXINDEJINDUMOSHI“KEJI+JINDU”,LIYONGKEJISHOUDUAN、CHUANGXINZHINENGHUAFUWUDEWENCHANGSHIMEISHATONGYAOWUWEICHIZHILIAOZIZHUFUWUZHANZHENGSHIQIYONG,YOUXIAOJIEJUELECHUANTONGMMTMENZHENJIANSHEYUNYINGCHENGBENGAO、ZHILIAODIANSHAO、RUZULVDI、ZHILIAOXIAOGUOQIANJIADENGWENTI,TIGAOLEHUANZHEDUIMEISHATONGWEICHIZHILIAODEYICONGXING,JIEYUELEHUANZHEDESHIJIANCHENGBEN,JIHUANZHETIGONGLEBIANLI[21].KEXUEJISHUJIHULIANWANGDEFAZHANHEYINGYONGDUITMSDEFAZHANHEYOUHUATIGONGLEDONGLI。

                              2.3 美沙酮外带服务

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   GUANYUTMSCAOZUOMOSHI,GUONEIDUICILEIYANJIUJIAOSHAO,BUTONGSHIDIANYOUBUTONGDEFANGAN,YIYUXISHI[20]WEILI。HUANZHEXUYAOFUHEWAIDAIZHUNRUBIAOZHUN:GUOQU6GEYUEZHONG,MEIYUEZHILIAOTIANSHUJUNBUSHAOYU20TIAN;MEIYUEJUNJIESHOUNIAOMAFEIJIANCE,QIEJIEGUOJUNWEIYINXING;ZHILIAOQIJIANWUTOUDAIMEISHATONGYAOPINXINGWEI;ZHILIAOQIJIANJIJIPEIHEMENZHENWANCHENGAIZIBINGBINGDU(HIV)、BINGXINGGANYANBINGDU(HCV)HEMEIDUKANGTIJIANCE;WUZHUGUANGUYIFANZUIJILU;YOUWANQUANMINSHIXINGWEINENGLI;ZIYUANSHENQING,QIEDEDAOFADINGJIANHURENHUOQINYOUDANBAO;PINGSHIZUNSHOUMEISHATONGWEICHIZHILIAOMENZHENXIANGGUANGUIZHANGZHIDU。FUHEWAIDAIZHUNRUBIAOZHUNDEBINGRENXIANGMENZHENTIJIAOWAIDAISHENQING,MENZHENZAIHESHIBINGRENQINGKUANGHOUYUBINGRENJIQIJIASHUMIANTANBINGQIANSHUTMSXIEYI。MENZHENYISHENGGENJUSHENQINGWAIDAIHUANZHEDEFUYAOJILIANGJIDENGJIKAIJUXIANGYINGCHUFANG。GONGZUORENYUANJIANGYAOPINGFANGRUZHUANYONGWAIDAIXIANGHOU,PEIYIWAIZHIMIMASUO、GPSDINGWEISHEBEIJIZHUYISHIXIANGKA,BINGJINXINGDENGJIJILU。BINGRENFUYAOQIANXUXIANGXIANGMUGONGZUORENYUANSUOYAOMIMA,GENJUTISHIKAIXIANGANSHIANLIANGFUYONGMEISHATONG。MEICIWAIDAIFUWUJIESHUHOUDEDIYITIAN,HUANZHEBIXUQIANWANGMEISHATONGMENZHENBAODAO,GUIHAIWAIDAISHEBEIBINGJIESHOUNIAOMAFEIJIANCE。NIAOJIANYANGXINGZHEHUOBUPEIHENIAOJIANZHELIJIZHONGZHIWAIDAIZIGE。MENZHENDUIHUANZHESHIXINGFENJIGUANLIZHIDU,FENWEIJIN、YIN、TONGKA:FUHEWAIDAIZHUNRUBIAOZHUNDEHUANZHESHENQINGWAIDAIZIGEJIKEHUODETONGKA,JINGZHUANJIAZUPINGGUQIEZAIZHILIAOQIJIANBIAOXIANLIANGHAO,TONGKAMAN6GEYUEKESHENGYINKA,YINKA12GEYUEKESHENGJINKA,WAIDAITIANSHU:TONGKA2TIAN、YINKA4TIAN、JINKA6TIAN,CHULEWAIDAITIANSHUDEZENGJIA,JINYINTONGKAMEIYOURENHECHABIE[20].

                              2.4 美沙酮外带服务的优势

                              2.4.1 JINGJICHENGBENHESHIJIANCHENGBEN

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   YOUGUOXIDUSHIDERENQUNHENNANZHAODAOGONGZUO,MEISHATONGMENZHENYOUSHIZAIGUIDINGSHIJIANNEIKAIFANGFUYAO,ZHANGCIYIWANGBUJINDANWUZHENGCHANGDEGONGZUOSHIJIAN,HAIHUIEWAIZHICHUDALIANGFEIYONG。TMSJIANSHAOLEHUANZHEWANGFANMENZHENDEJIAOTONGFEIYONGHESHIJIAN,SHOUZHIZHEKEYIYOUGENGDUOSHIJIANCANYUGONGZUOHESHENGHUO,GAISHANZISHENJINGJISHUIPING。YOULIYUHUANZHESHENGHUOZHILIANGDETIGAOHESHEHUIGONGNENGDEHUIFU。

                              2.4.2 SHENFENRENTONG

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   XIDUZHESHISHOUDAOSHEQUQISHIDE,ZHOUWEIRENBAOKUOJIARENHEPENGYOUDEQISHISHIDAOZHIXIDUZHEFUXIDEZHONGYAOYUANYINZHIYI[18].SHEHUISHANGDUIMMTCUNZAIWUJIE,RENWEIJIESHOUMMTDERENJIUSHIXIDURENQUN。TMSJIANSHAOLEHUANZHEQUMMTMENZHENDECISHU,KEYIBANGZHUSHOUZHIZHEJINLIANGHUIFUZHENGCHANGDESHENGHUO,CANYUDAOGONGZUOHEJIAOJIZHONG,BINGCONGZHONGDEDAORENKE,KEYIDADATIGAOZHILIAOYICONGXING。

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   2.4.3 JILIXING

                              DUIYUZHENZHENGXIANGYAOJIEDUDERENLAISHUO,TMSKEYIKANZUOSHIMMTDEYIZHONGJILIZHIDU,ZHIYOUBIAOXIANLIANGHAODEHUANZHECAIYONGYOUWAIDAIZIGE。YOUYUSHIXINGFENJIGUANLIZHIDU,BUTONGDENGJIKEYIWAIDAIDESHIJIANHEJILIANGBUTONG,ZHEIJIUJILIHUANZHEBIAOXIANLIANGHAOBINGZHANGQIJIANCHIYIHUODEGENGGAODEWAIDAIQUANXIAN。ZHEIYOULIYUHUANZHEZHANGQIJIANCHIZHILIAOHETISHENGWEICHIZHILIAOXIAOGUO,DADAOSHEJIESHEKANGDEMUDE。

                              2.5 美沙酮外带服务面临的挑战

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   2.5.1 ZHUANYONGHEWUYONG

                              TMSYUNXUHUANZHEJIANGMEISHATONGDAIHUIJIAFUYONG,MEIYOUMENZHENGONGZUORENYUANDEDANGMIANJIANDUFUYAO,KENENGCUNZAIHUANZHEJIANGMEISHATONGZHUANYIDEFENGXIAN。BINGQIEKENENGYOUYUSHUHUDAYI,DAOZHIQITARENYUANWUYONGMEISHATONG。

                              2.5.2 JIANDUJIZHIDEZHIDING

                              YOUYUWOGUOGUANYUTMSDEYANJIUJIAOSHAO,NANYIXINGCHENGYIGEJIANQUANDEJIANDUJIZHI,GEGEKAIZHANTMSJIGOUDEZHIDUNANMIANCUNZAILOUDONG。GUOWAIXIANGGUANYANJIU[2,3,4]ZHENGSHI,MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUJIEHEMMTMENZHENJIANDUYUGUANLINENGYOUXIAOTIGAOHUANZHEDEZHILIAOYICONGXINGHEWEICHIZHILIAOXIAOGUO。GUER,YINGDUOKAIZHANCIFANGMIANDEYANJIU,JINKUAIJIANQUANGUANLIJIANDUZHIDU。

                              2.5.3 XIANGGUANFALVDEJIANQUAN

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZAIHENDUODIZHOU,TMSDEKAIZHANSUIRANJINGGUOLEDANGDIZHENGFUDEPIZHUN,DANSHIRENGRANQUEFAGUOJIACENGMIANDEZHICHI,TMSYANGELAISHUOSHIBUFUHEGUOJIAXIANGGUANFALVGUIDINGDE,RUGUOKEYICHUTAIGUOJIATONGYIDEFALVGUIDING,KEYIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGXIAOCHUMEISHATONGMENZHENJIXIANGGUANBUMENDEGULV,YOULIYUTMSDELIANGHAOFAZHAN[18,19].

                              3、展望

                            牛牛游戏厅安卓,{原始关键词}   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUJIEJUELECHUANTONGMMTCUNZAIDEHUOQUFUWUDESHIJIANCHENGBENGAO,NANYIZHANGQIJIANCHIZHILIAO,ZHILIAOYICONGXINGDI,KEJIXINGCHA,TUOSHILVGAODENGWENTI,TIGAOLEHUANZHEDEYICONGXINGHESHENGHUOZHILIANG,CHUBUHUIFUQISHEHUIGONGNENG。DANSHI,MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUDEJIXUKAIZHAN,RENGJUYOUHENDATIAOZHAN。ZAIJINYIBUDEYANJIUHETANSUOZHONG,WOMENXIWANGKEYIGENGJIAWANSHANMEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUMOSHI,TANSUOGENGJIAQUANMIAN、DUOYANG、RENXINGHUADEFUWUFANGSHIBANGZHUMMTHUANZHE。JIYUWANGLUODASHUJUSHIDAI,TMSKEYISHIXINGHUANZHEDEQUANGUOLIANWANGGUANLI,JIANLIZHUANMENDEFUWUXITONGHESHUJUKU,SHIXIANYIDIHAIXIANG、YIDIJIANCHAHEYIDIWAIDAI,SHIBINGRENNENGGOUGENGHAODERONGRUSHEHUI。LINGWAI,YIBUFENBINGRENYOUYULINSHIQINGKUANGBUNENGJISHIDAOMEISHATONGMENZHENJINXINGZHILIAO,ZHENDUIGEZHONGTUFALINSHIZHUANGKUANG,MEISHATONGWAIDAIFUWUYINGGENGJIARENXINGHUADEZENGJIALINSHIWAIDAIFUWU,MANZUBINGRENGENGDUOHELIXUQIU。DANSHI,ZAIFANGBIANBINGRENDETONGSHIYEYAOJIAQIANGTMSDEGUANLI,BIMIANZHUANYONGHEWUYONGDENGQINGKUANGDEFASHENG。

                              CANKAOWENXIAN

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